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Blackjack is the American version of a popular global banking game known as Twenty-One, whose relatives include Pontoon and Vingt-et-Un. It is a comparing card game between one or more players and a dealer, where each player in turn competes against the dealer. Players do not compete against each other, it is played with one or more decks of 52 cards, is the most played casino banking game in the world. Players are each dealt two cards, face down depending on the casino and the table. In the U. S. the dealer is dealt two cards one up and one down. In most other countries, the dealer only receives one card face up; the value of cards two through ten is their pip value. Face cards are all worth ten. Aces can be worth eleven. A hand's value is the sum of the card values. Players are allowed to draw additional cards to improve their hands. A hand with an ace valued as 11 is called "soft", meaning that the hand will not bust by taking an additional card; the value of the ace will become one to prevent the hand from exceeding 21.

Otherwise, the hand is called "hard". Once all the players have completed their hands, it is the dealer's turn; the dealer hand will not be completed if all players have either received blackjacks. The dealer reveals the hidden card and must hit until the cards total up to 17 points. At 17 points or higher the dealer must stay. You are betting; the better hand is the hand where the sum of the card values is closer to 21 without exceeding 21. The detailed outcome of the hand follows: If the player is dealt an Ace and a ten-value card, the dealer does not, the player wins and receives a bonus. If the player exceeds a sum of 21. If the dealer exceeds 21 and the player does not. If the player attains a final sum higher than the dealer and does not bust. If both dealer and player receive a blackjack or any other hands with the same sum, called a "push", no one wins. Blackjack has over 100 rule variations. Since the 1960s, blackjack has been a high-profile target of advantage players card counters, who track the profile of cards that have been dealt and adapt their wagers and playing strategies accordingly.

In response, casinos have introduced counter-measures that can increase the difficulty of advantage play. Blackjack has inspired other casino games, including pontoon. Blackjack's precursor was a game of unknown origin; the first written reference is found in a book by the Spanish author Miguel de Cervantes, most famous for writing Don Quixote. Cervantes was a gambler, the main characters of his tale "Rinconete y Cortadillo", from Novelas Ejemplares, are a couple of cheats working in Seville, they are proficient at cheating at veintiuna, state that the object of the game is to reach 21 points without going over and that the ace values 1 or 11. The game is played with the Spanish baraja deck; this short story was written between 1601 and 1602, implying that ventiuna was played in Castile since the beginning of the 17th century or earlier. References to this game are found in France and Spain; when twenty-one was introduced in the United States, gambling houses offered bonus payouts to stimulate players' interest.

One such bonus was a ten-to-one payout if the player's hand consisted of the ace of spades and a black jack. This hand was called a "blackjack", the name stuck to the game though the ten-to-one bonus was soon withdrawn. In the modern game, a blackjack refers to any hand of an ace plus a ten or face card regardless of suits or colors; the first scientific and mathematically sound attempt to devise an optimal blackjack playing strategy was revealed in September 1956. Roger Baldwin, Wilbert Cantey, Herbert Maisel and James McDermott published a paper titled The Optimum Strategy in Blackjack in the Journal of the American Statistical Association; this paper would become the foundation of future sound efforts to beat the game of blackjack. Ed Thorp would use Baldwin's hand calculations to verify the basic strategy and publish his famous book Beat the Dealer. At a casino blackjack table, the dealer faces five to seven playing positions from behind a semicircular table. Between one and eight standard 52-card decks are shuffled together.

At the beginning of each round, up to three players can place their bets in the "betting box" at each position in play. That is, there could be up to three players at each position at a table in jurisdictions that allow back betting; the player whose bet is at the front of the betting box is deemed to have control over the position, the dealer will consult the controlling player for playing decisions regarding the hand. Any player is allowed to control or bet in as many boxes as desired at a single table, but it is prohibited for an individual to play on more than one table at a time or to place multiple bets within a single box. In many U. S. casinos, players are limited to playing two or three positions at a table and only one person is allowed to bet on each position. The dealer deals cards from their left to their far right; each box is dealt an initial hand of two cards visible to the people playing on it, to any other players. The dealer's hand receives its first card fa

West Creek (Pennsylvania)

West Creek is a tributary of Fishing Creek, in Columbia County and Sullivan County, in Pennsylvania, in the United States. It is 9.1 miles long and flows through Davidson Township in Sullivan County and Jackson Township, Sugarloaf Township, Benton Township, Benton in Columbia County. The water temperature of the creek ranges from 0 °C to 25 °C; the discharge ranges from 0 to nearly 10 cubic meters per second. Rock formations in the watershed include the Trimmers Rock Formation, the Catskill Formation, the Huntley Mountain Formation; the creek's watershed has an area of 16.6 square miles, most of, agricultural, forested, or urban land. A small number of dams and schoolhouses were built on West Creek in the 19th and early 20th century. West Creek has the highest level of biodiversity of any stream in the upper Fishing Creek watershed. West Creek begins on Huckleberry Mountain in Sullivan County, it flows east for several hundred feet before turning south-southeast for several tenths of a mile, exiting Sullivan County and entering Jackson Township, Columbia County.

It turns south-southwest for a short distance, reaching the base of Huckleberry Mountain and crossing Pennsylvania Route 118, before southeast for a few miles in a valley, receiving one unnamed tributary from the left and another from the right. The creek enters Sugarloaf Township and receives another unnamed tributary from the left and turns south. For the next few miles, it flows alongside West Creek Road and receives another unnamed tributary from the right, it crosses Pennsylvania Route 239 and receives York Hollow, its first named tributary, from the right. The creek turns southeast for several miles, flowing alongside Pennsylvania Route 239 and receiving another unnamed tributary from the left and entering Benton Township, it turns south for more than a mile, still flowing alongside Pennsylvania Route 239 and crossing it several times. The creek exits its valley and turns south-southwest, flowing along the edge of a plain. After several tenths of a mile, it receives Spencer Run, its second and final named tributary, from the right and turns south for more than a mile, passing along the western border of Benton.

The creek turns south-southeast and exits Benton. A few tenths of a mile further downstream, it reaches its confluence with Fishing Creek. West Creek joins Fishing Creek 21.72 miles upstream of its mouth. The water temperature in West Creek in the summer can be as high as 25 °C, 3° Celsius higher than coldwater fish can tolerate. Between May 2010 and July 2011, it ranged from below 0 °C in February and March 2011 to 25 °C in August 2010. Between May 2010 and July 2011, the concentration of dissolved oxygen in West Creek ranged from under eight milligrams per liter in May 2010 to nearly seventeen milligrams per liter in late January 2011; this is well above the minimum required concentration of dissolved oxygen for optimal fish habitation. West Creek is less affected by episodic acidification than most of the rest of the upper Fishing Creek watershed, with the exception of Coles Creek; the pH of West Creek is at its lowest in late winter and spring, when it is around 6.3. During the rest of the year, it is above 7.0.

The entire pH range of the creek ranges from just over 6.0 to 7.2 or 7.3. The concentration of dissolved aluminum in West Creek is under 70 micrograms per liter less than the concentration needed to kill fish; the aluminum concentration is, in fact approximately zero and is under 40 micrograms per liter. However, early in 2011, the concentration was observed twice to be nearly 60 micrograms per liter; the discharge of West Creek is less than two cubic meters per second. However, it sometimes is between two and five cubic meters per second and has been as high as nearly ten cubic meters per second; the conductance of the creek ranges from over 40 to more than 60 micro-siemens per centimeter. The elevation near the mouth of West Creek is 735 feet above sea level; the elevation of the creek's source is between 1,800 feet above sea level. The rock in the southern part of the watershed of West Creek is of the Trimmers Rock Formation; this comes from the Devonian period. The northern part of the watershed has rock belonging to the Catskill Formation, which consists of sandstone and siltstone and comes from the Devonian.

The Huntley Mountain Formation can be found at the headwaters of the creek. This formation consists of sandstone and siltstone and comes from the Mississippian and Devonian periods; the watershed of West Creek has an area of 17.2 square miles. The creek's mouth is in the United States Geological Survey quadrangle of Benton. However, its source is in the quadrangle of Elk Grove. There is significant agricultural activity done in the lower reaches of the watershed of West Creek and there are some residential areas. Additionally, there are some agricultural lands in the upper reaches of the watershed. Much of the rest of the watershed is forested land; some of the most downstream parts of the watershed are urban. West Creek has been known by its current name since at least the late 1830s; the creek was entered into the Geographic Names Information System on August 2, 1979. Its identifier in the Geographic Names Information System is 1192054. In 1799, a schoolhouse was constructed on West Creek near Benton.

It was one of the first schoolhouses in the vicinity of Benton. During the 1864 elections, at least two Union soldiers were stationed on the creek, guarding the polling venues. A mill called the Thomas Mill was built on the creek in 1865 and remained operational in 1914, when

J'accuse (1919 film)

J'accuse is a 1919 French silent film directed by Abel Gance. It juxtaposes a romantic drama with the background of the horrors of World War I, it is sometimes described as a pacifist or anti-war film. Work on the film began in 1918, some scenes were filmed on real battlefields; the film's powerful depiction of wartime suffering, its climactic sequence of the "return of the dead", made it an international success, confirmed Gance as one of the most important directors in Europe. In a Provençal village in the south of France, the villagers welcome the declaration of war with Germany in 1914 and flock to enlist. Among them is François Laurin, a man of jealous and violent temperament, married to Édith, the daughter of an upright veteran soldier Maria Lazare. François suspects that Édith is conducting an affair with the poet Jean Diaz who lives in the village with his mother, he sends Édith to stay with his parents in Lorraine – where she is subsequently captured and raped by German soldiers. François and Jean find themselves serving in the same battalion at the front, where the initial tensions between them give way to a close friendship that acknowledges that they both love Édith.

In 1918, Jean is discharged through returns to the village, to find his mother dying. Édith reappears from captivity, now with a young half-German daughter Angèle. Her father, Maria Lazare leaves to avenge the shame to the family name; when François comes home on leave, Jean and Édith fear his reaction to the illegitimate child and try to conceal her from him, which revives his jealous suspicions of Jean, the two men fight. When the truth is revealed, François and Jean agree to seek their vengeance in battle and both return to the front. In a great battle, in which a mythical figure of Le Gaulois leads on the French forces, François is wounded and dies in the field hospital. Jean, meanwhile, is so shell-shocked, he returns to the village and gathers the inhabitants together to tell them of his vision on the battlefield: from the graves of the dead, soldiers arise and gather in a great cohort that marches through the land, back to their homes. Jean challenges the villagers to say whether they have been worthy of the men's sacrifices, they watch in horror as their dead family and friends appear on the threshold.

The soldiers return to their rest, Jean goes back to his mother's house. There he finds a book of his own poems which he tears up in disgust, until one of them, his Ode to the Sun, drives him to denounce the sun for its complicity in the crimes of war; as the sunlight fades from the room, Jean dies. Romuald Joubé as the poet Jean Diaz Maxime Desjardins as Maria Lazare Séverin-Mars as François Laurin Angèle Guys as Angèle, Édith's daughter Maryse Dauvray as Édith Laurin, the wife of François Mancini as Mother Diaz Angèle Decori as Marie, Lazare's servant Abel Gance had been drafted into the French Army's Section Cinématographique during World War I, but he was discharged because of ill-health, a piece of good fortune to which he said he owed his life, he had formulated the idea for J'accuse, influenced by the constant news of the deaths of friends at the front, by the published book Le Feu by Henri Barbusse, he succeeded in persuading Charles Pathé to finance the film. Filming took place between August 1918 and March 1919.

In order to film the battle scenes, Gance asked to return to the front and was re-enlisted into the Section Cinématographique, with the result that he found himself in September 1918 filming in the battle of Saint-Mihiel alongside the United States Army. His authentic footage was edited into the final section of the film; the sequence of the'return of the dead' at the end of the film was shot in the south of France, using 2000 soldiers who had come back on leave. Gance recalled: "The conditions in which we filmed were profoundly moving... These men had come straight from the Front – from Verdun – and they were due back eight days later, they played the dead knowing. Within a few weeks of their return, eighty per cent had been killed."For the film's opening title, a large group of soldiers, filmed from above, is formed up to shape the letters J... A... C... C... U... S... E. In the middle of preparing the shot, a general asked Gance. Gance stalled until the shot was complete, explained to the startled general that he was "accusing the war... accusing men... accusing universal stupidity".

In the final scenes of the film, Gance's accusations, through the mouth of Jean Diaz, seem to be levelled against those who have not cared enough – the civilians who enjoyed another life, or those who profited from the war, or who forgot what it meant. The soldiers risen from the dead are said to be content to return to their rest once reassured by the living that their sacrifice has not been in vain. Diaz's final accusation is made against the sun for being a mute witness to so much horror. Asked whether he regarded J'accuse as a pacifist film, Gance replied: "I'm not interested in politics... But I am against war. Ten or twenty years afterward, one reflects that all for nothing. One has found friends among one's old enemies, enemies among one's friends." Not all critics however have been convinced of the focus of Gance's argument: "Seemingly critical of a patriotism that blindly ignores the death it causes, J'accuse ends up celebrating the dead's sacrifice as a form of patriotism". Others have noted that J'accuse mixes pacifism with nationalism, pointing to Gance's inspirations which included not only Henri Barbusse but Emile Zola and Richard Grelling.

While German imperialism was a target of Gance's f

Carib Aviation

Carib Aviation was an airline based in Antigua and Barbuda. Founded in 1972 by Frank Delisle with a single twin-prop aircraft, Carib Aviation provided charter and scheduled flights throughout the Caribbean from its main base in Antigua. At its peak the company employed 63 personnel, including 22 engineering staff; the office facilities were at VC Bird International Airport, accommodating administration, accounts and traffic departments. An additional terminal office facility was located at Robert L. Bradshaw International Airport in Saint Kitts and Nevis. Carib Aviation operated the DOMINICA AIR TAXI service between Antigua, Saint Lucia and Canefield Airport as well as a local feeder for LIAT. On Tuesday 30 September 2008, Bruce Kaufman, new owner and CEO of the airline, announced that he was forced to cancel all flights the same day because of no flight crews available, he accused LIAT to have hired 7 of his Twin Otter pilots within a few days, breaking an agreement between the two airlines signed earlier in 2008 and leaving him with no choice to stop all operations.

Anguilla The Valley Antigua St. John's Barbuda Codrington Dominica Marigot Roseau Guadalupe Pointe-à-Pitre Martinique Fort-de-France Montserrat Brades Nevis Charlestown St. Kitts Basseterre St. Lucia Castries Vieux Fort Quarter St. Vincent Kingstown Tortola Beef Island As of September 2008 the Carib Aviation fleet included: 1 Beech 65 QueenAir Excalibur 1 Britten Norman Islander Carib Aviation

India Leadership Conclave

India Leadership Conclave is an annual industry event organised by Indian Affairs. Speakers address current issues at the annual conclave from Network 7 Media Group. In 2013, India Leadership Conclave themed the Conclave "New India - Agenda for Change". India Leadership Conclave in 2014 debated on "Perform or Perish" at a time when the National Election Campaigning was at its peak and Prime Minister Narendra Modi came to power. India Leadership Conclave known as "ILC Power Brands" is an annual leadership event and award program awarded to companies and individuals that have excelled in their respective categories; these set of awards has been initiated by the organisers of Network 7 Media Group, under its Chairman and Editor-In-Chief Satya Brahma. India Leadership Conclave was started in 2009 in Delhi and was subsequently followed by six annual editions in Mumbai and Bangalore; the 7th Annual India Leadership Conclave and Indian Affairs Business Leadership Awards 2016 was held in Mumbai on Friday,1 July at Hotel Hilton Mumbai International Airport under the Make in India theme of "Advantage India - It is now or never" with 350 attendees.

Late Prime Minister of India Rajeev Gandhi was awarded posthumously in its first edition. Business people such as Yash Chopra Mukesh Ambani, Uday Kotak, Sudha Murthy, Chanda Kocchar among others received in its first edition in 2009. Notable figures who received Awards include,Sushmita Sen,Ratan Tata, Mukesh Batra, Priyanka Chopra, Kiran Mazumdar Shaw, Kunal Bahl, Nagabhairava Jaya Prakash Narayana. Mukesh Hariawala, Anamika Khanna, Manasi Kirloskar,Huzaifa Khorakiwala, Parvathy Nair,Urvashi Rautela, Sunny Leone, Arshi Khan, Jennifer Winget,Reza Shariffi,Bhairavi Jaikishan, Shaina NC,Muffazal Lakdawala,Ashok Soota,Sanjay Leela Bhansali, Govinda,Manjula Anagani; the 8th Annual India Leadership Conclave & ILC Power Brand Awards was held under the theme "Introspection" on Friday, 4 August, Hotel Sahara Star, India. Surjya Narayan Patro, Odisha’s Minister for Food Supplies and Consumer Affairs received "India’s Best Performing Minister in a state in India". India Leadership Conclave's 9th Annual edition was held under the theme on "Introspection – Agenda 2018 at Mumbai on 6 July 2018.

The 10th Annual India Leadership Conclave & Indian Affairs Business Leadership awards called as ILC Power Brand Awards was held in Mumbai on Friday, 23rd of August 2019 at Hotel Sahara Star, India. The theme of the Conclave was "Opportunities - Making India USD 5 trillion Economy"

Thana Bhawan

Thana Bhawan is a small town in Shamli district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is said. In the 18th century it was home to Hindu and Muslims families, it is situated on the Delhi-Saharanpur highway, around 120 kilometres from Delhi. Hindu and Muslim families reside in Thana Bhawan; the ancient Devi Bhawan Temple and other temples like Jassu Wala, Ashram Panchtirthi and Jahar Veer Goga Ji Maadhi are situated here. Every year a grand mela is organised in worship of Gogaji; the town is home to Maulana Ashraf his grave and his khanqah. Maulana Fateh Mohammed Sahab's house is situated in Thana Bhawan. There are five Inter colleges: Kisan Inter College, Divya Public School, Lala Lajpat Rai Inter College and Lala Lajpat Rai Kanya Inter College. Arpan Senior Secondary School, Alpine International School, Sanatan Dharm Higher Secondary School and Saraswati Public Junior High School are situated here. There is only one college, Chaudhary Atar Singh Degree College, affiliated to C. C. S. University, Meerut.

It was opened with the objective of providing higher education to the town's people so that they could study in their own town. As of 2001, Thana Bhawan had a population of 31,183. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Thana Bhawan has an average literacy rate of 47%, lower than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 54%, female literacy is 39%. In Thana Bhawan, 18% of the population is under 6 years of age. Thana Bhawan is a UP State Assembly constituency itself, with nearly 240,000 voters. Ashraf Ali Thanvi was an Indian Islamic scholar of the Deobandi movement, he wrote more than a thousand books during his life. Shaukat Thanvi, whose family came from Thana Bhawan, was a Pakistani journalist, columnist, short story writer, playwright and poet, he received the Tamgha-e-Imtiaz Award in 1963 from the President of Pakistan. Shamli Ashraf Ali Thanvi Thanvi District Muzaffarnagar Muzaffarnagar CENSUS 2001