6 (New York City Subway service)
The 6 Lexington Avenue Local and <6> Pelham Bay Park Express are two rapid transit services in the A Division of the New York City Subway. Their route emblems, or "bullets", are colored forest green since they use the IRT Lexington Avenue Line in Manhattan. Local service is denoted by a in a circular bullet, express service is denoted by a <6> in a diamond-shaped bullet. This was inherited from the line the 6 received most of its R62As from. 6 trains operate local at all times between Pelham Bay Park in the Bronx and Brooklyn Bridge–City Hall in Lower Manhattan. During weekdays in the peak direction, <6> Pelham Express trains replace 6 local ones north of Parkchester, run express between that station and Third Avenue–138th Street. During this time, 6 Pelham Local trains short turn at Parkchester. Weekdays from 9:00 to 11:00 a.m. select Manhattan-bound <6> trains run local from Parkchester to Hunts Point Avenue while select Parkchester-bound 6 trains run express in that section. The 6 in its current format has run since the implementation of the IRT "H" system in 1918.
Since 1920, it has remained unchanged, running between Pelham Bay Park and City Hall with a peak-express variant in the Bronx. In 1945, the city closed the 6's former southern terminal in Manhattan. Since most 6 trains have terminated at Brooklyn Bridge, with a few exceptions in years. On October 27, 1904, local and express service opened on the original subway in Manhattan, following the route of the present IRT Lexington Avenue Line from City Hall to Grand Central–42nd Street. From there, the service traveled west on 42nd Street on the route of the present 42nd Street Shuttle, north on the present IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line to 145th Street; the current "H" configuration, with separate services along Lexington Avenue and Broadway/Seventh Avenue, was introduced in 1917. Full Lexington Avenue local service from City Hall to 125th Street opened on July 17, 1918. On August 1, 1918, Third Avenue–138th Street opened with trains running between there and City Hall, making all stops. On January 17, 1919, trains were extended from 138th Street to Hunts Point Avenue, on May 30, 1920, 6 service was extended to East 177th Street.
On October 24, 1920, 6 service was extended again to Westchester Square. On December 20, 1920, 6 service was extended to Pelham Bay Park. On December 21, 1925, the number of Manhattan-bound through trains in the morning rush hour, between 7 a.m. and 8 a.m. were increased from 13 to 18, a 38% increase in service. The remainder of trains continued operating as a shuttle service to Hunts Point Avenue. By 1934, service south of the City Hall station had been discontinued, late-night service ran from Pelham Bay Park to 125th Street only. Effective December 31, 1945, City Hall station closed with the former Brooklyn Bridge station being the permanent southern terminal. However, the 6 train still uses the loop to get from the southbound to the northbound local track at Brooklyn Bridge-City Hall. On May 10, 1946, late-night service was extended from 125th Street to its previous terminus at Brooklyn Bridge when late night express service on the 4 was restored. Beginning October 14, 1946, weekday rush and Saturday morning rush peak direction express service started, with Pelham Bay trains using the middle track between East 177th Street and Third Avenue–138th Street.
This express service saved eight minutes between East 177th Street. During this time, 6 trains that ran local in the Bronx when express trains operated began to terminate at East 177 Street to make room for express trains to Pelham Bay Park. On March 7, 1949, the hours of the PM Bronx-bound express service were advanced from 4:30 PM to 3:30 PM, on June 17, 1949, the hours of the AM Manhattan-bound express service were extended from 9:30 AM to 10:30 AM. On September 22, 1948, 54 additional cars were placed in service on the 6 train, increasing the lengths of trains from six cars to seven cars. From December 15 to 22, 1950, the weekday rush trains from Pelham Bay Park were extended to South Ferry. On June 23, 1956, Saturday morning express. Starting April 8, 1960, late night and weekday evening trains were extended to South Ferry, followed by weekend evening service starting October 17, 1965. From March 1, 1960, to October 17, 1965, the 4 and 6 trains ran local together in Manhattan late nights when late night express service on the 4 was discontinued for a time.
Beginning on January 13, 1980, late night service terminated at 125th Street in Manhattan with the 4 again making all stops south of there. On the same day, Bronx express service was expanded to operate during middays, with Pelham Bay trains running express in the peak direction to Brooklyn Bridge in the morning to Pelham Bay Park in the afternoon; this service cut affected 15,000 riders, was criticized by Manhattan Borough President Andrew Stein as no public hearing was held. For a few months in 1985, one scheduled daily 6 train traveled to Atlantic Avenue before turning for Pelham Bay Park. From January 21 to October 5, 1990, late night service was extended back to Brooklyn Bridge when late night express service on the 4 was restored, but the 6 was cut back to 125th Street for the last time w
Boroughs of New York City
New York City encompasses five county-level administrative divisions called boroughs: The Bronx, Manhattan and Staten Island. All boroughs are part of New York City, each of the boroughs is coextensive with a respective county, the primary administrative subdivision within New York state. Queens and the Bronx are concurrent with the counties of the same name, while Manhattan and Staten Island correspond to New York and Richmond counties respectively. Boroughs have existed since the consolidation of the city in 1898, when the city and each borough assumed their current boundaries. However, the boroughs have not always been coextensive with their respective counties; the borough of the Bronx had earlier been in the southern part of Westchester County—which had been annexed to New York County in two stages in 1874 and 1895—and in 1914, the county was created to match the borough. Before 1899, the county of Queens included an eastern part, split-off during the consolidation to become Nassau County.
The term borough was adopted to describe a form of governmental administration for each of the five fundamental constituent parts of the newly consolidated city in 1898. Under the 1898 City Charter adopted by the New York State Legislature, a "borough" is a municipal corporation, created when a county is merged with populated areas within it; the limited powers of the borough governments are inferior to the authority of the Government of New York City, contrasting with other borough administrations of government used in Connecticut, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, where a borough is an independent level of government, as well as borough forms used in other states and in Greater London. New York City is referred to collectively as the five boroughs; the term is used by politicians to counter a frequent focus on Manhattan and thereby to place all five boroughs on equal footing. In the same vein, the term outer boroughs refers to all of the boroughs excluding Manhattan though the geographic center of the city is along the Brooklyn–Queens border.
All five boroughs were created in 1898 during consolidation, when the city's current boundaries were established. The Bronx included parts of New York County outside of Manhattan, ceded by neighboring Westchester County in two stages. In 1914, the present-day separate Bronx County became the last county to be created in the State of New York; the borough of Queens consists of what was only the western part of a then-larger Queens County. In 1899, the three eastern towns of Queens County that had not joined the city the year before—the towns of Hempstead, North Hempstead, Oyster Bay—formally seceded from Queens County to form the new Nassau County; the borough of Staten Island, concurrent with Richmond County, was the borough of Richmond until the name was changed in 1975 to reflect its common appellation, while leaving the name of the county unchanged. There are hundreds of distinct neighborhoods throughout the five boroughs of New York City, many with a definable history and character to call their own.
Manhattan is the most densely populated borough. Manhattan's population density of 72,033 people per square mile in 2015 makes it the highest of any county in the United States and higher than the density of any individual U. S. city. Manhattan is the cultural and financial center of New York City and contains the headquarters of many major multinational corporations, the United Nations Headquarters, Wall Street, a number of important universities. Manhattan is described as the cultural, financial and entertainment capital of the world. Most of the borough is situated at the mouth of the Hudson River. Several small islands are part of the borough of Manhattan, including Randall's Island, Wards Island, Roosevelt Island in the East River, Governors Island to the south in New York Harbor. Manhattan Island is loosely divided into Lower and Uptown regions. Uptown Manhattan is divided by Central Park into the Upper East Side and the Upper West Side, above the park is Harlem; the borough includes a small neighborhood on the United States mainland, called Marble Hill.
Marble Hill was part of Manhattan Island, but is now contiguous with the Bronx after having been severed from Manhattan Island by the construction of the Harlem River Ship Canal south of the neighborhood, having been connected to the mainland by the subsequent filling in of the Harlem River's original path to the neighborhood's north. New York City's remaining four boroughs are collectively referred to as the outer boroughs. Brooklyn, on the western tip of Long Island, is the city's most populous borough. Brooklyn is known for its cultural and ethnic diversity, an independent art scene, distinct neighborhoods, a distinctive architectural heritage. Downtown Brooklyn is the largest central core neighborhood in the outer boroughs; the borough has a long beachfront shoreline including Coney Island, established in the 1870s as one of the earliest amusement grounds in the country. Marine Park and Prospect Park are the two largest parks in Brooklyn. Since 2010, Brooklyn has evolv
Abingdon Square Park
Abingdon Square Park is located in the New York City borough of Manhattan in Greenwich Village. The park is bordered by Bank Street, Hudson Street and West 12th Street. Abingdon Square Park is one of New York City's oldest parks, at 0.25 acres, one of it smallest. It is maintained by the Abingdon Square Conservancy, a community-based park association, in cooperation with the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. New York City acquired the land on which the park resides on April 22, 1831, it was enclosed with a cast-iron fence in 1836. In the 1880s, an effort was initiated by Mayor Abram Stevens Hewitt to expand public access to parks. Architect Calvert Vaux was part of a group; the square was part of a 300-acre estate purchased by Sir Peter Warren in 1740. Abingdon Square was named for a prominent eighteenth century area resident, Charlotte Warren, who married Englishman Willoughby Bertie, the 4th Earl of Abingdon and received the land as a wedding gift from her father. Although most explicitly British place names in Manhattan were altered after the Revolutionary War, Abingdon Square retained its name due to the well-known patriotic sympathies of Charlotte and the Earl.
In 2005, the Greenwich Village Society for Historic Preservation recognized the park's then-recent renovation with a Village Award. On August 3, 2009, a small garden was established inside the park as a memorial to Adrienne Shelly, an actress and film producer, slain in her office located in 15 Abingdon Square. Abingdon Square Conservancy is a non-profit public charity exempt from federal income tax under Section 501 of the Internal Revenue Code; the Conservancy's mission is to maintain the Square as a scenic and historic landmark. The Conservancy is dependent on private donations for its operations and receives no public funding; the Conservancy employs a horticulturalist to design and maintain plantings, provide gardening services, liaise with the City, supervise maintenance in the park. A groundskeeper is employed to keep the Square clean; the Square is maintained in cooperation with the New York City Parks and Recreation Department, which collects trash and locks and unlocks the gates. Annual Conservancy events include a spring tulip display, Tulip Celebration, a carved Pumpkin Patch on Halloween night and a winter holiday decoration and light display.
The M11 and M14A bus lines terminate at Abingdon Square. List of New York City Parks Park Conservancy Media related to Abingdon Square Park at Wikimedia Commons New York City Department of Parks and Recreation: Abingdon Square Park. January 2004 - Capital Project of the Month Literary Reading Interrupted - The Fool of Abingdon Square Park
Thompson Street (Manhattan)
Thompson Street is a street in the Lower Manhattan neighborhoods of Greenwich Village and SoHo in New York City, which runs north-south, from Washington Square Park at Washington Square South to the Avenue of the Americas below Grand Street, where the street turns right to Sixth Avenue. It runs parallel to and between Sullivan Street, LaGuardia Place which becomes West Broadway. Vehicular traffic goes southbound; the street was named for Revolutionary War Brigadier General William Thompson, who served in New York and Canada. 60 Thompson, at 60 Thompson Street, hotel. Omen, at 113 Thompson Street, Japanese restaurant. Lupa, at 170 Thompson Street, Italian restaurant. Tomoe Sushi, at 172 Thompson Street, sushi restaurant. Vesuvio Playground, on the corner of Thompson Street and Spring Street; the Uncommons, at 230 Thompson Street the Village Chess Shop, now Manhattan's first and only board game cafe. Chess Forum, at 219 Thompson Street, chess store and club. Thomas Eboli, at 177 Thompson Street, mobster, acting boss of the Genovese crime family.
Carmine Galante, at 206 Thompson Street and acting boss of the Bonanno crime family. Vincent Gigante, at 181 and 238 Thompson Street, Italian-American mobster, boss of the Genovese crime family. Bernhard Goetz, at 211 Thompson Street, the Subway Shooter. Anthony Strollo, 177 Thompson Street, mobster who served as a high-ranking capo of the Genovese crime family. Frank Zappa, at 180 Thompson Street, singer-songwriter, recording engineer, music producer and film director. Tom Shaner, at 222-224 Thompson Street, singer-songwriter, recording engineer, music producer and video director Media related to Thompson Street at Wikimedia Commons
Our Lady of Pompeii Church (Manhattan)
Our Lady of Pompeii Church, or more formally, the Shrine Church of Our Lady of Pompeii, is a Catholic parish church located in the South Village neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City, in the United States. The church is staffed by Scalabrini Fathers, while the Our Lady of Pompeii School is staffed by Apostles of the Sacred Heart of Jesus; the church was founded in 1892 as a national parish to serve Italian-American immigrants who settled in Greenwich Village becoming the American counterpart to the Shrine of Our Lady of the Rosary of Pompei in Italy and a shrine in its own right. The church has resided at its present location since 1926, when construction on its current edifice began. While it has remained a Italian American parish, the church has come to incorporate many other immigrant groups; the parish of Our Lady of Pompeii was founded in 1892. The origins of the parish lie in the arrival of Father Pietro Bandini, an Italian Jesuit priest, in New York City in 1890, his purpose was to establish a chapter of the Saint Raphael Society for the Protection of Italian Immigrants, an organization that sought to defend Italian immigrants from usury and labor exploitation.
Bandini purchased a building at 113 Waverly Place to use its first-floor storefront as a chapel for the Society. He named it the Our Lady of Pompeii chapel, in honor of the Virgin Mary under her title of Our Lady of the Rosary of Pompeii; the first mass was said in the chapel on May 8, 1892. In addition to his spiritual ministry, Bandini assisted new immigrants with legal matters, assimilating to the United States, finding work; the chapel was established within the territorial parish boundaries of St. Joseph's Church, whose pastor was Fr. Denis O'Flynn, he vehemently protested the establishment of another church near his, several having been erected, that might draw parishioners away from his congregation. At the same time, however, he denied admittance of Italians to his church, which had Irish parishioners. To allay O'Flynn's fears of poaching parishioners, Bandini posted a notice on the entrance to his chapel that it was to serve only Italian Catholics. O'Flynn, accused Bandini of stealing parishioners before the archdiocese's chancery office within three months of the chapel's establishment.
Many immigrants who arrived from the northwestern Italian town of Chiavari to settle in Greenwich Village attended Our Lady of Pompeii chapel. Bandini requested that the community be elevated to the status of a parish in the Archdiocese of New York; the location of the church changed in 1895 when Bandini began renting a building at 214 Sullivan Street. It had been built in 1810 for an African American Baptist church and had more housed the Bethel Methodist Colored Church. Archbishop Michael Corrigan declared the community a parish in 1895. Rather than a territorial parish, Our Lady of Pompeii was a national parish, which served an ethnicity, namely Italians, rather than a geographic population. In this capacity, it became the second national parish in New York City for Italians, following St. Anthony of Padua Church. In 1896, Bandini left the church for Sunnyside Plantation in Arkansas to minister to the Italian workers there, went on with the workers to found the city of Tontitown. Upon his departure, several unidentified priests impressed upon Archbishop Corrigan that he should close down the parish, but he decided against it.
Bandini was succeeded as pastor of the church by Father Francesco Zaboglio in 1896, who held the role for only a year. In 1897, he was badly injured in a gas explosion in the church basement, which killed two other men employed by the parish and damaged the church building. With Zaboglio's retirement and return to Italy, Father Antonio Demo, a man prominent in the Italian-American community became the next pastor. While at the time of its founding, more than 80 percent of the church's parishioners hailed from Northern Italy, many of whom came from the region of Liguria, by 1898 Southern Italians constituted a plurality of the congregation. On March 7, 1898, the parish of Our Lady of Pompeii was incorporated; the church on Sullivan Street was subsequently destroyed by fire, the congregation relocated to a Greek Revival building at 210 Bleecker Street on May 8, 1898. The building had been commissioned in 1836 by a Unitarian Universalist church. Since 1883 it had been occupied by St. Benedict the Moor Catholic Church whose African American parish was moving north in Manhattan.
Around this time, the parish received permission from Bartolo Longo, the founder of the Shrine of Our Lady of the Rosary of Pomepi in Italy, to promote itself as the American shrine to Our Lady of the Rosary of Pompeii. There is some indication that by around 1899 tension had begun to build between Our Lady of Pompeii and St. Anthony of Padua Church. While the latter was the older of the two Italian national parishes in the area, the Italians took a liking to the Scalabrians over the Franciscans. For this reason, Our Lady of Pompeii's membership equaled that of St. Anthony of Padua within ten years of the former's founding; the parish was impacted by the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire in 1911. Father Demo was active in consoling the mourning families. By 1917, the number of parishioners had grown to more than 20,000. For a time, Mother Cabrini taught at Our Lady of Pompeii. In 1923, the City of New York decided to extend Sixth Avenue southward through the area occupied by the church and several dozen other buildings.
Using eminent domain, the city seized and demolished the structures. Before demolition, Demo formed committees of parishioners to organize moving the parish to a new location; the pastor a
Chaim Gross was an American sculptor and educator. Gross was born to a Jewish family in Austrian Galicia, in the village of Wolowa, in the Carpathian Mountains. In 1911, his family moved to Kolomyia. During World War I, Russian forces invaded Austria-Hungary, they returned when Austria retook the town in refugees of the war. When World War I ended and brother Avrom-Leib went to Budapest to join their older siblings Sarah and Pinkas. Gross applied to and was accepted by the art academy in Budapest and studied under the painter Béla Uitz, though within a year a new regime under Miklós Horthy took over and attempted to expel all Jews and foreigners from the country. After being deported from Hungary, Gross began art studies at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Vienna, Austria shortly before immigrating to the United States in 1921. Gross' brother Naftoli had arrived in New York City in 1914, he sent money to his brothers Chaim and Avrom-Lieb, who traveled from Vienna to Le Havre, where they took a boat to New York City in March 1921.
Gross's studies continued in the United States at the Beaux-Arts Institute of Design, where he studied with Elie Nadelman and others, at the Art Students League of New York, with Robert Laurent. He attended the Educational Alliance Art School, studying under Abbo Ostrowsky, at the same time as Moses Soyer, Raphael Soyer, Adolph Gottlieb, Peter Blume. In 1926 Gross began teaching at The Educational Alliance, continued teaching there for the next 50 years. Louise Nevelson was among his students at the Alliance, during the time she was transitioning from painting to sculpture. Gross began exhibiting sculpture in group shows of students at the Educational Alliance, at the Jewish Art Center in the Bronx. In the late 1920s and early 1930s he exhibited at the Salons of America exhibitions at the Anderson Galleries and, beginning in 1928, at the Whitney Studio Club. In 1929, Gross experimented with printmaking, created an important group of 15 linocuts and lithographs of landscapes, New York City streets and parks, women in interiors, the circus, vaudeville.
The entire suite is now in the collection of the Philadelphia Museum of Art. Gross returned to the medium of printmaking in the 1960s, produced 200 works in the medium over the next two decades. In March 1932 Gross had his first solo exhibition at Gallery 144 in New York City. For a short time they represented Gross, as well as his friends Milton Avery, Moses Soyer, Ahron Ben-Shmuel and others. Gross was a practitioner of the direct carving method, with the majority of his work being carved from wood. Other direct carvers in early 20th-century American art include William Zorach, Jose de Creeft, Robert Laurent. Works by Chaim Gross can be found in major museums and private collections throughout the United States, with substantial holdings at the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. A key work from this era, now at the Smithsonian American Art Museum, is the 1932 birds-eye maple Acrobatic Performers, only one and one quarter inch thick. In 1933 Gross joined the government's PWAP, which transitioned into the WPA, which Gross worked for in the 1930s.
Under these programs Gross taught and demonstrated art, made sculptures that were placed in schools and public colleges, made work for Federal buildings including the Federal Trade Commission Building, for the France Overseas and Finnish Buildings at the 1939 New York World's Fair. Gross was recognized during these years with a silver medal at the Exposition universelle de 1937 in Paris, in 1942, with a purchase prize at the Metropolitan Museum of Art's "Artists for Victory" exhibition for his wood sculpture of famed circus performer Lillian Leitzel. In 1938 filmmaker and historian Lewis Jacobs made a 30-minute feature of Gross carving, called Tree Trunk to Head, showing Gross at work in his East Village studio on a portrait of his wife Renee, who models in the film. In 1949 Gross sketched Chaim Weizmann, President of Israel, at several functions in New York City where Weizmann was speaking. Gross began a portrait in clay and traveled to Israel in the summer of that year hoping to be able to meet Weizmann and have him sit for a portrait.
Weizmann was too ill, but Gross completed the bust in bronze that year. Gross returned to Israel for three months in 1951 to paint a series of 40 watercolors of life in various cities; this series was exhibited at the Jewish Museum in 1953. Chaim Gross, Sculptor by Josef Vincent Lombardo, the first major book on Gross, came out in 1949, it included a catalogue raisonne of his sculpture. In the 1950s Gross began to make more bronze sculptures alongside his wood and stone pieces, in 1957 and 1959 he traveled to Rome to work with famed bronze foundries including the Nicci foundry. At the end of the decade Gross was working in bronze, which allowed him to create open forms, large-scale works and of course, multiple casts. Gross's large-scale bronze The Family, donated to New York City in 1991 in honor of Mayor Ed Koch, installed at the Bleecker Street Park at 11th street, is now a fixture of Greenwich Village. In 1957, Gross published The Techniques of Wood Sculpture, an influential how-to book with photographs of him at work by famed photographer Eliot Elisofon.
In 1959, a survey of Gross's sculpture in wood and bronze was featured in the exhibit Four American Ex
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr