Jane Seymour was Queen of England from 1536 to 1537 as the third wife of King Henry VIII. She succeeded Anne Boleyn as queen consort following the latter's execution in May 1536, she died of postnatal complications less than two weeks after the birth of her only child, a son who became King Edward VI. She was the only one of Henry's wives to receive a queen's funeral, his only consort to be buried beside him in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle. Jane, the daughter of Sir John Seymour and Margery Wentworth was born at Wulfhall, although West Bower Manor in Somerset has been suggested, Her birth date is not recorded. Through her maternal grandfather, she was a descendant of King Edward III's son Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence; because of this and King Henry VIII were fifth cousins. She shared a great-grandmother, Elizabeth Cheney, with his second and fifth wives, Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard. Jane was not as educated as Henry's first and second wives, Catherine of Aragon and Anne Boleyn.
She could read and write a little, but was much better at needlework and household management, which were considered much more necessary for women. Her needlework was reported to elaborate. After her death, it was noted that Henry was an "enthusiastic embroiderer."Jane became a maid-of-honour in 1532 to Queen Catherine, but may have served her as early as 1527, went on to serve Queen Anne. The first report of Henry VIII's interest in Jane was in February 1536, about three months before Anne's execution. Jane was praised for her gentle, peaceful nature, being referred to as "gentle a lady as I knew" by John Russell and being named as "the Pacific" by the Imperial Ambassador Eustace Chapuys for her peacemaking efforts at court. According to Chapuys, she was of middling stature and pale. However, John Russell stated that she was "the fairest of all the King's wives." Polydore Vergil commented that she was "a woman of the utmost charm in both character and appearance." She was regarded as a meek, gentle and chaste woman, whose large family made her a suitable candidate to give birth to many children.
Henry VIII was betrothed to Jane on 20 May 1536, just one day after Anne Boleyn's execution. They were married at the Palace of Whitehall, London, in the Queen's closet by Bishop Gardiner on 30 May 1536; as a wedding gift he made her a grant of 104 manors in four counties as well as a number of forests and hunting chases for her jointure, the income to support her during their marriage. She was publicly proclaimed queen on 4 June 1536, her well-publicised sympathy for the late Queen Catherine and her daughter Mary showed her to be compassionate and made her a popular figure with the common people and most of the courtiers. She was never crowned because of plague in London. Henry may have been reluctant to have her crowned before she had fulfilled her duty as a queen consort by bearing him a son and a male heir; as queen, Jane was said to be formal. Jane would form a close relationship with Mary; the lavish entertainments and extravagance of the queen's household, which had reached its peak during the time of Anne Boleyn, was replaced by a strict enforcement of decorum.
For example, she banned the French fashions. Politically, Seymour appears to have been conservative, her only reported involvement in national affairs, in 1536, was when she asked for pardons for participants in the Pilgrimage of Grace. Henry is said to have rejected this, reminding her of the fate her predecessor met with when she "meddled in his affairs", her motto as a queen was "Bound to obey and serve." Jane put forth much effort to restore Mary to court and to the royal succession, behind any children that she might have with Henry. Jane brought up the issue of Mary's restoration both before and after she became queen. While she was unable to restore Mary to the line of succession, she was able to reconcile her with Henry. Eustace Chapuys wrote to Charles V of her compassion and efforts on behalf of Mary's return to favour. A letter from Mary to her shows. While it was she who first pushed for the restoration and Elizabeth were not reinstated to the succession until Henry's sixth wife, Catherine Parr, convinced him to do so.
In January 1537, Jane became pregnant. During her pregnancy, she developed a craving for quail, which Henry ordered for her from Calais and Flanders. During the summer, she took no public engagements and led a quiet life, being attended by the royal physicians and the best midwives in the kingdom, she went into confinement in September 1537 and gave birth to the coveted male heir, the future King Edward VI, at two o'clock in the morning on 12 October 1537 at Hampton Court Palace. Edward was christened on 15 October 1537, without his mother in attendance, he was the only legitimate son of Henry VIII to survive infancy. Both of his daughters and Elizabeth, were present and carried Edward's train during the ceremony. Jane's labour had been difficult, lasting two days and three nights because the baby was not well positioned. After the christening, it became clear that she was ill, she died on 24 October 1537 at Hampton Court Palace. Within a few weeks of her death, there were conflicting testimonies concerning the cause of her demise.
In retrospect from the current day, there are various speculations. Acco
Crewel embroidery, or crewelwork, is a type of surface embroidery using wool. A wide variety of different embroidery stitches are used to follow a design outline applied to the fabric; the technique is at least a thousand years old. The origin of the word crewel is unknown but is thought to come from an ancient word describing the curl in the staple, the single hair of the wool. Crewel wool has a long staple. Modern crewel wool is a 2-ply or 1-ply yarn available in many different colours; the crewel technique is not a style of free embroidery. Crewelwork had its heyday in Britain in the 17th century, but has come in and out of fashion several times since then. Traditionally, crewel embroidery is done on woven linen twill, though more other fabrics like Matka silk, cotton velvet, rayon velvet, silk organza, net fabric and jute have been used. A firm fabric is required to support the weight of the stitching, it is best to use a crewel needle to execute the stitches as a needle with a wide body, large eye and a sharp point is required.
The outlines of the design to be worked are screen printed onto the fabric or can be transferred to plain fabric using modern transfer pens, containing water-soluble ink or air-soluble ink, using a lightbox and a permanent pen, or iron-on designs applied using transfer sheets. The old-fashioned "pinprick and chalk" or "prick and pounce" methods work well; the prick and pounce method involves transferring the design outlines - printed on paper - by pricking the outline with a needle to produce perforations along the lines. Powdered chalk or pounce material is forced through the holes onto the fabric using a felt pad or stipple brush in order to replicate the design on the material. Designs range from the traditional to more contemporary patterns. Traditional design styles are referred to as Jacobean embroidery featuring stylized floral and animal designs with flowing vines and leaves. Many different embroidery stitches are used in crewelwork to create a colourful effect. Unlike silk or cotton embroidery threads, crewel wool is thicker and creates a raised, dimensional feel to the work.
Some of the techniques and stitches include: Outlining stitches such as stem stitch, chain stitch and split stitch Satin stitches to create flat, filled areas within a design Couched stitches, where one thread is laid on the surface of the fabric and another thread is used to tie it down. Couching is used to create a trellis effect within an area of the design. Seed stitches, applied randomly in an area to give a shaded effect French knots are used in floral and fruit motifs for additional texture Laid and Couched Work Long and Short "soft shading"Crewel embroidery was, in the past, embroidered to create elaborate and expensive bed hangings and curtains. Now it is most used to decorate cushions, curtains and wall hangings. Several other items such as lamp shades and handbags have been added. Unlike canvas work, crewel embroidery requires the use of an embroidery hoop or frame on which the material is stretched taut and secured prior to stitching; this ensures an amount of tension in the stitches, so that designs do not become distorted.
Depending on the size of the finished piece, crewelwork is executed with a small portable hoop up to large free standing frames. Jacobean embroidery Mary Linwood Crewel Crewel work in TRC Needles How Crewel – Feature about the history and development of crewel work, with photographs
Hans Holbein the Younger
Hans Holbein the Younger was a German painter and printmaker who worked in a Northern Renaissance style, is considered one of the greatest portraitists of the 16th century. He produced religious art and Reformation propaganda, he made a significant contribution to the history of book design, he is called "the Younger" to distinguish him from his father Hans Holbein the Elder, an accomplished painter of the Late Gothic school. Holbein was born in Augsburg, but he worked in Basel as a young artist. At first, he painted murals and religious works, designed stained glass windows, printed books, he painted an occasional portrait, making his international mark with portraits of humanist Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam. When the Reformation reached Basel, Holbein worked for reformist clients while continuing to serve traditional religious patrons, his Late Gothic style was enriched by artistic trends in Italy and the Netherlands, as well as by Renaissance humanism. The result was a combined aesthetic uniquely his own.
Holbein travelled to England in 1526 with a recommendation from Erasmus. He was welcomed into the humanist circle of Thomas More, where he built a high reputation, he returned to Basel for four years resumed his career in England in 1532 under the patronage of Anne Boleyn and Thomas Cromwell. By 1535, he was King's Painter to Henry VIII of England. In this role, he produced portraits and festive decorations, as well as designs for jewellery and other precious objects, his portraits of the royal family and nobles are a record of the court in the years when Henry was asserting his supremacy over the Church of England. Holbein's art was prized from early in his career. French poet and reformer Nicholas Bourbon dubbed him "the Apelles of our time," a typical accolade at the time. Holbein has been described as a great "one-off" of art history, since he founded no school; some of his work was lost after his death, but much was collected, he was recognised among the great portrait masters by the 19th century.
Recent exhibitions have highlighted his versatility. He created designs ranging from intricate jewellery to monumental frescoes. Holbein's art has sometimes been painted with a rare precision, his portraits were renowned in their time for their likeness, it is through his eyes that many famous figures of his day are pictured today, such as Erasmus and More. He was never content with outward appearance, however. In the view of art historian Ellis Waterhouse, his portraiture "remains unsurpassed for sureness and economy of statement, penetration into character, a combined richness and purity of style". Holbein was born in the free imperial city of Augsburg during the winter of 1497–98, he was a son of the painter and draughtsman Hans Holbein the Elder, whose trade he and his older brother, followed. Holbein the Elder ran a large and busy workshop in Augsburg, sometimes assisted by his brother Sigmund a painter. By 1515, Hans and Ambrosius had moved as journeymen painters to the city of Basel, a centre of learning and the printing trade.
There they were apprenticed to Basel's leading painter. The brothers found work in Basel as designers of metalcuts for printers. In 1515, the preacher and theologian Oswald Myconius invited them to add pen drawings to the margin of a copy of The Praise of Folly by the humanist scholar Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam; the sketches provide early evidence of Holbein's humanistic leaning. His other early works, including the double portrait of Basel's mayor Jakob Meyer zum Hasen and his wife Dorothea, follow his father's style; the young Holbein, alongside his brother and his father, is pictured in the left-hand panel of Holbein the Elder's 1504 altar-piece triptych the Basilica of St. Paul, displayed at the Staatsgalerie in Augsburg. In 1517, father and son began a project in Lucerne, painting internal and external murals for the merchant Jakob von Hertenstein. While in Lucerne Holbein designed cartoons for stained glass; the city's records show that on 10 December 1517, he was fined five livres for fighting in the street with a goldsmith called Caspar, fined the same amount.
That winter, Holbein visited northern Italy, though no record of the trip survives. Many scholars believe he studied the work of Italian masters of fresco, such as Andrea Mantegna, before returning to Lucerne, he filled two series of panels at Hertenstein's house with copies of works by Mantegna, including The Triumphs of Caesar. In 1519, Holbein moved back to Basel, his brother fades from the record at about this time, it is presumed that he died. Holbein re-established himself in the city, running a busy workshop, he took out Basel citizenship. He married Elsbeth Schmid, a widow a few years older than he was, who had an infant son and was running her late husband's tanning business, she bore Holbein a son of his own, Philipp, in their first year of marriage. Holbein was prolific during this period in Basel, which coincided with the arrival of Lutheranism in the city, he undertook a number of major projects, such as external murals for The House of the Dance and internal murals for the Council Chamber of the Town Hall.
The former are known from preparatory drawings. The Council Chamber murals survive in a few poorly preserved fragments. Holbein produced a series of religious paintings and designed cartoons for stained glass windows. In a period of revolution in book design, he illustrated for
Broderie anglaise is a whitework needlework technique incorporating features of embroidery and needle lace that became associated with England, due to its popularity there in the 19th century. Broderie anglaise is characterized by patterns composed of round or oval holes, called eyelets, which are cut out of the fabric bound with overcast or buttonhole stitches; the patterns depicting flowers, vines, or stems, are further delineated by simple embroidery stitches made on the surrounding material. Broderie anglaise featured small patterns worked in satin stitch; the technique originated in 16th century eastern Europe—probably in what is now the Czech Republic—but remains associated with England because of its popularity there during the 19th century. In the Victorian era, broderie anglaise had open areas in many sizes. Transfers were used first to lay out the design on the material. In some cases, the holes were punched out with an embroidery stiletto before finishing the edge. Beginning in the 1870s, the designs and techniques of broderie anglaise could be copied by the Swiss hand-embroidery machine.
Today, most broderie anglaise is created by machine. Madeira work is a popular form of broderie anglaise associated with artisans on the island of Madeira, a Portuguese territory off the coast of Africa. Broderie anglaise was popular in England between 1840 and 1880 for women's underclothing and children's wear; the 1950s saw a resurgence in popularity, when it was used to trim dresses and underwear. In 1959, Brigitte Bardot wore a dress of gingham and broderie anglaise for her wedding to Jacques Charrier. In contemporary western fashion, it has been featured on a wide variety of modern garments such as shorts and t-shirts, it has been characterized as "lace, but scaled-up" making it more robust and suited to daytime wear, less associated with the fine, lacy look of lingerie. S. F. A. Caulfield and B. C. Saward, The Dictionary of Needlework, 1885. Broderie anglaise in TRC Needles Photo of an 1865 Broderie Anglaise corset cover, 19th century English bonnet: decoration with broderie anglaise, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online
Bargello is a type of needlepoint embroidery consisting of upright flat stitches laid in a mathematical pattern to create motifs. The name originates from a series of chairs found in the Bargello palace in Florence, which have a "flame stitch" pattern. Traditionally, Bargello was stitched in wool on canvas. Embroidery done this way is remarkably durable, it is well suited for use on pillows and carpets, but not for clothing. In most traditional pieces, all stitches are vertical with stitches going over two or more threads. Traditional designs are colourful, use many hues of one colour, which produces intricate shading effects; the patterns are geometric, but can resemble stylised flowers or fruits. Bargello is considered challenging, as it requires precise counting of squares for the mathematical pattern connected with the various motifs to execute designs. A number of alternative names are used by different scholars, including: Florentine Work - After the fact that the Bargello Museum is in Florence.
Hungarian Point - In Italian, Bargello is known as "Hungarian Point", indicating that the Florentines believed the technique originated in Hungary. However, English embroidery vocabulary includes a diamond-shaped stitch called the Hungarian Point, so few English-language books use this term to refer to Bargello. Flame Stitch - A type of Bargello motif in which zig-zag or flames are created; the chairs in the Bargello museum do use flame stitch motifs, but curved motifs are common. These curved Bargello motifs would not be "flame stitch", but would be called Bargello; because of the potential for confusion, most books written in English refer to the technique as "Bargello". As with many traditional crafts, the origins of Bargello are not well documented. Although early examples are from the Bargello Museum in Florence, there does exist documentation that a Hungarian connection is possible. For one thing, the Bargello Museum inventory identifies the chairs in its inventory as "17th century with backs and seats done in punto unghero.".
In the 18th century, Queen Maria Teresa of Hungary stitched Bargello and her work has been preserved in the Hungarian National Museum Petschek cites additional "legends" of Hungarian noblewomen practicing the craft, including a Hungarian princess marrying into the de Medici family, a princess Jadwiga of Hungary who married into the Jagiełło dynasty of Poland. It is unknown if they influenced each other. Both Bargello and Hungarian Point tend to be colorful and use many hues of one color, which produces intricate shading effects; the patterns are geometric, but can resemble stylized flowers or fruits. Bargello refers not to just a stitching technique, but to motifs created by the change of colors in the stitches; this section describes the vertical stitch, how it is combined with color and "stepping" to create different motifs. Most agree; the basic unit is a vertical stitch of four threads, but other heights are possible. Some Bargello pieces use only one height of stitch, but the earliest pieces combine different heights of stitches.
Bargello patterns are formed when vertical stitches are stepped or offset vertically by two threads. The patterns in the steps combined with color changes determines how the overall pattern will emerge. If vertical stitches are stepped down the design forms sharp points or zig-zags; this type of Bargello motif is known as "flame stitch". Flame stitch can be found on the Bargello Museum chairs. If steps are gradual the design will appear to be curved. Traditional curved Bargello motifs include ribbons. There are many identified motifs possible, but some common ones include: Stitches step across the design. Xd Stitches step across the designs and color changes cause diamonds to appear. Stitches are stepped in different colors. Stitches are stepped and color changes cause spheres or medallions to appear. Since the revival of Bargello in the 1960s, the technique has evolved in different directions. Although traditional Bargello is still stitched, modern designers have expanded the repertoire of design possibilities.
Traditional Bargello is executed with just a vertical stitch in one direction, but Dorothy Kaestner created a style of Bargello called four-way Bargello. In this technique, the canvas is first divided diagonally into quarters; the same motif is worked in horizontal stitches in two opposite areas, vertical stitches in the remaining two areas. The resulting design resembles a kaleidoscope effect. Kaestner describes the origin of the technique: My first piece of four-way Bargello was started ten years ago. I placed a mirror on a Bargello design in a way that showed me how it would look if I mitered a corner; this intrigued me so much, I graphed a design mitering all four corners. Some examples include Cathy Decker - Stan Taylor - Stan Taylor - This concept has been expanded to eight-way Bargello, or Bargello stitches in eight directions, by designers including Susan Kerndt: Kaleidoscope Ice Crystals The two links above are broken try the alterna
Elizabeth I of England
Elizabeth I was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death on 24 March 1603. Sometimes called The Virgin Queen, Gloriana or Good Queen Bess, Elizabeth was the last of the five monarchs of the House of Tudor. Elizabeth was the daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, his second wife, executed two-and-a-half years after Elizabeth's birth. Anne's marriage to Henry VIII was annulled, Elizabeth was declared illegitimate, her half-brother, Edward VI, ruled until his death in 1553, bequeathing the crown to Lady Jane Grey and ignoring the claims of his two half-sisters and the Roman Catholic Mary, in spite of statute law to the contrary. Edward's will was set aside and Mary became queen, deposing Lady Jane Grey. During Mary's reign, Elizabeth was imprisoned for nearly a year on suspicion of supporting Protestant rebels. In 1558 upon Mary's death, Elizabeth succeeded her half-sister to the throne and set out to rule by good counsel, she depended on a group of trusted advisers, led by William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley.
One of her first actions as queen was the establishment of an English Protestant church, of which she became the Supreme Governor. This Elizabethan Religious Settlement was to evolve into the Church of England, it was expected that Elizabeth would produce an heir. She was succeeded by her first cousin twice removed, James VI of Scotland, she had earlier been responsible for the imprisonment and execution of James's mother, Queen of Scots. In government, Elizabeth was more moderate. One of her mottoes was "video et taceo". In religion, she was tolerant and avoided systematic persecution. After the pope declared her illegitimate in 1570 and released her subjects from obedience to her, several conspiracies threatened her life, all of which were defeated with the help of her ministers' secret service. Elizabeth was cautious in foreign affairs, manoeuvring between the major powers of Spain, she only half-heartedly supported a number of ineffective, poorly resourced military campaigns in the Netherlands and Ireland.
By the mid-1580s, England could no longer avoid war with Spain. England's defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588 associated Elizabeth with one of the greatest military victories in English history; as she grew older, Elizabeth became celebrated for her virginity. A cult grew around her, celebrated in the portraits and literature of the day. Elizabeth's reign became known as the Elizabethan era; the period is famous for the flourishing of English drama, led by playwrights such as William Shakespeare and Christopher Marlowe, for the seafaring prowess of English adventurers such as Francis Drake. Some historians depict Elizabeth as a short-tempered, sometimes indecisive ruler, who enjoyed more than her share of luck. Towards the end of her reign, a series of economic and military problems weakened her popularity. Elizabeth is acknowledged as a charismatic performer and a dogged survivor in an era when government was ramshackle and limited, when monarchs in neighbouring countries faced internal problems that jeopardised their thrones.
After the short reigns of her half-siblings, her 44 years on the throne provided welcome stability for the kingdom and helped forge a sense of national identity. Elizabeth was born at Greenwich Palace and was named after her grandmothers, Elizabeth of York and Elizabeth Howard, she was the second child of Henry VIII of England born in wedlock to survive infancy. Her mother was Anne Boleyn. At birth, Elizabeth was the heir presumptive to the throne of England, her older half-sister, had lost her position as a legitimate heir when Henry annulled his marriage to Mary's mother, Catherine of Aragon, to marry Anne, with the intent to sire a male heir and ensure the Tudor succession. She was baptised on 10 September 1533. A canopy was carried at the ceremony over the three-day old child by her uncle Viscount Rochford, Lord Hussey, Lord Thomas Howard, Lord Howard of Effingham. Elizabeth was two years and eight months old when her mother was beheaded on 19 May 1536, four months after Catherine of Aragon's death from natural causes.
Elizabeth was deprived of her place in the royal succession. Eleven days after Anne Boleyn's execution, Henry married Jane Seymour, who died shortly after the birth of their son, Edward, in 1537. From his birth, Edward was undisputed heir apparent to the throne. Elizabeth was placed in his household and carried the chrisom, or baptismal cloth, at his christening. Elizabeth's first governess, Margaret Bryan, wrote that she was "as toward a child and as gentle of conditions as I knew any in my life". Catherine Champernowne, better known by her married name of Catherine "Kat" Ashley, was appointed as Elizabeth's governess in 1537, she remained Elizabeth's friend until her death in 1565. Champernowne taught Elizabeth four languages: French, Flemish and Spanish. By the time William Grindal became her tutor in 1544, Elizabeth could write English and Italian. Under Grindal, a talented and skilful tutor, she progressed in French and Greek. After Grindal died in 1548, Elizabeth received her education under Roger Ascham, a sympathetic teacher who believed that learning should be engaging.
By the time her formal education ended in 1550, Elizabeth was one of the best educated women of her generation. At the end of her life, Elizabeth was believed to speak Welsh, Cornish and Irish in addition to the languages men
Embroidery is the craft of decorating fabric or other materials using a needle to apply thread or yarn. Embroidery may incorporate other materials such as pearls, beads and sequins. In modern days, embroidery is seen on caps, coats, dress shirts, dresses and golf shirts. Embroidery is available with a wide variety of yarn color; some of the basic techniques or stitches of the earliest embroidery are chain stitch, buttonhole or blanket stitch, running stitch, satin stitch, cross stitch. Those stitches remain the fundamental techniques of hand embroidery today; the process used to tailor, patch and reinforce cloth fostered the development of sewing techniques, the decorative possibilities of sewing led to the art of embroidery. Indeed, the remarkable stability of basic embroidery stitches has been noted: It is a striking fact that in the development of embroidery... There are no changes of materials or techniques which can be felt or interpreted as advances from a primitive to a more refined stage.
On the other hand, we find in early works a technical accomplishment and high standard of craftsmanship attained in times. The art of embroidery has been found worldwide and several early examples have been found. Works in China have been dated to the Warring States period. In a garment from Migration period Sweden 300–700 AD, the edges of bands of trimming are reinforced with running stitch, back stitch, stem stitch, tailor's buttonhole stitch, whip-stitching, but it is uncertain whether this work reinforced the seams or should be interpreted as decorative embroidery. Ancient Greek mythology has credited the goddess Athena with passing down the art of embroidery along with weaving, leading to the famed competition between herself and the mortal Arachne. Depending on time and materials available, embroidery could be the domain of a few experts or a widespread, popular technique; this flexibility led from the royal to the mundane. Elaborately embroidered clothing, religious objects, household items were seen as a mark of wealth and status, as in the case of Opus Anglicanum, a technique used by professional workshops and guilds in medieval England.
In 18th-century England and its colonies, samplers employing fine silks were produced by the daughters of wealthy families. Embroidery was a skill marking a girl's path into womanhood as well as conveying rank and social standing. Conversely, embroidery is a folk art, using materials that were accessible to nonprofessionals. Examples include Hardanger from Norway, Merezhka from Ukraine, Mountmellick embroidery from Ireland, Nakshi kantha from Bangladesh and West Bengal, Brazilian embroidery. Many techniques had a practical use such as Sashiko from Japan, used as a way to reinforce clothing. Embroidery was an important art in the Medieval Islamic world; the 17th-century Turkish traveler Evliya Çelebi called it the "craft of the two hands". Because embroidery was a sign of high social status in Muslim societies, it became popular. In cities such as Damascus and Istanbul, embroidery was visible on handkerchiefs, flags, shoes, tunics, horse trappings, sheaths, covers, on leather belts. Craftsmen embroidered items with silver thread.
Embroidery cottage industries, some employing over 800 people, grew to supply these items. In the 16th century, in the reign of the Mughal Emperor Akbar, his chronicler Abu al-Fazl ibn Mubarak wrote in the famous Ain-i-Akbari: "His majesty pays much attention to various stuffs; the imperial workshops in the towns of Lahore, Agra and Ahmedabad turn out many masterpieces of workmanship in fabrics, the figures and patterns and variety of fashions which now prevail astonish the most experienced travelers. Taste for fine material has since become general, the drapery of embroidered fabrics used at feasts surpasses every description." The development of machine embroidery and its mass production came about in stages in the Industrial Revolution. The first embroidery machine was the Hand-Embroidery Machine, invented in France in 1832 by Josué Heilmann; the machine used a combination of machine looms and teams of women embroidering the textiles by hand. The manufacture of machine-made embroideries in St. Gallen in eastern Switzerland flourished in the latter half of the 19th century.
Embroidery can be classified according to what degree the design takes into account the nature of the base material and by the relationship of stitch placement to the fabric. The main categories are free or surface embroidery, counted embroidery, needlepoint or canvas work. In free or surface embroidery, designs are applied without regard to the weave of the underlying fabric. Examples include Japanese embroidery. Counted-thread embroidery patterns are created by making stitches over a predetermined number of threads in the foundation fabric. Counted-thread embroidery is more worked on an even-weave foundation fabric such as embroidery canvas, aida cloth, or specially woven cotton and linen fabrics. Examples include cross-stitch and some forms of blackwork embroidery. While similar to counted thread in regards to technique, in canvas work or needlepoint, threads are stitched through a fabric mesh to create a dense pattern that covers the foundation fabric. Examples of canvas work include bargello and Berlin wool work.
Embroidery can be classified by the similarity of appearance. In drawn thr