The Bland–Allison Act referred to as the Grand Bland Plan of 1878, was an act of United States Congress requiring the U. S. Treasury to put it into circulation as silver dollars. Though the bill was vetoed by President Rutherford B. Hayes, the Congress overrode Hayes's veto on February 1878 to enact the law; the five-year depression following the Panic of 1873 caused cheap-money advocates, to join with silver-producing interests in urging a return to bimetallism, the use of both silver and gold as a standard. Coupled with Senator William B. Allison of Iowa, they agreed to a proposal that allowed silver to be purchased at market rates, metals to be minted into silver dollars, required the US Treasury to purchase between $2 million to $4 million silver each month from western mines. President Rutherford B. Hayes, who held interests in industrials and banking, vetoed the measure, overturned by Congress; as a result, the Hayes administration purchased the limited amount of silver each month. This act helped restore bimetallism with silver both supporting the currency.
However, gold remained favored over silver, paving way for the gold standard. The free-silver movement of the late 19th century advocated the unlimited coinage of silver, which would have resulted in inflationary monetary policy. In 1873, Congress had removed the use of silver dollar from the list of authorized coins under the Coinage Act of 1873. Although the Bland–Allison Act of 1878 directed the Treasury to purchase silver from the "best-western" miners, President Grover Cleveland repealed the act in 1893. Advocates of free silver included owners of silver mines in the West, farmers who believed an inclusion of silver would increase crop prices, debtors who believed would alleviate their debts. Although the free silver movement ended, the debate of inflation and monetary policy continues to this day; the Fourth Coinage Act acknowledged the gold standard over silver. Those who advocated for silver labeled this act as the Crime of'73; as a result of demonetized silver, gold became the only metallic standard in the United States and became the default standard.
The price of gold was more stable than that of silver due to silver discoveries in Nevada and other places in the West, the price of silver to gold declined from 16-to-1 in 1873 to nearly 30-to-1 by 1893. The term limping bimetallism describes this problem; the U. S. government ceded to pressure from the western mining states and the Bland–Allison Act went into effect in 1878, replaced by the Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890. The law was replaced in 1890 by the similar Sherman Silver Purchase Act, which in turn was repealed by Congress in 1893; these were two instances where the United States attempted to establish bimetallic standards in the long run. Western miners and debtors regarded the Bland–Allison Act as an insufficient measure to enforce unlimited coinage of silver, but opponents repealed the act and advocated for the gold standard; the effect of the Bland–Allison act was blunted by the minimal purchase of silver required by the Hayes administration. Although the act was a near turning point for bimetallism, gold continued to be favored over the bimetallism standard.
Throughout 1860 to 1871, several attempts were made by the Treasury to establish the bimetallic standard by having gold and silver franc. However, the discovery of silver led to an influx of supply; the eventual removal of the bimetallic standard, including the Bland–Allison Act and the acceptance of the gold standard formed the monetary stability in the late 19th century. The limitation placed on the supply of new notes and the Treasury control over the issue of new notes allowed for economic stability. Prior to the acceptance, the devaluation of silver forced local governments into a financial turmoil. In addition, there was a need for money supply to increase as the credit system expanded and large banks established themselves across states. Specie Payment Resumption Act Allen, Larry; the Encyclopedia of Money. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. Pp. 48–50. ISBN 978-1598842517. Cynthia Northrup, ed; the American economy: a historical encyclopedia p. 28
The 2014 Limerick Senior Hurling Championship was the 120th staging of the Limerick Senior Hurling Championship since its establishment by the Limerick County Board in 1887. The championship began on 2 May 2014 and ended on 19 October 2014. Na Piarsaigh were the defending champions. However, they were defeated in the final by Kilmallock, who won by 1-15 to 0-14. Na Piarsaigh had earlier defeated Kilmallock in the group stage. Knockainey and Granagh-Ballingarry were relegated from the championship. A major restructuring of the Limerick Senior Hurling Championship at the end of 2013 resulted in the number of participating teams for 2014 being reduced from sixteen to twelve; because of this Garryspillane, Hospital-Herbertstown and Croom regraded to the newly created Limerick Premier Intermediate Hurling Championship for 2014. 2014 Limerick Senior Hurling Championship Group 1 results 2014 Limerick Senior Hurling Championship Group 2 results
Ernabel Castro Demillo is an American television journalist. She is the host and producer of CUNY TV's monthly magazine show, "Asian American Life", which debuted on June 10, 2013; the premiere show was nominated for a NY News Emmy for Best Community Affairs/Public Programming in 2014. Demillo was nominated for a New York Emmy for Best Historical/Cultural Segment for Asian American Life in 2017 for her feature "The Ties that Bind: Filipinos in New York". In 2017, she was the inaugural recipient of the Frank LoMonte Ethics in Journalism Award, given someone who performs "in an outstanding ethical manner demonstrating the ideals of CMA’s Code of Ethical Behavior." Demillo was honored for fighting against her employer Saint Peter's University when they attempted to censor the Pauw Wow the student-run newspaper she advised. Demillo was born Ernabel Castro Demillo in 1965, her parents are father Harriman E. Demillo and mother Flordeliza, she has a younger brother Emil Castro Demillo. and sister, Emiliza.
She received her M. S. in Journalism from Northwestern University's Medill School of Journalism and her B. A. in journalism and international relations from the University of Southern California. Since 2011 she has worked for CUNY-TV's Emmy-nominated science magazine show, "Science and U", her segment on Bash the Trash, an eco-friendly musical group, was nominated for a New York Emmy in 2013 for Best Environment Program. Demillo has worked as a news reader for Court-TV and reporter for MSNBC. From 1996-2005 she was a reporter and fill-anchor for FOX-5 New York's morning show, Good Day New York. Prior to her move to New York, Demillo was a reporter for the CBS affiliate, KOVR-13 News in Sacramento, a reporter for the now shuttered Orange County News Channel in Orange County, California. Demillo is a journalism professor at Saint Peter's University in New Jersey. In August 1997, Demillo have since divorced, she is in a relationship and has a child with former ABC Newscaster and now WPIX news anchor John Muller, resides in Tinton Falls, New Jersey with their daughter, born May 7, 2003