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Dodging and burning

Dodging and burning are terms used in photography for a technique used during the printing process to manipulate the exposure of a selected area on a photographic print, deviating from the rest of the image's exposure. In a darkroom print from a film negative, dodging decreases the exposure for areas of the print that the photographer wishes to be lighter, while burning increases the exposure to areas of the print that should be darker. Any material with varying degrees of opacity may be used, as preferred, to cover and/or obscure the desired area for burning or dodging. One may use a transparency with text, patterns, a stencil, or a opaque material shaped according to the desired area of burning/dodging. Many modern digital image editing programs have "dodge" and "burn" tools that mimic the effect on digital images. A key application of dodging and burning is to improve contrast in film print-making; the technical issue is that natural scenes have higher dynamic range than can be captured by film, which in turn is greater than can be reproduced in prints.

Compressing this high dynamic range into a print either requires uniformly decreasing contrast or printing different parts of an image differently so that each retains the maximum contrast – in this latter dodging and burning is a key tool. An excellent example is the photograph Schweitzer with lamp at his desk by W. Eugene Smith, from his 1954 photo essay A Man of Mercy on Dr. Albert Schweitzer and his humanitarian work in French Equatorial Africa; the image took 5 days to produce, in order to reproduce the tonal range of the scene, which ranges from a bright lamp to dark shadow. Ansel Adams elevated burning to an art form. Many of his famous prints were manipulated in the darkroom with these two techniques. Adams wrote a comprehensive book on producing prints called The Print, which features dodging and burning prominently, in the context of his Zone System, they can be used in less subtle ways, as in the stenciled lettering shown at the top of this article. By using opaque material as a cover over the preferred area for dodging or burning no light will pass through and as a result, an outline of the material may be visible on the print.

One way to prevent obvious cover-up lines is to shake the burning material over the covered area while it is being exposed. Another way to prevent obvious cover-up lines is to use less opaque material closer to the outline to produce a more subtle, faded effect. To burn-in a print, the print is first given normal exposure. Next, extra exposure is given to areas that need to be darkened. A card or other opaque object is held between the enlarger lens and the photographic paper in such a way as to allow light to fall only on the portion of the scene to be darkened. A card or other opaque object is held between the enlarger lens and the photographic paper in such a way as to block light from the portion of the scene to be lightened. Since the technique is used with a negative-to-positive process, reducing the amount of light results in a lighter image. Blend modes Darkroom Vignetting References SourcesAdams, The Print, p. 210, ISBN 978-0-8212-2187-7


RapidSOS is an emergency technology company providing a direct data link from connected devices to 9-1-1 and first responders. It connects more than 250 million devices directly to 3,500+ local public safety agencies. Founded in 2012 by Michael Martin and Nicholas Horelik, RapidSOS seeks to improve caller data accuracy in 9-1-1 centers, pairing with Internet of Things companies to develop and publish various products for public safety officials and centers. RapidSOS’ first product was the Haven mobile application. Since the company has focused on integrating directly with 9-1-1 software and connected device companies to send life-saving emergency information to 9-1-1 telecommunicators without a user needing to use an app; the company has introduced product offerings such as RapidSOS Clearinghouse, RapidSOS Portal, RapidSOS Emergency API Suite. RapidSOS has working relations with companies like Apple, Uber and MedicAlert to facilitate emergency response. RapidSOS was founded in 2012 by Nicholas Horelik.

Martin had a personal experience with 9-1-1 connection difficulties when his father fell off of the roof of his home in Rockport, breaking his wrist and shattering his hip. Martin's father could not reach 9-1-1 from his cellphone and was laying outside in freezing temperatures until his wife came home and called 9-1-1 from their landline. Martin cites an experience he had after first moving to New York City, when he was followed by a man who had intentions to rob him. In wanting to call 9-1-1, he states, he "realized just how difficult it is in the middle of whatever your emergency is to get out your phone, dial a number, have a coherent conversation about who you are, where you’re located, what’s occurring." RapidSOS’ first product was the smartphone app Haven. The app gave users the ability to see family members' real-time locations, "check in" to send their location to their loved ones, call 9-1-1 on behalf of a loved one, sending that person's location and personal information to the dispatch center closest to them.

The company has transitioned to be B2B focused, launching products to connect public safety agencies and Internet of Things companies. RapidSOS apps to public safety during emergencies. RapidSOS Portal enables agencies to access the information directly on their screens. RapidSOS Clearinghouse allows public safety answering points to "securely access device-based hybrid location information from smartphones" during calls to 9-1-1; when a RapidSOS-enabled device or app sends an emergency request, data is securely sent to the clearinghouse, which can be accessed by 9-1-1 call takers through RapidSOS Portal. RapidSOS Portal is a web-based tool for 9-1-1 centers which “allows any public safety agency to access life-saving additional data at no cost.” Call takers can query caller phone numbers into the service and view location and situational data about the caller and their surroundings, provided from the IoT partners through the Clearinghouse. The RapidSOS Emergency API Suite is a service which “integrates technology directly with emergency services.”

The suite includes “Location API, Static Profile API, Data Pull API, Multimedia API, Call Flow API, Map Data API,” all of which allow Internet of Things and app companies to share specific situational data to 9-1-1 call centers during emergencies. 2016: Winners of 21st Century Communities Challenge by Utah Science Technology and Research. 2016: Consumer Technology Association's Innovation Entrepreneur Award. In November 2018, RapidSOS announced a $30 million Series B Funding round, led by Playground Global. In October 2019, RapidSOS closed their Series B Funding round of $55 million, led by Energy Impact Partners

Wood Flute Songs

Wood Flute Songs is an eight-CD box set by bassist and composer William Parker, recorded in California in 2006, Houston in 2007, Geneva and Montreal in 2011and New York in 2009 and 2012, released on the AUM Fidelity label. AllMusic awarded the album 4 stars stating "Wood Flute Songs is of exceptional quality and breadth in its more difficult moments; the Guardian observed "Of course it's something of a free-jazz purist's specialist item, but a wider audience might be startled by how much captivating melody dances amid the collective-improv clamour". The All About Jazz review noted "What must have convinced label chief Steven Joerg to release these live dates was the opportunity to witness the energy and uninhibited joy which these four musicians create in a live setting". JazzTimes noted "this eight-CD live box is a magnificent document that captures one of jazz's greatest, most prolific and most versatile bandleaders at the height of his powers, demonstrating a stunning range of creativity with a superb cast of musicians".

All compositions by William Parker Disc One: Live at Yoshi's 2006 - Quartet "Tears for the Children of Rwanda" - 25:12 "Petit Oiseau" - 15:01 "Groove #7 - 14:19 "Hopi Spirits" - 14:44Disc Two: Live at Yoshi's 2006 - Quartet Wood Flute Song"- 21:14 "Alphaville / Daughter's Joy / The Golden Bell" - 42:37 "Malachi's Mode" - 11:47Disc Three: Live in Houston 2007 - Quartet "Groove #7 - 11:14 "Hawaii" - 9:32 "Broken Roofs / Green Paper" - 12:57 "Hamid's Groove / Daughter's Joy" - 21:17 "Malachi's Mode" - 7:00 "Corn Meal Dance" - 2:51 "Corn Meal Dance" - 8:49Disc Four: Live in Houston 2007 - Quartet "O'Neal's Porch" - 9:52 "Red Desert" - 9:15 "Ojibway Song" - 14:31 "Sunrise in the Tone World" - 6:25 "The Square Sun" - 7:12 "Etchings" - 9:39 "Ascent of the Big Spirit" - 8:38 "Moon" - 8:58Disc Five: Light Cottage Draped in a Curtain of Blues - Septet "O'Neal's Porch" - 13:42 "Daughter's Joy" - 11:35 "Gilmore's Hat" - 7:14 "Deep Flower / Ascent of the Big Spirit" - 17:11 "Wood Flute Song" - 6:10 "Chicago" - 9:05Disc Six: Creation - Ensemble "Psalm for Billy Bang" - 6:08 "All I Want" - 2:40 "Earth in Pain" - 19:03 "Deep Flower" - 22:46 "Wood Flute Song" - 18:55Disc Seven: Friday Afternoon - Raining on the Moon "3+3 = Jackie McLean" - 13:33 "My Name is Peace" - 13:40 "Late Man of This Planet" - 9:01 "For Abbey Lincoln" - 16:05 "Boom Boom Bang Bang" - 14:38 "Sweet Breeze" - 5:05Disc Eight: Kalaparusha on the Edge of the Horizon - In Order to Survive "Aquixo Waiting at Dark Corridor" - 9:01 "Falling Promise" - 9:30 "Slipping Into the Light" - 6:40 "Shadows Arms Waving" - 15:06 "Theme for Rondo Hattan" - 16:50 "Prayer-Improv" - 5:53 "Great Spirit" - 6:44 William Parker - bass Lewis Barnes - trumpet Rob Brown - alto saxophone Hamid Drake - drumsWith: Billy Bang - violin Bobby Bradford - cornet James Spaulding - alto saxophone AMR Ensemble Massimo Pinca - bass Aina Rakotobe - baritone sax Ernie Odoom - voice Ludovic Lagana - trumpet Philippe Ehinger - bass clarinet Maurice Magnoni - soprano saxophone Manu Gesseney - alto saxophone Stéphane Métraux - tenor saxophone Eri Yamamoto - piano Leena Conquest - vocals Cooper-Moore - piano

Salt's dik-dik

Salt's dik-dik is a small antelope found in semidesert and thickets in the Horn of Africa, but marginally in northern Kenya and eastern Sudan. It is named after Henry Salt. Salt's dik-diks are 52–67 cm long, 33–41 cm high, weigh 2.5–4.0 kg. As in other dik-diks, the small, pointed horns are only present in the male, their colour varies depending on the subspecies. Together with the related silver dik-dik, this species forms the subgenus Madoqua in the genus Madoqua; the taxonomy of this subgenus is a matter of dispute. Today, the most used treatment is based on a review in 1978, but a different treatment was presented in a review in 1972. Following the review in 1978, the silver dik-dik is treated as a separate monotypic species, Salt's dik-dik has five subspecies: M. s. saltiana is found from northern Ethiopia to Eritrea and far eastern Sudan, is large with a reddish-grey back. M. s. hararensis is found in the Hararghe region in eastern Ethiopia, has a gingery back and dark red flanks. M. s. lawrenci is found in eastern and southeastern Somalia, has a silvery back and russet flanks.

M. s. phillipsi is found in northern Somalia, its back is grey and flanks are orange. M. s. swaynei is found in the Jubba Valley region of southern Ethiopia, southern Somalia, far northern Kenya. In 2003, each of the above was proposed to represent an evolutionary species, but at present, most maintain them as subspecies; the review in 1972 differed from the above. Under that treatment, three species are recognized in the subgenus Madoqua: Salt's sik-dik, Phillip's dik-dik, Swayne's dik-dik. Of these taxa, M. s. cordeauxi, M. p. gubanensis, M. p. erlangeri were considered invalid in 1978. Salt's dik-diks are shy animals, they are active at night and dusk to avoid the midday heat, are considered crepuscular. Dominant dik-diks flare their crests; the animals are most found in pairs and small groups, Salt's dik-diks eat leaves and shoots of acacia trees. Little is known of the species's reproductive behavior. Salt's dik-dik information Phillip's Dik-Dik at Al Wabra Wildlife Preserve

River Park Towers

River Park Towers or the Harlem River Park Towers are two 38-story, two 44-story residential buildings in the Bronx, New York City. Completed in 1975, they became the tallest buildings in the borough, ahead of Tracey Towers and the multiple high-rises encompassing Co-op City. No other building has in the Bronx has exceeded this height. Designed by Davis, Brody & Associates, both buildings were built with the intention to provide affordable, yet somewhat modern housing to the working class. In 1955, the Mitchell-Lama Housing Program was signed into law; this program encouraged subsidized housing and many such projects sprung up throughout the city and state. With companies created to specialize is such projects, loans of around 90% to 95% of each project cost was given. In addition, state bonds with low interest rates allowed rents to be be cut, while being adding modern amenities to the buildings built; this allowed the River Park Towers, two modern skyscrapers to be constructed while supporting middle-income tenants.

The area purchased was industrial, with the Metro-North Railroad's Hudson Line, the Major Deegan Expressway, the Harlem River for transportation. The land is not far from other high-rises, albeit far taller in height than its companions; the towers are located in Morris Heights, a residential neighborhood in the Bronx, at 10, 20, 30, 40 Richman Plaza. The Towers were sponsored by the New York State Urban Development Corporation, a public agency created by the act of the same name in 1968. Due to this sponsorship, work could commence here; the towers were completed in 1975. During the late 1990s, an era marked with rampant arson and drug use, with a shift of the management company, the living conditions started to deteriorate; the quality of living is poor for its tenants, with elevator issues and unfair rents. Many of the inhabitants feel discomfort. Drug rings and gangs are known to have done activity in the towers; as a result, Bronxites view the towers as unsafe and borderline impoverished