click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Blaxploitation

Blaxploitation or blacksploitation is an ethnic subgenre of the exploitation film that emerged in the United States during the early 1970s. The films, while popular, suffered backlash for disproportionate numbers of stereotypical film characters showing bad or questionable motives, including roles as criminals. However, the genre does rank among the first in which black characters and communities are the heroes and subjects of film and television, rather than sidekicks, villains, or victims of brutality; the genre's inception coincides with the rethinking of race relations in the 1970s. Blaxploitation films were aimed at an urban African-American audience, but the genre's audience appeal soon broadened across racial and ethnic lines. Hollywood realized the potential profit of expanding the audiences of blaxploitation films across those racial lines. Variety credited Sweet Sweetback's Baadasssss Song and the less radical, Hollywood-financed film Shaft with the invention of the blaxploitation genre.

Blaxploitation films were the first to feature soundtracks of funk and soul music. Upercharged, bad-talking romanticized melodramas about Harlem superstuds, the pimps, the private eyes and the pushers who more or less singlehandedly make whitey's corrupt world safe for black pimping, black private-eyeing and black pushing; when set in the Northeast or West Coast, blaxploitation films are set in poor urban neighborhoods. Pejorative terms for white characters, such as "cracker" and "honky," are used. Blaxploitation films set in the South deal with slavery and miscegenation; the genre's films are bold in their statements and utilize violence, drug trade, other shocking qualities to provoke the audience. The films portray black protagonists overcoming "The Man" or emblems of the white majority that had oppressed the black community in the preceding decades. Blaxploitation includes several subtypes, including crime, action/martial arts, horror, comedy, coming-of-age/courtroom drama, musical. Following the example set by Sweet Sweetback's Baadasssss Song, many blaxploitation films feature funk and soul jazz soundtracks with heavy bass, funky beats, wah-wah guitars.

These soundtracks are notable for complexity, not common to the radio-friendly funk tracks of the 1970s. They often feature a rich orchestration which included flutes and violins. A definition of blaxploitation is included in "The Oxford History of World Cinema" by Nowell-Smith: “These films were set in the contemporary urban milieu, they romanticized the iconography of the black ghetto — its subcultural styles in dress, speech and attitudes — and glorified the ghetto as a kind of noble jungle; the films contained a lot of sex and violence, their heroes were invariably shown coming out on top in confrontations with the white establishment.” Following the popularity of these films in the 1970s, movies within other genres began to feature black characters with stereotypical blaxploitation characteristics, such as the Harlem underworld characters in the James Bond film Live and Let Die, Jim Kelly's character in Enter the Dragon, Fred Williamson's character in The Inglorious Bastards. Afeni Shakur claimed that every aspect of culture in the 1960s and 1970s was influenced by the Black Power movement.

Sweet Sweetback's Baadasssss Song was one of the first films to incorporate black power ideology and permit black actors to be the stars of their own narratives, rather than being relegated to the typical roles available to them. Films such as Shaft brought the black experience to film in a new way, allowing black political and social issues, ignored in cinema to be explored. Shaft and its protagonist, John Shaft, brought African American culture to the mainstream world. Sweetback and Shaft were both influenced by the black power movement, containing Marxist themes and social consciousness alongside the genre-typical images of sex and violence. Knowing that film could bring about social and cultural change, the Black Power movement seized the genre to highlight black socioeconomic struggles in the 1970s. Films such as Superfly softened the rhetoric of black power, encouraging resistance within the capitalist system rather than a radical transformation of society. Superfly did, still embrace the black nationalist movement in its argument that black and white authority cannot coexist easily.

The genre's role in exploring and shaping race relations in the United States has been controversial. Some held that the blaxploitation trend was a token of black empowerment, but others accused the movies of perpetuating common white stereotypes about black people; as a result, many called for the end of the genre. The NAACP, Southern Christian Leadership Conference, National Urban League joined to form the Coalition Against Blaxploitation, their influence in the late 1970s contributed to the genre's demise. Literary critic Addison Gayle wrote in 1974, "The best example of this kind of nihilism / irresponsibility are the Black films.

Pathans in Bihar

The Pathans of Bihar in India are said to have settled in the region from the 13th century CE onwards. These Pashtun people are known as Pathan in the Hindustani language. Another common name for the community is Khan, which a common surname. Lohani Pashtuns ruled a princely state within Bihar; the name Pathan in Bihar refers to two distinct but related Muslim communities, the Nasli and Divani. The former are descendants of various Pashtun settlers in Bihar, while the latter are Hindu converts to Islam from Rajput and Bhumihar castes, they are considered one of the Ashraf communities meaning they have a powerful status among the Muslims of the state. Sher Shah Suri was born in Rohtas district; the Pathan proper of Bihar belong to eleven sub-groups, the main ones being the Suri, Yousafzai, Afridi, Bettani, Tanoli and Ghori, all of whom are well known Pashtun tribes. Most of them have intermarried into local Muslim communities and are undistinguishable from local population, but there's an exclusivist and superior sense of tribalism and Casteism in some erstwhile landowner families though those are now involved in small farming.

They now speak Hindustani as well as local dialects such as Bhojpuri. Like other communities in the region, the Pathan are endogamous, tend to marry close kin, they cross cousin marriages. Those who live in the larger cities, such as Patna, Darbhanga. Many villages of Yusufzai and Sherwani Pathans are found in Mithilanchal Darbhanga as well as Sitamarhi and near Brauni Refinery area. Many villages of Kodarma Jainagar and there nearby area Pathan are found

Aceria fraxinivora

Aceria fraxinivora known as the cauliflower gall mite and the ash key gall, causes the growths, known as galls, found on the hanging seeds or "keys" of the common ash tree. The mite attacks the flower clusters soon after they open; the individual gall is no more than 2 cm across but when grouped together can be impressive as they present a sizable irregular deformity formed from the fused and swollen flower stalks. The gall has been found on buds, leaf stalks, twigs or trunks, it is brown when formed black, but green at first. Once the leaves have fallen, the galls, filled with mites, are obvious and may remain for a year or more. Leaflets or entire leaves and petioles may be involved, with additional distortions such as thickening and leaf lamina rolling when the tree is infested; every inflorescence may be involved, the reproductive capacity therefore being reduced, however some seeds may still develop amongst the galls. The cause of the gall are mites female, the eggs being viable without fertilization.

These gall-mites are specialist species. The ash key gall is widespread in Britain. In France and the Netherlands they are known as cauliflower galls. Other acarine gall-mites, aphids and midges are found within the galls. Darlington, Arnold. Plant Galls in Colour. Poole: Blandford Press. ISBN 0-7137-0748-8. Hancy, Rex; the Study of Plant Galls in Norfolk. Norfolk & Norwich Naturalists' Society. Redfern, Margaret & Shirley, Peter. British Plant Galls. Identification of Galls on Plants and Fungi. Shrewsbury: FSC Publications. ISBN 978 1 85153 284 1. Natural History Museum

Iraqi Communist Party (Central Command) (Widhat al-Qa'idah)

Widhat al-Qa'idah was a fraction that emerged within the Iraqi Communist Party, named after a publication founded in the mid-1970s by a Central Committee member of the party, Adil Abdul-Mahdi. The general secretary of the Iraqi Communist Party, Najim Mahmud, accused the Widhat al-Qa'idah group of breaching party discipline. Mahdi and is associates; the Widhat al-Qa'idah group responded by claiming that they were the legitimate leadership of the Iraqi Communist Party, declared Mahmud expelled from the party. There were now two separate parties called Iraqi Communist Party, the party led by the general secretary Mahmud and the party led by Widha al-Qa'idah group; when the Widhat al-Qa'idah group had been expelled, they began to criticize the leadership of Mahmud. A sizeable section of the party cadres sided with them. Moreover, they were able to recruit new followers in the Iraqi diaspora in France and UK; the publication of Widhat al-Qa'idah, but the group began publishing their own version of Tariq ash-Sha'ab.

In September 1976 the Widhat al-Qa'idah group held a party conference, comparable to a party congress. At the conference most of the more important members of pre-split the Iraqi Communist Party participated, as well as some independent Iraqi Marxists. Participants consisted both of party activists living inside those in exile. Instead of a general secretary's report, the editorial board of Widhat al-Qa'idah presented their report to the conference; the conference elected a Central Organising Board. The conference decided to continue the publication of Widhat al-Qa'idah, initiate a Kurdish publication as well. After the congress the party began publishing an internal party organ, al-Kadir ash-Shiu'i; the party reaffirmed its Marxist-Leninist foundations. It stated, it blamed the'reformist' leadership of the Iraqi Communist Party for enabling the Baathists to seize and remain in power in Iraq. Moreover, the party condemned the Soviet Union. On the issue of Arab nationalism, the analysis of the party stated that the Iraqi communists traditionally had failed to grasp the anti-imperialist characterists of Arab nationalism.

The party issued support for the Kurdish right of self-determination, called for communists to lead popular armed struggle in Kurdistan. After the September 1976 conference the party continued to expand its membership in Britain and France. In 1978 and early 1979, sectors of the party began to adopt the Three Worlds Theory of Mao Zedong. In 1979, the Baathist regime offered them an alliance. At the time the Baathists were in the process of breaking their alliance with the Iraqi Communist Party; the invitation sparked a split in the party, the party was divided into two separate parties. Both claimed to the legitimate heirs of the legacy of the party and both of them publishing their own version of Widhat al-Qa'idah. One of the groups now adhered to the Three Worlds Theory. Both groups disappeared in the early 1980s. Adil Mahdi and his followers turned into Shi'a Islamists supporting the Iranian president Abolhassan Banisadr and supporting the line of Ayatollah Khomeini. Mahdi became Vice President of Iraq

Frank Bass

Frank M. Bass was an American academic in the field of marketing research and marketing science, he was the creator of the Bass diffusion model that describes the adoption of new products and technologies by first-time buyers. He died on December 1, 2006. Bass grew up in the small town of Texas, he served in the United States Navy for two years. He received his B. B. A. from Southwestern University in 1949, his M. B. A. from the University of Texas in 1950. After completing his M. B. A. at Texas, he became interested in marketing issues. He worked as a teaching assistant and assistant professor in marketing while earning his Ph. D. at the University of Illinois in 1954. In 1957 he became an assistant professor in marketing at the University of Texas. In 1959, Bass was made a Fellow at Harvard's Institute of Basic Mathematics For Application to Business; this exposure to advanced analytic methods influenced his research for the next 47 years. In 1961 he became a professor of industrial administration at the Graduate School of Purdue University.

In 1969 he published the paper on modeling consumer goods, which became known as the Bass diffusion model. The model describes the process of how new products and services are adopted as the outcome of an interaction between users and potential users; the Bass Model is a well-known empirical generalization in marketing, along with the Dirichlet, is cited in published works. In 1974 he was appointed as Loeb Distinguished Professor of Marketing at the Krannert Graduate School of Management of Purdue University. From 1972-75, Bass served as the Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Marketing Research. In 1982 he returned to Texas when he was appointed Eugene McDermott Professor of Management at the University of Texas, Dallas. In 1986 Bass was awarded the Paul D. Converse Award. In 1990 he was awarded the American Marketing Association/Richard D. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Distinguished Marketing Educator Award, he was elected to the 2002 class of Fellows of the Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences.

In 2005 Bass was awarded an honorary Doctorate by the University of South Australia, the Ehrenberg-Bass Institute for Marketing Science at the University was named in his honor. His research contributions over a 52-year career in academics and private consulting ranged over a broad set of marketing issues. Using models and advanced statistical techniques adapted from economics and the social sciences, he made fundamental contributions that changed the way marketing was taught in universities and applied in business · Bass is one of the most cited marketing researchers in professional journals and other scholarly publications Bass diffusion model Product forecasting Frank M. Bass Official Website Ehrenberg-Bass Institute Biographical Information List of publications Diffusion of Innovations, 5th Edition, by Everett M. Rogers and Schuster, 16 August 2003 - 576 pages, ISBN 0743258231 Predicting the speed of technology introduction Interactive Bass Diffusion Model Biography of Frank Bass from the Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences

Fruto Chamorro

Fruto Chamorro Pérez was the 30th and 31st President of Nicaragua between 1 April 1853 and 30 April 1854 and between 30 April 1854 and 12 March 1855 now with the actual title of President, the first thirty being called Supreme Directors. Born in Guatemala City in 1804 to Bayardo Paez, he was known as Fruto Pérez, his father, Pedro José Chamorro Argüello, had come to Guatemala from Nicaragua for graduate studies. Fruto attended school there, his father returned to Nicaragua after completing his studies and married Josefa Margarita Alfaro Monterroso in 1814. They had six children, but Fruto was subsequently considered a member of this family, based on strategic needs related to administration of the family resources, for which the administrator was expected to be at least 25 years of age, he was acknowledged by his father shortly before the latter's death in 1824, his stepmother insisted he use the name Fruto Chamorro Pérez. The death of his father forced Fruto to leave his studies and go to Nicaragua to assume responsibility for the family and to manage the abundant inheritance of his father.

His half brothers and sisters, Pedro Joaquín, Carmen and Fernando grew under his guardianship. Fruto's father was one of the founders of the Conservative Party of Nicaragua, centered on the city of Granada, he became an activist of the Party. In 1836, he became a representative in the State Assembly. From 1839 to 1842, he was a Senator of the State of Nicaragua. In 1842, an attempt was made to reestablish a union of Central American states as the Central American Confederation, in accord with the "Pact of Chinandega", it was to include El Salvador, Guatemala and Nicaragua. In 1843, Fruto Chamorro was appointed Supreme Director of the Confederation junta, he took up residence in San Miguel, El Salvador. However, Guatemala withdrew, Fruto was instrumental in preventing a war over the decision; the nascent Confederation collapsed in 1844. In 1845, Fruto Chamorro was appointed Prefect and Military Governor of the Department of Granada, Minister of the Treasury. In November 1851, during the administration of Supreme Director Laureano Pineda, he became Commander-in-chief of the Army.

Fruto Chamorro himself became Supreme Director of Nicaragua on 1 April 1853. And with support of the conservative oligarchy, he transferred the government headquarters to Granada, the Conservative stronghold, he convened a Constituent Assembly on 20 January 1854, to promulgate a new Constitution during the absence of the majority of the western representatives expelled from the country by the government's move to Granada. In March, Fruto Chamorro relinquished his title as Supreme Director and with acquiescence of the Assembly, named himself President of Nicaragua; the Liberals saw this as a restoration to power of the provincial oligarchy, continuation of a feudal economic system, the diminished possibility of an alliance of all Central American reactionary forces as well. They initiated a civil war by establishing their own government in León in May 1854, with the support of the governments of Honduras and El Salvador. A force under the command of General Máximo Jerez was sent to besiege Granada.

In preparation for the siege, President Chamorro placed himself at the headquarters of the Army and left executive authority with his deputy, José María Estrada. His defenses for Granada were successful and subsequent attacks failed to take the city. A victim of dysentery, Fruto Chamorro died at his hacienda outside Granada on 12 March 1855. A few months the city was taken in a surprise attack by the filibuster William Walker, he was married to Mercedes Avilés... without issue. Nicaragua America Central, Presidents Genealogia Familia Chamorro, por El Dr. Emilio Alvarez Lejarza, Talleres Tipograficos y Litograficos de la Editorial Catolica, S. A. Managua, Nic.-C. A. Recorrido Historico de las Principales Figuras de la Familia Chamorro, Emilio Alvarez Lejarza, Revista Consevadora del Pensamiento Centroamericano, Vol. XIX - No. 91