True That is the debut album by Canadian actor and musician Michael Cera. It was self-released on August 8, 2014, via Bandcamp, recorded and mixed by Cera; the album has garnered positive reviews from music critics, with many comparing it to the work of Elliott Smith and other indie folk artists. However, some critics have expressed reservations about the album's length across 21 tracks. Amy Zimmerman of The Daily Beast gave the album a positive review, stating "a mix of instrumental tracks, lovely ballads and solemn covers, true, music to make sweet, twee love to... The sound is all melancholy and adorable". On the other hand, Zimmerman felt that the album seemed "almost infinite" due to its full length of over 50 minutes. Vulture.com's Jesse David Fox cited the album's "pleasant instrumentals". 7BitArcade's Aaron Kent praised Cera's "wistful vocals", describing them "a broken Elliott Smith trying to channel Beck". Chris DeVille of Stereogum called true that "a charming listen", adding that "ts lo-fi folk songs and jazzy piano ditties remind me—in spirit, at least—of Badly Drawn Boy’s threadbare debut The Hour of Bewilderbeast".
Ryan Reed of Rolling Stone chose "Too Much", "2048" and "Clay Pigeons" as three of the album's highlights. All tracks written except where noted. Michael Cera - acoustic and electric guitars, vocals, keyboards, percussion, engineering, mixing true that on Bandcamp
Walls (Kings of Leon album)
Walls is the seventh studio album by American rock band Kings of Leon. It was released on October 2016, by RCA Records; the album title is an acronym for We Are Like Love Songs, which continues the band's unwritten rule of having five-syllable album titles. Following a New Year's Eve show in Nashville, Nathan Followill said the band was aiming to release album seven in 2016: "We've started pre-production in our studio for the next record, but the main thing on the calendar for 2016 is getting the record finished, and the whole press machine kicks up and doing press for the record." Caleb Followill added, "We enjoy this part of the process. There's a lot of work that goes into it and it can get stressful at times, but we're all in a good place and we're having fun with it and we're all excited to do something new." The album was recorded at Henson Studios in Los Angeles, with Caleb saying the band was looking for inspiration: "We might just try to get a little change of scenery. Our first two albums we recorded in L.
A. so we're going to try to go back and see if it inspires us," he said. "If it doesn't, we always have a studio at home, so we can always come back." In August, the band announced that album title would be We Are Like Love Songs, that it would be released on October 14, 2016. On September 10, 2016, Kings of Leon headlined at the Saturday evening Lollapalooza Europe music festival, in Berlin, which featured songs from all their albums, plus the new "Waste a Moment". Kings of Leon performed "Waste a Moment" on Today and The Tonight Show Starring Jimmy Fallon on October 14, 2016; the Walls Tour began on January 12, 2017. On January 18, 2017, Kings of Leon performed "Reverend" on The Tonight Show Starring Jimmy Fallon; the album's lead single, "Waste a Moment", was released on September 9, 2016. The song peaked at number one on Billboard's Alternative Songs chart, their first chart topper since 2010; the second official single, "Reverend", was sent to alternative radio on February 7, 2017. It was released as the album's third promotional single on October 6, 2016.
The third official single, "Around the World", was sent to alternative radio on September 19, 2017. It was released as the album's second promotional single on September 29, 2016. Metacritic, which uses a weighted average, assigned a score of 62 out of 100 based on 23 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews". Dave Simpson of The Guardian said that with the album, the band returned to its sound from eight years ago. Rolling Stone's Will Hermes admired producer Markus Dravs's "job of translating Followill's signature sound slurred delivery and the band's muscular jangle into thicker arrangements, though the rest feel generic." Walls debuted at number one on the Billboard 200 with 77,000 album-equivalent units, of which 68,000 were traditional album sales. The next week, the album fell from number one to 20, making it the 10th largest drop from number one on the Billboard 200 as of December 2016, it was the biggest drop of the year until Bon Jovi released This House Is Not for Sale in November 2016.
It is Kings of Leon's first number one album in the US, besting the number two peak of Mechanical Bull and Come Around Sundown. It debuted at number one in Ireland, New Zealand, the UK. All tracks written by Nathan Followill, Jared Followill and Matthew Followill. Kings of Leon Caleb Followill – lead and backing vocals, percussion Matthew Followill – backing vocals, percussion Jared Followill – backing vocals, bass guitar, percussion Nathan Followill – backing vocals, percussionAdditional musicians Liam O'Neil – background vocals, Jupiter-8, Minimoog, piano, prophet synthesizer, WurlitzerProduction Kings of Leon – Walls at AllMusic. Retrieved October 14, 2016. "Walls by Kings of Leon on iTunes". ITunes. Retrieved October 14, 2016. Https://www.ultimate-guitar.com/reviews/compact_discs/kings_of_leon/walls/index.html
Townes Van Zandt
John Townes Van Zandt, better known as Townes Van Zandt, was an American singer-songwriter. He wrote numerous songs, such as "Pancho and Lefty", "For the Sake of the Song", "Tecumseh Valley", "Rex's Blues", "To Live is to Fly", that are considered masterpieces of American folk music, his musical style has been described as melancholy and features-rich, poetic lyrics. During his early years, Van Zandt was respected for his guitar fingerpicking ability. In 1983, six years after Emmylou Harris had first popularized it, Willie Nelson and Merle Haggard covered his song "Pancho and Lefty", reaching number one on the Billboard country music chart. Much of Van Zandt’s life was spent touring various dive bars living in cheap motel rooms and backwood cabins. For much of the 1970s, he lived in a simple shack without a phone, his influence has been cited by countless artists across multiple genres, his music has been recorded or performed by Bob Dylan, Willie Nelson, Merle Haggard, Norah Jones, Emmylou Harris, Counting Crows, Steve Earle, Robert Earl Keen Jr. Nanci Griffith, Guy Clark, Wade Bowen, Gillian Welch, Pat Green, Colter Wall, Calvin Russell and Natalie Maines.
He suffered from a series of drug addictions and was given a psychiatric diagnosis of bipolar disorder. When he was young, the now-discredited insulin shock therapy erased much of his long-term memory. Van Zandt died on New Years Day 1997 from cardiac arrythmia caused by health problems stemming from years of substance abuse. A revival of interest in Van Zandt occurred in the 2000s. During the decade, two books, a documentary film, numerous magazine articles about the singer were written. Born in Fort Worth into a wealthy family, Van Zandt was a third-great-grandson of Isaac Van Zandt and a second great-nephew of Khleber Miller Van Zandt. Van Zandt County in east Texas was named after his family in 1848. Townes's parents were Dorothy Townes, he had two siblings and Donna. Harris was a corporate lawyer, his career required the family to move several times during the 1950s and 1960s. In 1952, the family transplanted from Fort Worth to Midland, for six months before moving to Billings, Montana. At Christmas in 1956, Townes's father gave him a guitar, which he practiced while wandering the countryside.
He would tell an interviewer that "watching Elvis Presley's October 28, 1956, performance on The Ed Sullivan Show was the starting point for me becoming a guitar player... I just thought that Elvis had all the money in the world, all the Cadillacs and all the girls, all he did was play the guitar and sing; that made a big impression on me." In 1958 the family moved to Colorado. Van Zandt would remember his time in Colorado fondly and would visit it as an adult, he would refer to Colorado in "My Proud Mountains", "Colorado Girl", "Snowin' on Raton". Townes was a good student and active in team sports. In grade school, he received a high IQ score, his parents began grooming him to become a lawyer or senator. Fearing that his family would move again, he willingly decided to attend the Shattuck School, in Faribault, Minnesota, he received a score of 1170 when he took the SAT in January 1962. His family soon moved to Texas; the University of Colorado at Boulder accepted Van Zandt as a student in 1962.
In the spring of his second year, his parents flew to Boulder to bring Townes back to Houston worried about his binge drinking and episodes of depression. They admitted him to the University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston, where he was diagnosed with manic depression, he received three months of insulin shock therapy. Afterwards, his mother claimed her "biggest regret in life was that she had allowed that treatment to occur". In 1965, he was accepted into the University of Houston's pre-law program. Soon after he attempted to join the Air Force, but was rejected because of a doctor's diagnosis that labelled him "an acute manic-depressive who has made minimal adjustments to life", he quit school around 1967, having been inspired by his singer-songwriter heroes to pursue a career in playing music. In 1965, Van Zandt began playing regular shows at the Jester Lounge in Houston for $10 per night. After the Jester closed, he began to perform at Sand Mountain Coffee House. In these Houston clubs, he met fellow musicians Lightning Hopkins, Guy Clark, Jerry Jeff Walker, Doc Watson.
His repertoire consisted of covers of songs written by Hopkins, Bob Dylan, others, as well as original novelty songs like "Fraternity Blues." In 1966, Harris Van Zandt had encouraged his son to write his own songs. In 1968, Van Zandt met songwriter Mickey Newbury in a Houston coffee shop. Newbury persuaded Van Zandt to go to Nashville, where he was introduced by Newbury to the man who would become his longtime producer, "Cowboy" Jack Clement. Among Van Zandt's major influences was Texas blues man Lightnin' Hopkins, whose songs were a constant part of his repertoire, he cited Bob Dylan and Hank Williams and such varied artists as Muddy Waters, The Rolling Stones, Blind Willie McTell and Jefferson Airplane as having had a major impact on his music. The years between 1968 and 1973 would prove to be Van Zandt's most prolific era, he released six albums during the time period: For the Sake of the Song, Our Mother the Mountain, Townes Van Zandt, Delta Momma Blues, Low and In Between, The Late Great Townes Van Zandt.
Among the tracks written for these albums
Lucinda Williams is an American rock, folk and country music singer and musician. She recorded her first albums in 1978 and 1980 in a traditional country and blues style and received little attention from radio, the media, or the public. In 1988, she released Lucinda Williams; this release featured "Passionate Kisses," a song recorded by Mary Chapin Carpenter, which garnered Williams her first Grammy Award for Best Country Song in 1994. Known for working Williams recorded and released only one other album in the next several years, Sweet Old World, in 1992, her commercial breakthrough came in 1998 with Car Wheels on a Gravel Road, an album presenting a broader scope of songs that fused rock, blues and Americana into a distinctive style that remained consistent and commercial in sound. Car Wheels on a Gravel Road, which includes the Grammy nominated track "Can't Let Go", became Williams' greatest commercial success to date; the album was certified Gold by the RIAA and earned Williams a Grammy Award for Best Contemporary Folk Album, while being universally acclaimed by critics.
Williams released the critically acclaimed Essence three years and the album became a commercial success. One of the album's tracks, "Get Right With God," earned Williams the Grammy Award for Best Female Rock Vocal Performance in 2002. Williams has released a string of albums since that have earned her more critical acclaim and commercial success, she has won 3 Grammy Awards, from 15 nominations, received 2 Americana Awards, from 12 nominations. Additionally, Williams ranked No. 97 on VH1's 100 Greatest Women in Rock & Roll in 1998, was named "America's best songwriter" by Time magazine in 2002. Williams was born in Lake Charles, the daughter of poet and literature professor Miller Williams and an amateur pianist, Lucille Fern Day, her parents divorced in the mid-1960s. Williams's father gained custody of her and her younger brother, Robert Miller, sister, Karyn Elizabeth. Like her father, she has spina bifida, her father worked as a visiting professor in Mexico and different parts of the United States, including Baton Rouge.
Williams never was accepted into the University of Arkansas. Williams started writing when she was 6 years old and showed an affinity for music at an early age, was playing guitar at 12. Williams's first live performance was in Mexico City at 17, as part of a duo with her friend, a banjo player named Clark Jones. By her early 20s, Williams was playing publicly in Austin and Houston, concentrating on a folk-rock-country blend, she moved to Jackson, Mississippi, in 1978 to record her first album, for Smithsonian/Folkways Records. Titled Ramblin' on My Mind, it was a collection of blues covers; the album title was shortened to Ramblin'. She followed it up in 1980 with Happy Woman Blues. Neither album received much attention. In the 1980s, Williams moved to Los Angeles, where, at times backed by a rock band and at others performing in acoustic settings, she developed a following and a critical reputation. While based in Los Angeles, she was married to Long Ryders drummer Greg Sowders, whom she had met in a club.
In 1988 Rough Trade Records released the self-titled Lucinda Williams, produced by Gurf Morlix. The single "Changed the Locks", about a broken relationship, received radio play around the country and gained fans among music insiders, including Tom Petty, who would cover the song, its follow-up, Sweet Old World produced by Morlix, is a melancholy album dealing with themes of suicide and death. Williams' biggest success during the early 1990s was as a songwriter. Mary Chapin Carpenter recorded a cover of "Passionate Kisses" in 1992, the song became a smash country hit for which Williams received the Grammy Award for Best Country Song in 1994. Carpenter received a Grammy for her performance of the song, she duetted with Steve Earle on the song "You're Still Standin' There" from his album I Feel Alright. In 1991, the song "Lucinda Williams" appeared on Vic Chesnutt's album West of Rome. Williams had garnered considerable critical acclaim. Emmylou Harris said of Williams, "She is an example of the best of what country at least says it is, for some reason, she's out of the loop and I feel that that's country music's loss."
Harris recorded the title track from Williams's Sweet Old World for her career-redefining 1995 album, Wrecking Ball. Williams gained a reputation as a perfectionist and slow worker when it came to recording; the long-awaited release, 1998's Car Wheels on a Gravel Road, was Williams' breakthrough into the mainstream and received a Grammy Award for Best Contemporary Folk Album. Containing the single "Still I Long for Your Kiss" from the Robert Redford film The Horse Whisperer, the album received wide critical notice and soon went gold; the single "Can't Let Go" enjoyed considerable crossover radio play. Williams toured with Bob Dylan, the Allman Brothers and Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers, on her own in support of the album. An expanded edition of the album, including three additional studio recordings and a second CD documenting a 1998 concert, was released in 2006. In 1999, she appeared on Return of the Grievous Angel: A Tribute to Gram Parso
Clyde Julian Foley, known professionally as Red Foley, was an American singer and radio and TV personality who made a major contribution to the growth of country music after World War II. For more than two decades, Foley was one of the biggest stars of the genre, selling more than 25 million records, his 1951 hit, "Peace in the Valley", was among the first million-selling gospel records. A Grand Ole Opry veteran until his death, Foley hosted the first popular country music series on network television, Ozark Jubilee, from 1955 to 1960, he is a member of the Country Music Hall of Fame, which called him "one of the most versatile and moving performers of all time" and "a giant influence during the formative years of contemporary Country music." Foley was born June 17, 1910 on a 24-acre farm in Blue Lick, grew up in nearby Berea, gained the nickname Red for his hair color. He was born into a musical family, by the time he was nine was giving impromptu concerts at his father's general store, playing French harp, banjo, trombone and guitar.
At 17, he won first prize in a statewide talent show. He graduated from Berea High School, worked as a $2-a-show usher and singer at a theater in Covington, Kentucky. In 1930, as a freshman at Georgetown College, Foley was chosen by a talent scout from Chicago's WLS-AM to sing with producer John Lair's Cumberland Ridge Runners, the house band on National Barn Dance, his first single, "Life is Good Enough for Me / The Lone Cowboy", was released in June 1933 on the Melotone label. In 1937 he returned to Kentucky with Lair to help establish the Renfro Valley Barn Dance stage and radio show near Mt. Vernon in 1939, performing everything from ballads to boogie-woogie to blues. In late 1939, Foley became the first country artist to host a network radio program, NBC's Avalon Time, he performed extensively at theaters and fairs, he returned for another seven-year stint with National Barn Dance. In 1941, the same year he made his first of only two film appearances with Tex Ritter in the Western, The Pioneers, Foley signed a lifetime contract with Decca Records.
He released "Old Shep" in 1941, a song he wrote with Arthur Willis in 1933 about a dog he owned as a boy. The song recorded by many artists including Hank Snow and Elvis Presley, became a country classic, his controversial patriotic 1944 single, "Smoke on the Water", topped the folk records chart for 13 consecutive weeks, on January 17, 1945, Foley was the first country performer to record in Nashville, Tennessee. During the session at WSM-AM's Studio B, he recorded "Tennessee Saturday Night", "Blues in the Heart" and "Tennessee Border", he soon became known for such songs as "The Death of Floyd Collins" and "The Sinking of the Titanic". He moved to Nashville in 1946 and was a member of the Brown's Ferry Four, recording "Jesus Hold My Hand" and "I'll Meet You in the Morning". In April 1946, Foley signed on to emcee and perform on The Prince Albert Show, the segment of the Grand Ole Opry carried on NBC Radio. During the next eight years he established himself as one of the most respected and versatile performers in country music.
He acted as master of ceremonies, the straight man for Opry comedians Rod Brasfield and Minnie Pearl, proved himself a vocalist who could handle all types of material. His popularity was credited with establishing the Opry as America's top country music radio show. In 1949, Foley was part of the Opry's first European tour, visiting U. S. military bases in England, West Germany and the Azores, with Brasfield, Roy Acuff, Minnie Pearl, Little Jimmy Dickens, Hank Williams and others. Foley began recording with his backing group, the Cumberland Valley Boys, in 1947, he recorded seven top five hits with the group between 1947 and 1949, including a No. 1 single, "New Jolie Blonde", the country boogie anthem "Tennessee Saturday Night", a chart-topper in 1948. In 1950, he had three million-sellers: "Just a Closer Walk with Thee", "Steal Away", a solo version of the song that became his trademark, "Chattanoogie Shoe Shine Boy". Featuring guitarist Grady Martin, it stayed at No. 1 on Billboard's country chart for 13 weeks and hit the pop chart as well.
In April 1951, Foley was pleased when the popular Andrews Sisters flew from Hollywood to Nashville to join him for a two-day recording session, both acts hoping to repeat the previous successes that the sisters enjoyed when they teamed with Burl Ives in 1947 and Ernest Tubb in 1949, producing both folk and country hits. While the results proved to be less popular, the ten tunes recorded were vocally well-executed and received a good deal of play on the country radio stations; the songs included the rhythmic "Satins and Lace," the rockabilly-flavored novelty "Where Is Your Wandering Mother Tonight?," a slow rendering of the forlorn hillbilly classic "Bury Me Beneath the Willow," two duets by Foley and Patty Andrews, two country gospel favorites: "It Is No Secret" and "He Bought My Soul at Calvary."In 1951, Foley's second wife, Judy Martin, took her own life. To devote more time to his family in Nashville, he cut back on performing but continued to release hits in a variety of styles, including rockabilly and rhythm and blues.
His 1951 hit, " Peace in the Valley" backed by the Sunshine Boys quartet, was one of the first gospel music records to sell one million copies. He released his first LP that year, Souvenir Album. Foley's manager was Jim McConnell and "Dub" Albritton
Michael Austin Cera is a Canadian actor, singer and musician. He started his career as a child actor, portraying a young Chuck Barris in Confessions of a Dangerous Mind, he is known for his role as George Michael Bluth on the sitcom Arrested Development and for his film roles as Evan in Superbad, as Paulie Bleeker in Juno, as Scott Pilgrim in Scott Pilgrim vs. the World, as a fictional version of himself in This Is the End, as the voice of Dick Grayson / Robin in The Lego Batman Movie. Cera made his Broadway debut in the 2014 production of Kenneth Lonergan's. For his performance in the 2018 production of Lonergan's Lobby Hero, Cera was nominated for the Tony Award for Best Performance by a Featured Actor in a Play. In addition to acting, Cera is a musician, having released his debut album True That in 2014. Cera has acted as the touring bassist for indie rock supergroup Mister Heavenly. Cera was born in Ontario, he is Luigi Cera, a technician. His father is Sicilian, his mother has Irish, Dutch and English ancestry.
His parents both worked for Xerox. Cera has an older sister, a younger sister, Molly, he became interested in acting after viewing Ghostbusters when sick with the chicken pox at the age of three. He idolized Bill Murray, he took improvisation classes. Cera attended Conestoga Public School, Robert H. Lagerquist Senior Public School and Heart Lake Secondary School until grade nine, but completed school online through grade 12, his first role was an unpaid appearance in a Tim Hortons summer camp commercial. That appearance landed him a position in a Pillsbury commercial in which he poked the Pillsbury Doughboy, his first role with lines, he found not being cast in commercials after auditioning "really disheartening" but, in 1999, Cera was cast as Larrabe Hicks in the Canadian children's show I Was a Sixth Grade Alien, which ran for two seasons. That year, he appeared in the television films What Katy Did and Switching Goals starring the Olsen twins. Cera made his theatrical film debut in the science fiction film Frequency as the son of Noah Emmerich's character.
Cera appeared in the films Steal This Movie! and Ultimate G's: Zac's Flying Dream in 2000, the latter of which featured Cera in his first leading role and was presented in IMAX theaters. Cera appeared in several television films in 2001 including My Louisiana Sky and The Familiar Stranger and began voicing Josh Spitz in the animated series Braceface, continuing to do so until 2004. In 2002, Cera played the young Chuck Barris in the George Clooney-directed film Confessions of a Dangerous Mind, he provided the voice for Brother Bear – an anthropomorphic bear – in the 2003 The Berenstain Bears animated series, which aired for three seasons. Following a role in the critically panned unaired Fox pilot The Grubbs in 2002, Cera auditioned for a part in another Fox sitcom, Arrested Development, which began airing in November 2003; the show follows the wealthy and dysfunctional Bluth family, with Cera playing George Michael Bluth, the teenage son of Jason Bateman's character, Michael Bluth. After three seasons, Fox canceled the series in 2006 due to low viewership despite critical acclaim.
In 2006, he created and starred in a parody of Impossible is Nothing, a video résumé created by Aleksey Vayner. Cera and his Arrested Development co-star Alia Shawkat guest starred as a pair of college students in the teen noir drama Veronica Mars in the episode "The Rapes of Graff" in 2006. Along with best friend Clark Duke, Cera wrote and starred in a series of short videos released on their website; the idea came from Duke, enrolled at Loyola Marymount University and did it for his film school studies. In 2007, they signed a deal with CBS Television to write, produce and act in a short-form comedy series entitled Clark and Michael; the show featured guest stars such as David Cross, Andy Richter and Patton Oswalt, was distributed via CBS's internet channel, CBS Innertube. In May 2007, Cera appeared in a staged comedy video that shows him being fired from the lead role of the film Knocked Up after belittling and arguing with its director Judd Apatow, in a scene that mocks the David O. Russell blow up on the set of I Heart Huckabees.
Cera starred in the Apatow-produced teen comedy Superbad alongside Jonah Hill. Their characters in the film – two virgin teenagers about to graduate from high school whose party plans go awry – were based on its writers Seth Rogen and Evan Goldberg. Superbad was released in cinemas in August 2007. Cera's performance was met with critical acclaim, with The Atlantic opining that the film "belongs to Michael Cera" for capturing "teenage sexual abashment as indelibly as he did in the role of George Michael", while The New York Times felt he was "excellent" and CNN praised Cera and Hill for playing "off each other beautifully". In November 2007, Cera hosted an untelevised live staged version of Saturday Night Live, not broadcast due to the then-ongoing 2007 Writers Guild of America Strike. In his second film of 2007, Cera co-starred in Juno as Paulie Bleeker, a teenager who impregnates his long-time school friend Juno. For Superbad and Juno, Cera won Breakthrough Artist in the Austin Film Critics Association Awards 2007 and was included in Entertainment Weekly's 30 Under 30 list in February 2008.
Cera starred alongside Kat Dennings in the romantic comedy-drama Nick & Norah's Infinite Playlist, in whic
Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States. It began as a British colony in 1733, the last and southernmost of the original Thirteen Colonies to be established. Named after King George II of Great Britain, the Province of Georgia covered the area from South Carolina south to Spanish Florida and west to French Louisiana at the Mississippi River. Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2, 1788. In 1802–1804, western Georgia was split to the Mississippi Territory, which split to form Alabama with part of former West Florida in 1819. Georgia declared its secession from the Union on January 19, 1861, was one of the original seven Confederate states, it was the last state to be restored to the Union, on July 15, 1870. Georgia is the 8th most populous of the 50 United States. From 2007 to 2008, 14 of Georgia's counties ranked among the nation's 100 fastest-growing, second only to Texas. Georgia is known as the Empire State of the South. Atlanta, the state's capital and most populous city, has been named a global city.
Atlanta's metropolitan area contains about 55% of the population of the entire state. Georgia is bordered to the north by Tennessee and North Carolina, to the northeast by South Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by Florida, to the west by Alabama; the state's northernmost part is in the Blue Ridge Mountains, part of the Appalachian Mountains system. The Piedmont extends through the central part of the state from the foothills of the Blue Ridge to the Fall Line, where the rivers cascade down in elevation to the coastal plain of the state's southern part. Georgia's highest point is Brasstown Bald at 4,784 feet above sea level. Of the states east of the Mississippi River, Georgia is the largest in land area. Before settlement by Europeans, Georgia was inhabited by the mound building cultures; the British colony of Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe on February 12, 1733. The colony was administered by the Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia in America under a charter issued by King George II.
The Trustees implemented an elaborate plan for the colony's settlement, known as the Oglethorpe Plan, which envisioned an agrarian society of yeoman farmers and prohibited slavery. The colony was invaded by the Spanish during the War of Jenkins' Ear. In 1752, after the government failed to renew subsidies that had helped support the colony, the Trustees turned over control to the crown. Georgia became a crown colony, with a governor appointed by the king; the Province of Georgia was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution by signing the 1776 Declaration of Independence. The State of Georgia's first constitution was ratified in February 1777. Georgia was the 10th state to ratify the Articles of Confederation on July 24, 1778, was the 4th state to ratify the United States Constitution on January 2, 1788. In 1829, gold was discovered in the North Georgia mountains leading to the Georgia Gold Rush and establishment of a federal mint in Dahlonega, which continued in operation until 1861.
The resulting influx of white settlers put pressure on the government to take land from the Cherokee Nation. In 1830, President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act, sending many eastern Native American nations to reservations in present-day Oklahoma, including all of Georgia's tribes. Despite the Supreme Court's ruling in Worcester v. Georgia that U. S. states were not permitted to redraw Indian boundaries, President Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the ruling. In 1838, his successor, Martin Van Buren, dispatched federal troops to gather the tribes and deport them west of the Mississippi; this forced relocation, known as the Trail of Tears, led to the death of over 4,000 Cherokees. In early 1861, Georgia became a major theater of the Civil War. Major battles took place at Chickamauga, Kennesaw Mountain, Atlanta. In December 1864, a large swath of the state from Atlanta to Savannah was destroyed during General William Tecumseh Sherman's March to the Sea. 18,253 Georgian soldiers died in service one of every five who served.
In 1870, following the Reconstruction Era, Georgia became the last Confederate state to be restored to the Union. With white Democrats having regained power in the state legislature, they passed a poll tax in 1877, which disenfranchised many poor blacks and whites, preventing them from registering. In 1908, the state established a white primary, they constituted 46.7% of the state's population in 1900, but the proportion of Georgia's population, African American dropped thereafter to 28% due to tens of thousands leaving the state during the Great Migration. According to the Equal Justice Institute's 2015 report on lynching in the United States, Georgia had 531 deaths, the second-highest total of these extralegal executions of any state in the South; the overwhelming number of victims were male. Political disfranchisement persisted through the mid-1960s, until after Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965. An Atlanta-born Baptist minister, part of the educated middle class that had developed in Atlanta's African-American community, Martin Luther King, Jr. emerged as a national leader in the civil rights movement.
King joining with others to form the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in Atlanta in 1957 to provide political leadership for the Civil Rights Movement across the South. By the 1960s, the proportion of