History of Chad
Chad the Republic of Chad, is a landlocked country in West Africa. It borders Libya to the north, Sudan to the east, the Central African Republic to the south and Nigeria to the southwest, Niger to the west. Due to its distance from the sea and its desert climate, the country is sometimes referred to as the "Dead Heart of Africa"; the territory now known as Chad possesses some of the richest archaeological sites in Africa. A hominid skull was found by Michel Brunet in 2002, in Borkou, more than 7 million years old, the oldest discovered anywhere in the world. In 1996 Michel Brunet had unearthed a hominid jaw which he named Australopithecus bahrelghazali, unofficially dubbed Abel, it was dated using Beryllium based Radiometric dating as living circa. 3.6 million years ago. During the 7th millennium BC, the northern half of Chad was part of a broad expanse of land, stretching from the Indus River in the east to the Atlantic Ocean in the west, in which ecological conditions favored early human settlement.
Rock art of the "Round Head" style, found in the Ennedi region, has been dated to before the 7th millennium BC and, because of the tools with which the rocks were carved and the scenes they depict, may represent the oldest evidence in the Sahara of Neolithic industries. Many of the pottery-making and Neolithic activities in Ennedi date back further than any of those of the Nile Valley to the east. In the prehistoric period, Chad was much wetter than it is today, as evidenced by large game animals depicted in rock paintings in the Tibesti and Borkou regions. Recent linguistic research suggests that all of Africa's major language groupings south of the Sahara Desert, i. e. the Afro-Asiatic, Nilo-Saharan and Niger–Congo phyla, originated in prehistoric times in a narrow band between Lake Chad and the Nile Valley. The origins of Chad's peoples, remain unclear. Several of the proven archaeological sites have been only studied, other sites of great potential have yet to be mapped. At the end of the 1st millennium AD, the formation of states began across central Chad in the sahelian zone between the desert and the savanna.
For the next 1,000 years, these states, their relations with each other, their effects on the peoples who lived in stateless societies along their peripheries dominated Chad's political history. Recent research suggests that indigenous Africans founded of these states, not migrating Arabic-speaking groups, as was believed previously. Nonetheless, Arabic-speaking or otherwise, played a significant role, along with Islam, in the formation and early evolution of these states. Most states began as kingdoms, in which the king was considered divine and endowed with temporal and spiritual powers. All states were militaristic, but none was able to expand far into southern Chad, where forests and the tsetse fly complicated the use of cavalry. Control over the trans-Saharan trade routes that passed through the region formed the economic basis of these kingdoms. Although many states rose and fell, the most important and durable of the empires were Kanem-Bornu and Ouaddai, according to most written sources.
The Kanem Empire originated in the 9th century AD to the northeast of Lake Chad. Historians agree. Toward the end of the 11th century the Sayfawa king Hummay, converted to Islam. In the following century the Sayfawa rulers expanded southward into Kanem, where was to rise their first capital, Njimi. Kanem's expansion peaked during the energetic reign of Mai Dunama Dabbalemi. By the end of the 14th century, internal struggles and external attacks had torn Kanem apart. Around 1396 the Bulala invaders forced Mai Umar Idrismi to abandon Njimi and move the Kanembu people to Bornu on the western edge of Lake Chad. Over time, the intermarriage of the Kanembu and Bornu peoples created a new people and language, the Kanuri, founded a new capital, Ngazargamu. Kanem-Bornu peaked during the reign of the outstanding statesman Mai Idris Aluma. Aluma is remembered for his military skills, administrative reforms, Islamic piety; the administrative reforms and military brilliance of Aluma sustained the empire until the mid-17th century, when its power began to fade.
By the early 19th century, Kanem-Bornu was an empire in decline, in 1808 Fulani warriors conquered Ngazargamu. Bornu survived, but the Sayfawa dynasty ended in 1846 and the Empire itself fell in 1893. In addition to Kanem-Bornu, two other states in the region and Ouaddai, achieved historical prominence. Baguirmi emerged to the southeast of Kanem-Bornu in the 16th century. Islam was adopted, the state became a sultanate. Absorbed into Kanem-Bornu, Baguirmi broke free in the 17th century, only to be returned to tributary status in the mid-18th century. Early in the 19th century, Baguirmi fell into decay and was threatened militarily by the nearby kingdom of Ouaddai. Although Baguirmi resisted, it accepted tributary status in order to obtain help from Ouaddai in putting down internal dissension; when the capital was burned in 1893, the sultan sought and received protectorate status from the French. Located in northeast of Baguirmi, Ouaddai was a non-Muslim kingdom that emerged in the 16th century as an offshoot of the state of Darfur.
Early in the 12th century, groups in the region rallied to Abd al-Karim Sabun, who overthrew the ruling Tunjur group, transforming Ouaddai in
Paramanga Ernest Yonli
Paramanga Ernest Yonli known as Ernest Paramanga Yonli, is a Burkinabé politician. He was Prime Minister from 6 November 2000 to 3 June 2007 and President of the Economic and Social Council of Burkina Faso until March 2015, he is a member of the Congress for Democracy and Progress party and a Grand Officer of the National Order of Burkina Faso. Yonli is a descendant of the last dynasty of the Gurma kingdom founded at the end of the 13th century by migrants from Kanem-Bornu, a region situated between modern Niger and Chad; this dynasty, confused with the history of the Gurma people, who live in Eastern Burkina Faso, can be subdivided into three lines, namely Yobri and Tansarga. Paramanga Ernest Yonli comes from one of the ruling families of the latter line of Tansarga. Gurma society is organised around a power centre made up of a founding family, ministers of the court and the people; this power centre is governed by democratic principles whereby the Chief or the King is appointed following an aligned vote by all adult citizens.
Paramanga Ernest Yonli’s great-grandfather and father each ruled Tansarga in the canton of Gobnangou in turn. Today his older brother remains the chief of the village of Tansarga, he obtained his mathematics and natural sciences baccalaureate with honours in 1976. At university level, following a degree in general economics at the University of Ouagadougou, he came top of his class in his Masters in economic sciences at the University of Benin in Togo completed his training with a PhD at the University of Groningen in the Netherlands, his thesis focused on "Farmer strategies in food security and cereal marketing: the role of cereal banks in the North Plateau-Central of Burkina Faso". Paramanga Ernest Yonli is a specialist in international economics and development and agricultural economics. Married to Safi, one of the daughters of former President Saye Zerbo, he is father to four children. After working in the field of management and business administration in France, he began a career as a researcher at the University of Ouagadougou from 1985 to 1994.
During this period, he became a member of an international multi-disciplinary research team, whose work focused on “risks in agriculture” in semi-arid areas. This international research body, whose headquarters is in Europe, brings together researchers from the European Union and ECOWAS countries like Ghana, Burkina Faso, Togo, the Ivory Coast, etc; the PhD thesis which he defended in 1997 in the Netherlands was a logical progression from the research results discovered by this international team in Burkina Faso in the provinces of Yatenga, Namentenga and Passoré. In October 1994, Paramanga Ernest Yonli was appointed, in addition to his role as researcher, as Director General of the National Fund for the Promotion of Employment, he was tasked with reorganising this body, aimed at promoting the self-employment of graduates from the country’s universities and professional training colleges. Upon receiving further funding, Yonli extended the Fund to the informal sector, he decentralised the Fund, opening branches in Burkina Faso's ten main towns after Ouagadougou and Bobo Dioulasso, thus demonstrating his sense of innovation and openness to modernisation.
In 1992, during the first general elections which saw the return of Burkina Faso to rule of law, Yonli was approached to head up the list of ODP/MT candidates in his constituency of Tapoa. He declined the offer for personal reasons, but led the campaign which saw his party go on to win two of the three contested seats. During the elections for the second government of the 4th Republic in 1997, whilst serving as Cabinet Leader for Prime Minister Kadré Désiré Ouedraogo from 1996, he headed up the list of candidates for the ruling party, which had since become the Congress for Democracy and Progress, he won the two contested seats in his constituency, would go on to do the same in 2002, in 2007 and in 2012. Although elected four times as a Member of the National Assembly, Yonli never took his seat as an MP, going on instead to occupy senior governmental posts throughout this period. Firstly, as Cabinet Leader for the Prime Minister in 1996 as mentioned above as Minister of Civil Service and of State Reform in 1997, as Prime Minister and Head of Government in 2000, a post which he would occupy for 7 years.
He thus holds the record for the longest time spent in senior political posts in his country. In 2007, he was appointed Ambassador for Burkina Faso to the United States, he would be the first Ambassador to bring together the entire Burkinabé community residing in the United States, as well as travelling to the University of Houston in Texas to visit one of the largest Burkinabé student communities in the United States. He returned to his home country in 2012 to become President of the Economic and Social Council, a post which he still occupies today; the leadership of Yonli was characterised by his innovation, his promotion of the fundamental values of Burkinabé society and by efficiency. When in September 1997, President Blaise COMPAORÉ appointed Yonli as Minister for Civil Service, he gave him the formidable task of overseeing the Global Public Administration Reform. Following a number of attempts at reform, both with social partners and with members of the National Assembly, this project had still not been completed in spite of the government’s overwhelming majority in the National Assembly.
It was the first challenge taken up by Yonli. Following the start of his a
Chad the Republic of Chad, is a landlocked country in north-central Africa. It is bordered by Libya to the north, Sudan to the east, the Central African Republic to the south and Nigeria to the southwest, Niger to the west, it is the second-largest in Central Africa in terms of area. Chad has several regions: a desert zone in the north, an arid Sahelian belt in the centre and a more fertile Sudanian Savanna zone in the south. Lake Chad, after which the country is named, is the largest wetland in Chad and the second-largest in Africa; the capital N'Djamena is the largest city. Chad's official languages are French. Chad is home to over 200 different linguistic groups; the most popular religion of Chad is Islam, followed by Christianity. Beginning in the 7th millennium BC, human populations moved into the Chadian basin in great numbers. By the end of the 1st millennium AD, a series of states and empires had risen and fallen in Chad's Sahelian strip, each focused on controlling the trans-Saharan trade routes that passed through the region.
France incorporated it as part of French Equatorial Africa. In 1960, Chad obtained independence under the leadership of François Tombalbaye. Resentment towards his policies in the Muslim north culminated in the eruption of a long-lasting civil war in 1965. In 1979 the rebels put an end to the south's hegemony. However, the rebel commanders fought amongst themselves, he was overthrown in 1990 by his general Idriss Déby. Since 2003 the Darfur crisis in Sudan has spilt over the border and destabilised the nation, with hundreds of thousands of Sudanese refugees living in and around camps in eastern Chad. An uneven inclusion into the global political economy as a site for colonial resource extraction, a global economic system that does not promote nor encourage the development of Chadian industrialization, the failure to support local agricultural production has meant that the majority of Chadians live in daily uncertainty and hunger. While many political parties are active, power lies in the hands of President Déby and his political party, the Patriotic Salvation Movement.
Chad remains plagued by recurrent attempted coups d'état. Since 2003, crude oil has become the country's primary source of export earnings, superseding the traditional cotton industry. In the 7th millennium BC, ecological conditions in the northern half of Chadian territory favored human settlement, the region experienced a strong population increase; some of the most important African archaeological sites are found in Chad in the Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti Region. For more than 2,000 years, the Chadian Basin has been inhabited by agricultural and sedentary people; the region became a crossroads of civilizations. The earliest of these were the legendary Sao, descendants of the Hyksos who conquered Ancient Egypt known for skills in designing weapons and artifacts, they are known for their oral histories. After a century of rule, the Sao fell to the Kanem Empire, the first and longest-lasting of the empires that developed in Chad's Sahelian strip by the end of the 1st millennium AD. Two other states in the region, Sultanate of Bagirmi and Wadai Empire emerged in the 16th and 17th centuries.
The power of Kanem and its successors was based on control of the trans-Saharan trade routes that passed through the region. These states, at least tacitly Muslim, never extended their control to the southern grasslands except to raid for slaves. In Kanem, about a third of the population were slaves. French colonial expansion led to the creation of the Territoire Militaire des Pays et Protectorats du Tchad in 1900. By 1920, France had secured full control of the colony and incorporated it as part of French Equatorial Africa. French rule in Chad was characterised by an absence of policies to unify the territory and sluggish modernisation compared to other French colonies; the French viewed the colony as an unimportant source of untrained labour and raw cotton. The colonial administration in Chad was critically understaffed and had to rely on the dregs of the French civil service. Only the Sara of the south was governed effectively; the educational system was affected by this neglect. After World War II, France granted Chad the status of overseas territory and its inhabitants the right to elect representatives to the National Assembly and a Chadian assembly.
The largest political party was the Chadian Progressive Party, based in the southern half of the colony. Chad was granted independence on 11 August 1960 with the PPT's leader, Sara François Tombalbaye, as its first president. Two years Tombalbaye banned opposition parties and established a one-party system. Tombalbaye's autocratic rule and insensitive mismanagement exacerbated inter-ethnic tensions. In 1965, Muslims in the north, led by the National Liberation Front of Chad, began a civil war. Tombalbaye was overthrown and killed in 1975. In 1979 the rebel factions led by Hissène Habré took the capital, all central authority in the country collapsed. Armed factions, many from the north's rebellion, contended for power; the disintegration of Chad caused the collapse of France's position in the country. Libya moved to fill the power vacuum and became involved in Chad
Chantal Compaoré, born Chantal Terrasson de Fougères is the Franco-Ivorian wife of former President Blaise Compaoré of Burkina Faso. Born in the Ivory Coast, after becoming the First Lady in 1987 she spent much of her time on charity work in Burkina Faso, her husband, who came to power in a bloody 1987 military coup, was overthrown in the 2014 Burkinabé uprising. Chantal Compaoré was subsequently forced to flee to her home country, going into exile together with her husband. Chantal Compaoré was born Chantal Terrasson de Fougères, in the Ivory Coast, her parents were Simone Vicens, who had roots in French Upper Volta and Dr. Jean Terrasson Kourouma, the extramarital son of the French colonial administrator Jean Henri Terrasson de Fougères, who served for many years as Governor of French Sudan, her family were related to that of Félix Houphouët-Boigny, the country's first President from 1960 until his death in 1993, who maintained policies of strong anti-communism and close relations with the former colonial power France, leading Ivory Coast as a single-party state.
Some sources have alleged that Chantal was the daughter of Houphouët-Boigny, who fathered a child out of wedlock in 1961. She met Captain Blaise Compaoré, at the time serving as Minister of State for Justice of Burkina Faso, on 15 January 1985, when the young military officer visited the Ivorian capital Abidjan and President Houphouët-Boigny. Compaoré had been a part of the Burkinabé government for one and a half years, since he launched a military coup against Jean-Baptiste Ouedraogo in what was the Republic of Upper Volta on 4 August 1983 together with other members of the "Communist Officer's Group". After the coup he put his close friend Captain Thomas Sankara in the position of President; the two had been involved in the 1980 coup against Saye Zerbo. Blaise and Chantal married on 29 June 1985, five months after first meeting. According to most sources, the marriage had been arranged in one way or another by President Houphouët-Boigny, who wanted an ally within the revolutionary left-wing government of Burkina Faso, with which he clashed at the time.
According to Dr. Valère Somé, one-time Minister of Higher Education and Research and a prominent ideologue of Sankara's "Democratic and Popular Revolution", Chantal Compaoré clashed with the President, once publicly referring to his "pretend revolution" during a dinner party after not being allowed by Sankara to serve him champagne. On 15 October 1987, after growing tensions between the two, Thomas Sankara was gunned down in a military coup orchestrated by Blaise Compaoré. President Félix Houphouët-Boigny was involved in the coup, there was possible French involvement. Blaise took the position of President, her predecessor, Mariam Sankara, fled the country with her two sons. President Compaoré would soon retract most of the many reforms made by Sankara. Not long afterwards, Désirée "Daisy" Delafosse – the widow of Adolphus Tolbert, "foster-sister" of Chantal and god-daughter of President Houphouët-Boigny – arrived in Burkina Faso, her husband was the son of President William R. Tolbert, Jr. of Liberia and had been murdered in 1980 by the forces of Samuel Doe, who killed the older Tolbert in a coup.
Her presence in the presidential entourage, the close connections between Houphouët-Boigny and the Compaorés, was a contributing factor in the cold Liberian-Burkinabé relations during the following years, as well as Burkina Faso's military involvement in the First Liberian Civil War, on the side of Blaise's close friend Charles Taylor. Blaise Compaoré would go on to hold the Burkinabé presidency for 27 years transitioning it from a pure military dictatorship to a multi-party state, rated an "authoritarian regime" in 2012 by the Democracy Index, with restricted political freedoms, political corruption, cases of state-sponsored violence, among other things; the country remained one of the poorest and most undeveloped in the world. First Lady Chantal Compaoré spent much of her husband's presidency engaging in charity and abroad, for example founding the Burkina Association for the Protection of Children in 1989 renamed the Suka Foundation in 1997, which works with aiding children through healthcare and education improvements.
In 2002 her foundation and that of Chantal Biya, First Lady of Cameroon, joined together in a campaign to halt the spread of HIV/AIDS. First Lady Compaoré travelled extensively abroad, sometimes together with the President on official diplomatic state visits, such as visiting the White House and meeting with U. S. President Barack Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama in August 2014, she wrote extensively on human development issues, for example publishing a 2009 editorial in The Guardian, praising President Hosni Mubarak of Egypt and President Yoweri Museveni of Uganda for their stances on female genital mutilation and calling for more work to be done against the practice in Africa. During his presidency, Blaise Compaoré faced many challenges from an dissatisifed and tense population, prominently the 2011 Burkinabé protests which saw several months of army mutinies, street protests, labour strikes, arson attacks, so on. Blaise Compaoré fled the capital of Ouagadougou, taking shelter in his hometown Ziniaré – it is unknown if his wife followed him there.
The protests were quelled by a combination of force, but marked a turning point in the decade-long Compoaré regime. On 28 October 2014, after President Compaoré tried to lift the constitutional limit on his presidential terms ahead of the coming election in 2014, the 2014 Burkinabé uprising broke out. Mass protests erupted once more inspired by the memory of Thomas Sankara, with the
Tertius Zongo was the Prime Minister of Burkina Faso from June 2007 to April 2011. Zongo was born in Koudougou, he has an extensive background in economics and accounting. He became Minister Delegate for Budget and Planning, under the Minister of the Economy and Planning, in June 1995. In February 1996 he became Government Spokesman in addition to his role as Minister Delegate, he remained Government Spokesman until November 2000, his portfolio was changed to that of Minister Delegate for Finance and Economic Development, under the Prime Minister, in September 1996. He remained in the latter position until November 2000. On 14 February 2002 he became Ambassador to the United States, serving in that post until he was named Prime Minister in June 2007. Zongo served as governor for Burkina Faso to the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the African Development Bank and the Islamic Bank of Development. In 1992, he worked as director general of Cooperation at the Ministry of Finances and Planning and as chief of the Department of Multilateral Cooperation from 1988 to 1992.
He has been a professor of accounting, business economy and financial analysis at the University of Ouagadougou in Burkina Faso. Zongo holds a master's degree in economic sciences from the Institut d'Administration des Entreprises in France. Following the May 2007 parliamentary election, Zongo was appointed Prime Minister by President Blaise Compaore on 4 June 2007, his government, composed of 34 members, was appointed on 10 June. Zongo took office as Prime Minister on 11 June. Amidst serious unrest, Compaore appointed Luc-Adolphe Tiao to replace Zongo on 18 April 2011. Zongo was subsequently appointed to the Board of Directors of SEMAFO, a Canadian mining company with operations in Burkina Faso and other West African countries, in May 2012
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
2014 Burkinabé uprising
The Burkinabé uprising was a series of demonstrations and riots in Burkina Faso in October 2014 that spread to multiple cities. They began in response to attempts at changing the constitution to allow President Blaise Compaoré to run again and extend his 27 years in office. Pressure for political change came in particular from the country's youth. Following a tumultuous day on 30 October, which included the involvement of former Defence Minister Kouamé Lougué and the burning of the National Assembly and other government buildings as well as the ruling Congress for Democracy and Progress party's headquarters, Compaoré dissolved the government and declared a state of emergency before fleeing to Côte d'Ivoire with the support of President Alassane Ouattara. General Honoré Nabéré Traoré announced that a transitional government would run the country until an election within 12 months. After another day of mass protests and refusing to resign, after mounting domestic pressure Compaoré resigned from his 27-year presidency on 31 October and Traoré took over as the interim head of state.
However, Lieutenant Colonel Yacouba Isaac Zida staked a claim to be interim head of state citing Traoré's unpopularity. A statement by military chiefs asserted. A coalition of unnamed opposition parties rejected the military takeover. Further protests were called for the morning of 2 November, but were smaller yet there was at least one casualty amidst a police response; the African Union gave the country a fortnight to end military rule from 3 November. By mid-November, a framework was agreed upon unanimously for a transitional executive and legislative administration. Following an amendment in 2000, the constitution limits presidents to two terms of five years. However, the restrictions were not applied retroactively, allowing President Blaise Compaoré, in office since 1987, to run for a further two terms and be re-elected in 2005 and 2010. In regards to the 2015 presidential election, Compaoré tried to extend his 27 years in power by enacting a constitutional amendment to lift term limits; as a result, the opposition called for protests against the measure, sitting in parliament.
Some people suggested the move could "spark an uprising."The Burkinabé Spring called for change amid a stagnant economy and a non-responsive state, met with some concessions. The events magnified a divide, distrust, between the regular army and the special units, such as the Regiment of Presidential Security. Protests started in late October. Unnamed opposition called for a blockade of parliament. On 28 October, there were street battles during an anti-government rally by hundreds of thousands of demonstrators; the next day, banks and markets reopened. Movement of People for Progress member Pargui Emile Paré said that "one thing is certain: we'll march on the parliament." On 29 October, a mass rally accompanied by street battles took place against a "constitutional coup" involving hundreds of thousands of people. The most serious events occurred on 30 October with the gathering of tens of thousands of people. Protesters compared Compaoré to the Ebola virus amidst the 2014 West Africa Ebola outbreak.
Police used tear gas to deter the demonstrators, yet they broke through police lines to torch government buildings, including the city hall building, the ruling Congress for Democracy and Progress party's headquarters. The crowd headed to the presidential palace, while the military fired rubber bullets at about 1,500 people storming the National Assembly of Burkina Faso. Protesters burnt documents and stole computer equipment, while cars outside the building were set ablaze. Parts of the parliament building were on fire, including the Speaker Soungalo Ouattara's office, but the main chamber was untouched; the presidential guard fired on civilians charging into the home of the President's brother, François Compaoré, leading to at least three deaths. The state broadcaster RTB's building for its radio unit, Maison de la Radio, television were stormed. At the television unit's building, protesters posed on the set of the evening news programme, while soldiers were deployed outside the Maison de la Radio with an armored personnel carrier to defend it from the crowd.
Five people were reported killed during the day. Some soldiers, including former Defence Minister General Kouamé Lougué, joined the protests. Unnamed opposition activists claimed; the BBC reported that in an area where MPs live two houses were burning and smoke was billowing from two or three more, while Hotel Azalai was on fire. State-television was off-air, while the 3G network and SMS services were blocked, but internet access and telephones were available. Violent protests occurred in the country's second largest city Bobo-Dioulasso, including the toppling of statues and the local CDP headquarters, in Ouahigouya, in the north. Ouagadougou airport was closed and all arriving and departing flights were canceled until further notice. Many MPs fled to an unnamed nearby hotel. Opposition MP Ablasse Ouedraogo said: "I was inside. I was put in secure place by security people of the parliament. Now it is difficult to say what happens next but things are out of control because the demonstrators do not listen to anyone."
General Honoré Nabéré Traoré imposed a night curfew. Following Diabré's call, the next day, protesters gathered at Ouagadougou's central Place de la Nation and outside the army headquarters amidst reports of a tense standoff at the latter with chants of "fulfill your responsibilities or we will do so ourselves." By the end of the day Compaoré had resigned and, though there