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Blackfriars Theatre

Blackfriars Theatre was the name given to two separate theatres located in the former Blackfriars Dominican priory in the City of London during the Renaissance. The first theatre began as a venue for the Children of the Chapel Royal, child actors associated with the Queen's chapel choirs, who from 1576 to 1584 staged plays in the vast hall of the former monastery; the second theatre dates from the purchase of the upper part of the priory and another building by James Burbage in 1596, which included the Parliament Chamber on the upper floor, converted into the playhouse. The Children of the Chapel played in the theatre beginning in the autumn of 1600 until the King's Men took over in 1608, they used it as their winter playhouse until all the theatres were closed in 1642 when the English Civil War began. Blackfriars Theatre was built on the grounds of the former Dominican monastery; the monastery was located between the Thames and Ludgate Hill within London proper. The black robes worn by members of this order lent the neighbourhood, theatres, their name.

In the pre-Reformation Tudor years, the site was used not only for religious but for political functions, such as the annulment trial of Catherine of Aragon and Henry VIII which, some eight decades would be reenacted in the same room by Shakespeare's company. After Henry's expropriation of monastic property, the monastery became the property of the crown. Cawarden used part of the monastery as Revels offices. After Cawarden's death in 1559, the property was sold by Lady Cawarden to Sir William More. In 1576, Richard Farrant Master of Windsor Chapel leased part of the former buttery from More in order to stage plays; as in the theatrical practice of the time, this commercial enterprise was justified by the convenient fiction of royal necessity. The theatre was small 46 feet long and 25 feet wide, admission, compared to public theatres, expensive. For his playing company, Farrant combined his Windsor children with the Children of the Chapel Royal directed by William Hunnis. On Farrant's death in 1580, Hunnis took on John Newman as a partner and they subleased the property from Farrant's widow, putting up a £100 bond on the promise to promptly pay the rent and to make needed repairs.

But the venture did not go well financially, which put Farrant's widow in jeopardy of defaulting on the rent to More. In November 1583, Farrant brought suit against Newman for default on the bond. To escape a suit by her or More and Newman transferred their sublease to Henry Evans, a Welsh scrivener and theatrical affectionado; this unauthorised assignment of the sublease gave More an excuse to bring suit to retake possession of the property, but Evans used legal delays and escaped legal action by selling the sublease to Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford, sometime after Michaelmas Term of 1583, who gave it to his secretary, the writer John Lyly. As proprietor of the playhouse, Lyly installed Evans as the manager of the new company of Oxford's Boys, composed of the Children of the Chapel and the Children of Paul's, turned his talents to play writing. Lyly's Campaspe was performed at Blackfriars and subsequently at Court on New Year's Day 1584. In November 1583, still Master of the Chapel Children petitioned the Queen to increase the stipend to house and clothe the company.

More obtained a legal judgement voiding the original lease at the end of Easter Term of 1584, thereby ending the First Blackfriars Playhouse after eight years and postponing the performance of Lyly's third play, Gallathea. The second Blackfriars was an indoor theatre built elsewhere on the property at the instigation of James Burbage, father of Richard Burbage, impresario of the Lord Chamberlain's Men. In 1596, Burbage purchased, for £ 600, the frater of rooms below; this large space 100 feet long and 50 wide, with high ceilings allowed Burbage to construct two galleries increasing potential attendance. The nature of Burbage's modifications to his purchase is not clear, the many contemporary references to the theatre do not offer a precise picture of its design. Once fitted for playing, the space may have been about 69 feet long and 46 feet wide, including tiring areas. There were at least two and three galleries, a number of stage boxes adjacent to the stage. Estimates of its capacity have varied from below 600 to 1000, depending on the number of galleries and boxes.

As many as ten spectators would have encumbered the stage. As Burbage built, however, a petition from the residents of the wealthy neighbourhood persuaded the Privy Council to forbid playing there; the company was forbidden to perform there. Three years Richard Burbage was able to lease the property to Henry Evans, among those ejected more than fifteen years earlier. Evans entered a partnership with

Sikhs for Justice

Sikhs for Justice is a US-based secessionist group that supports the secession of Punjab from India as Khalistan and headed by lawyer Gurpatwant Singh Pannu. It was banned by India in 2019 as an unlawful association after consultation with major representatives bodies of the Sikh community, followed by mass appreciation for the Punjab and Indian government by the international and local Sikh community; as of 2019, it campaigns for a Punjab independence referendum to carve out a separate Khalistan as a part of its separatist agenda. As of July 2019, there were 12 criminal cases that were being pursued by Indian agencies namely National Investigation Agency, Punjab Police and Uttarakhand Police who have arrested 39 people associated with the SFJ in India. In lieu of the activities by SFJ, a red corner notice has been issued by INTERPOL in October 2019, against Gurpatwant Singh Pannu, other Khalistani terrorists. According to Chief Minister of Punjab, Captain Amarinder Singh, SFJ "had unleashed a wave of terror in Punjab in recent years" and deserved to be called a terrorist organisation.

He welcomed the decision to ban the SFJ as a step towards protecting India from secessionist and anti-Indian plans of the organisation he described as backed by Pakistan's ISI. In January 2020, the Unlawful Activities Act tribunal chaired by Delhi High Court Chief Justice DN Patel sustained the decision of ban on the secessionist group. Citing the evidences presented, as the reason for the decision, the committee said that since the activities of the group were "unlawful", "disruptive" and "threaten the sovereignty and territorial integrity of India" and SFJ was "working in collusion with anti-India entities and forces", therefore, "the Central Government had sufficient cause to take action under the Unlawful Activities Act for declaring Sikhs For Justice as an unlawful association." Following the verdict of the Delhi High Court Chief Justice, Pannu has appealed to the persecuted minorities of Pakistan to support the Referendum 2020 in a Facebook video. In the video, he said, "This is for all the Muslims and Christian brothers that the referendum is not closing.

We will be sending the registration forms to every household and the voting will start on June 6, 2020." The Sikh delegation in the United States of America met the Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi, to highlight their support of India as one country, espousing the agenda of Sikhs for Justice. A member of the group was arrested in Malaysia and deported in September 2019. Out of the four terrorists arrested in Tarn Taran blast case in Punjab, one revealed that they were tasked to kill the leaders of various Deras in India by Sikhs for Justice. Furthermore, the Kartarpur Corridor, opened up for Sikhs, is being used for Khalistani propaganda by SFJ. Another online platform that SFJ planned to use for spreading its propaganda was Google Play, where an application was uploaded to register for Referendum 2020; the application was reported, thereafter removed by Google Play Store. Kartarpur Corridor, India's initiative for its Sikh and Punjabi population to help them visit one of the most relevant places in Sikh history, was used by SIkhs for Justice for promoting the secessionist campaign'Referendum 2020'.

The campaign is backed by Pakistan, a close ally of Khalistanis. The pilgrims using Kartarpur Corridor were urged to attend workshops and seminars in Kartarpur on Referendum 2020, arranged by Sikhs for Justice. 2016–17 Targeted killings in Punjab, India

Sulfate attack in concrete and mortar

Sulfate attack in cement and concrete. Cement is composed of two minerals tri-calcium silicates and di-calcium silicates. Upon hydration, the main reaction products are a calcium silicate gels and calcium hydroxide Ca2 or CH in cement chemistry. Moisture makes this reaction happen and can cause serious structural damage to both wall slabs and walls in buildings. Sulfate attacks happen to ground floor slabs, this issue affects properties from the 1950s and 1960s but can affect earlier structures where a concrete floor slab has been installed, they occur when the infill material beneath the slab contains sulphates and these are taken up into solution by ground moisture which migrates into the concrete which forms the floor slab. The attacks can come from MgSO4 salts other salts containing SO3 - ions; the interaction of Ca2+ ions with SO4 present in the solution will produce CaSO4 or gypsum. The effect of gypsum on C-S-H gel, the principal component of hardened cement yet a debatable topic. Other components present in cement such as tri-calcium aluminate interact with sulfate ions.

Although this reaction is property established in literature. They can be'external' or'internal'; this is the more common type and occurs where water containing dissolved sulfate penetrates the concrete. Sulfate ions that penetrate the concrete react with CH to form gypsumŜH+CH→CSH2 C3A + 3CŜH2 + 26H→C3A.3CŜ. H32tricalcium aluminate + gypsum → ettringite when concentration of sulfate ions decrease the ettringite breaks down into monosulfates 2C3A + C3A.3CŜ. H32 → 3C3A.3CŜ. H12When it reacts with concrete, it causes the slab to expand, lifting and cracking as well as applying pressure to surrounding walls which can mean structural movement weakening the concrete; the main infill materials to a solid floor which result in a sulphate attack: - Red Ash - Black Ash - Slag - Grey Fly Ash - Other industrial materials and building rubble could be used and present a potential problem These materials originated were used extensively in the North West of England as they were available and free from sources such as Coal Mines, Steelworks and Power Stations.

This form occurs. The gypsum present in the concrete it reacts with monosulfates to form ettringite C3A.3CŜ. H12 + 2CSH2 + 16H → C3A.3CŜ. H32A well-defined reaction front can be seen in polished sections. Behind the reaction front, the composition and microstructure of the concrete will have changed; these changes may vary in type or severity but include: Extensive cracking Expansion Loss of bond between the cement paste and aggregate Alteration of paste composition, with monosulfate phase converting to ettringite and, in stages, gypsum formation. The necessary additional calcium is provided by the calcium hydroxide and calcium silicate hydrate in the cement pasteThe effect of these changes is an overall loss of concrete strength; the above effects are typical of attack by solutions of potassium sulfate. Solutions containing magnesium sulfate are more aggressive, for the same concentration; this is because magnesium takes part in the reactions, replacing calcium in the solid phases with the formation of brucite and magnesium silicate hydrates.

The displaced calcium precipitates as gypsum. Seawater Oxidation of sulfide minerals in clay adjacent to the concrete - this can produce sulfuric acid which reacts with the concrete Bacterial action in sewers - anaerobic bacterial produce sulfur dioxide which dissolves in water and oxidizes to form sulfuric acid In masonry, sulfates present in bricks and can be released over a long period of time, causing sulfate attack of mortar where sulfates are concentrated due to moisture movement. Sulfate attacks are identified through a remedial survey but they can be overlooked when undertaking a damp survey as they can be considered as a structural rather than a dampness issue but moisture is what causes the reaction. A visual and levelling inspection to the property will be sufficient to recognise there is a sulfate issue. To establish the type and depth of infill, trial holes will need to be used. If water is present in the subfloor structure, a structural engineer may need to be instructed, subject to the level of damage or movement to the walls.

The action depends on how high the future risk is. Sometimes inspections are related to mortgages therefore it may depend on the degree of assurance required for a lender. If repair is required for the level of damage, the slab must be broken out and removed, the spoil should not be used as hardcore under the replacement slab. Concrete degradation Understanding-cement.com Theconstructor.org Adrian Dawson

Paterson Field

Paterson Field is a baseball stadium in Montgomery, Alabama. The stadium, named after William Burns Paterson junior, has a maximum capacity of 7,000 people and was opened in 1949. Paterson Field has played host to, among other professional teams, the Montgomery Rebels, a AA-class minor-league team affiliated with the Detroit Tigers, the Montgomery Wings, an independent minor-league team; the stadium is still in use today, having been used as the home field of Alabama State University, a Division I program that competes in the Southwestern Athletic Conference. A majority of seating inside Paterson Field is metallic bleachers with a few rows of box seats. Roof coverings shelter the three sections of the park behind home plate; the concourse is covered, situated below the seating. The concourse provides no views of the playing field, its location is in the downtown Montgomery area on Madison Avenue, near its intersection with Hall Street and in close proximity to Cramton Bowl. The stadium affords no view of downtown Montgomery to the large majority of fans in the seating inside the park.

Soon after its construction, Paterson Field was the home of several Montgomery minor-league professional baseball teams. Chief among these was the 1965–80 incarnation of the Montgomery Rebels as a Detroit Tigers affiliate. During their 16 years in Montgomery, the Rebels won five Southern League championships as the Tigers developed the nucleus of a club that would win the 1984 World Series, future MLB notables such as Jack Morris, Lou Whittaker, Alan Trammell played under Paterson Field's lights before becoming big leaguers; the Rebels moved to Birmingham, after the 1980 Southern League season, becoming the Birmingham Barons, while Paterson Field lay dormant. Riding the wave of increased popularity in minor league baseball of any level, the independent All-American Association opened play in June 2001 with teams in six cities. With the city's population count reaching 200,000, Montgomery was a logical choice for a franchise, the city heartily welcomed the return of professional baseball to Alabama's capital city.

In 2001, the Wings were part of the All-American Association. The Wings were brought back for a final season in 2003 before an affiliate team from the Southern League, the Montgomery Biscuits, took up residence in a new waterfront park, Montgomery Riverwalk Stadium, which opened in 2004. Paterson Field was home to the NCAA Division II Baseball Championship from 1985 to 2004, after which the event was moved to Riverwalk Stadium. Baseball Pilgrimages Ballpark Reviews

Carillon Tower

The Carillon Tower is a 394-foot tall skyscraper in Charlotte, North Carolina. The building was completed in 1991 and it has 24 floors; the top of the skyscraper contains a copper-roofed, Gothic central spire shaped like a bell tower, which rises 300 ft from the base of the building. This structure is considered to be the most striking feature of the property, it was designed to resemble the architecture of the historic First Presbyterian Church located across the street; the same church inspired the building's name. An art gallery is located in the lobby of the building hosts a program of rotating exhibitions, including artist Jean Tinguely's Cascade, a 40-foot mobile suspended above an indoor fountain. A landscaped public plaza is situated at the entrance of Carillon on West Trade Street, it surrounds a 30-foot high multi-colored aluminum sculpture, designed by Jerry Peart, named The Garden. It has 470,726 square feet of Class A office space; this building was built on the former site of the Hotel Charlotte.

In 2007 it was sold for US$140 million to Hines. List of tallest buildings in Charlotte List of tallest buildings in North Carolina Emporis Costar Hines

Karki, Honnavar

Karki is a village in Honnavar Taluk in Uttara Kannada district of Karnataka state, India. The name Karki is derived from a Sanskrit word. Karki is derived in Sanskrit from old Persian language. In Old Persian language karki is formed by kariya which means manager of military. Karki is transform in a thar of chhetri cast nowadays. After living of karki in Durvapura, The earlier name is changed; the earlier name of Karki was Durvapura. It is believed that Maharishi Durvasa did tapasya here and the old name came from him. Karki is situated in the coastal area of Karnataka, it is 5 km away from Honavar town. One side of Karki is the coast of the Arabian sea and the other side are the Sahyadri hills. Badagani river flows through Karki. Karki is in a coastal area, the weather is hot in summer, it receives heavy rainfall. Karki is connected by road. NH-66 passes through this place. Honnavara Railway station is situated in Karki, and boat and Hanging Bridge facility to across River. Government Primary schools and High school are available in this place.

Colleges are nearby situated in Honnavara. The population in Karki is quite widespread. Many ancient trees and greenery are found in plenty. Agriculture is carried out the transplantation of rice; the paddy is harvested in the months of April–May and dehusked at nearby mills in the neighbouring village. The straw is fed to cattle. Natural places of beauty includes the beach, the hilly areas with streams, the long stretches of fields and the local temples. Jnaneshwari Peeth