He was born in Késmárk, Upper Hungary. In 1799 he was appointed commander of the Austrian forces in Italy and Colonel-Proprietor of the Infantry Regiment N.34, on 18 April 1799, Kray was promoted to Feldzeugmeister. In the 1800 campaign, Kray commanded the Austrian force on the Upper Rhine, after being out-maneuvered by the French, he was disastrously defeated in five consecutive battles. After the Battle of Neuburg, the French acquired both shores of the river, and commanded access to the Danube waterway as far east as Regensburg. During the subsequent armistice, Emperor Francis II replaced Kray with his brother, Archduke John, Kray was discharged on 28 August 1800 and retired to Pest and he died there on 19 January 1804. Kray was born in Késmárk, Upper Hungary and he was educated in mathematical and other military sciences in Schemnitz and Vienna. Entering the Austrian army at the age of nineteen in 1754 in the Infantry Regiment 31 Hallerstein, in 1778, he was promoted from grenadier captain to major and transferred to Infantry Regiment Preysach 39.
After the War of Bavarian Succession, he transferred to the 2nd Szeckler Grenz Infantry Regiment as lieutenant colonel, in 1784 he suppressed a Walachian peasants uprising in Transylvania. Kray served in the Turkish wars of 1787-91, on 10 May 1788, he defeated a superior Turkish force of 5,000 men commanded by Osman Pazvantoğlu and Kara Mustapha Pasha on the borders of Transylvania. In the Austro-Turkish War of 1787 to 1791 he saw service at Porczeny. Promoted Major General in 1790, three years Kray commanded the guard of the Allies under Prince Coburg, operating in Flanders. He distinguished himself at Famars, Wissembourg, Fleurus, promoted to Feldmarschalleutnant on 5 March 1796 Kray served in Archduke Charless Army of the Lower Rhine. On 19 June, after the Battle of Wetzlar, he forced General Jean-Baptiste Kléber to withdraw from Uckerath and he defeated French General of Division Jourdan in the clash at Limburg on 16 September.35. On 4 March 1796 he received promotion to Lieutenant General, in the celebrated campaign of 1796, on the Rhine and Danube, he performed conspicuous service as a corps commander.
In the following year, he was successful, being defeated on the Lahn. Worse, his command was surprised and defeated by the French General Louis-Lazarre Hoche in the Battle of Neuwied of 1797, Kray was accused of negligence, a courts-martial found him guilty and sentenced him to two weeks arrest. He requested to resign in protest but this was denied, Kray commanded in Italy in 1799, and reconquered the plain of Lombardy from the French. He won an action at Legnago on 26 March
Blenheim, New Zealand
Blenheim is the most populous town in the region of Marlborough, in the north east of the South Island of New Zealand. It has an population of 30,700. The surrounding area is known as a centre of New Zealands wine industry. It enjoys one of New Zealands sunniest climates, with hot, relatively dry summers, the relaxed lifestyle and the flourishing wine and gourmet food industry in Marlborough are enjoyed by both locals and visitors alike. Blenheim is named after the Battle of Blenheim, where led by John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough defeated a combined French. The sheltered coastal bays of Marlborough supported a small Māori population possibly as early as the 12th century, Māori in the Marlborough Region cultivated crops, including kumara and exploited marine resources. Although the early history of Marlborough was closely associated with the Nelson settlement, nineteen years after the original Nelson settlement the request of Marlborough settlers was granted, and Marlborough became a separate province in 1859.
Marlborough squatters developed huge sheep runs that dominated the countryside, rivalling Canterburys sheep stations in size, on the Wairau Plain, the town is mostly flat with surrounding hills, which do not give as much protection from prevailing winds as might be expected. Open areas in and around Blenheim are hit quite hard by winds blowing from Cook Strait, Blenheim sits at the confluence of the Taylor and Ōpaoa rivers. It is in an active zone and experiences several earthquakes each year. The boundary between the Pacific plate and the Indo-Australian plate passes just north of Blenheim, summers are typically warm and dry while winters are normally cool and frosty with clear sunny days that follow. Snowfall is rare as it is sheltered from cold weather by the mountain ranges to the south. Thunderstorms are an uncommon occurrence due to the sheltered climate, there is a higher likelihood in summer, when afternoon heating can generate a buildup of clouds above the ranges. The highest recorded temperature is 37.
8C, Recorded on 23 February 1973, at the 2006 census, Blenheim had a population of 28,700, a change of 7. 0% since the 2001 census. The June 2016 estimate puts Blenheims population at 30,700, following the 2013 census, Blenheim became the countrys 17th main urban area, after Statistics New Zealand promoted the town from a secondary urban area. 21. 3% of people were under 15, compared with 22. 7% for New Zealand,16. 7% of people were 65 and over, compared with 12. 1% for New Zealand. 28. 7% of people 15 and over had a post-secondary-school qualification, most residents are of European origin, predominantly of British, Irish and Dutch descent. Small Māori, Pacific Island and Asian communities exist, ethnic diversity has increased in recent years with the arrival of large numbers of South Americans and Asians, who work in the expanding viticulture sector
Jean Victor Marie Moreau
Jean Victor Marie Moreau was a French general who helped Napoleon Bonaparte to power, but became a rival and was banished to the United States. Moreau was born at Morlaix in Brittany and his father was a successful lawyer, and instead of allowing Moreau to enter the army, as he attempted to do, insisted on Moreau studying law at the University of Rennes. Young Moreau showed no inclination for law, but reveled in the freedom of student life, instead of taking his degree, he continued to live with the students as their hero and leader, and formed them into a sort of army, which he commanded as their provost. When 1789 came, he commanded the students in the daily affrays which took place at Rennes between the young noblesse and the populace, in 1791, Moreau was elected a lieutenant colonel of the volunteers of Ille-et-Vilaine. Lazare Carnot promoted Moreau to be general of division early in 1794, the Battle of Tourcoing established Moreaus military fame, and in 1795 he was given the command of the Army of the Rhine-and-Moselle, with which he crossed the Rhine and advanced into Germany.
He was at first completely successful and won victories and penetrated to the Isar. It was at time he found a traitorous correspondence between his old comrade and commander Charles Pichegru and the émigré Prince de Condé. Too late to clear himself, he sent the correspondence to Paris, joubert fell in the battle, and Moreau conducted the retreat of the army to Genoa, where he handed over the command to Jean Étienne Championnet. In reward, Napoleon again gave him command of the Army of the Rhine, on his return to Paris he married 19-year-old Eugénie Hulot, born in Mauritius and friend of Joséphine de Beauharnais, an ambitious woman who gained a complete ascendancy over him. After spending a few weeks with the army in Germany and winning the battle of Hohenlinden. His wife collected around her all who were discontented with the aggrandisement of Napoleon, all this was well known to Napoleon, who seized the conspirators. In 1804, Moreau passed through Spain and embarked for America, Moreau arrived with his wife in New York City, in August 1805.
He lived there till 1813, dividing his time fishing and social intercourse. His abode was the refuge of all political exiles, and representatives of foreign powers tried to induce him to raise his sword against Napoleon, at the outbreak of the War of 1812, President Madison offered him the command of the U. S. troops. Moreau was willing to accept, but after hearing the news of the destruction of the Grande Armée in Russia, Charles John and Tsar Alexander I of Russia were now together with the Prussians and the Austrians leading an army against Napoleon. Moreau, who wished to see Napoleon defeated and a republican government installed, gave advice to the Swedish, Moreau was mortally wounded in the Battle of Dresden on 27 August 1813 while he was talking to the tsar and died on 2 September in Louny. After Moreau was shot down at his side, the observed to Metternich. Moreau was buried in the Catholic Church of St. Catherine in St. Petersburg
Bavaria is a free state and one of 16 federal states of Germany. Located in the German southeast with an area of 70,548 square kilometres and its territory comprises roughly a fifth of the total land area of Germany, with 12.9 million inhabitants, it is Germanys second most populous state. Munich, Bavarias capital and largest city, is the third largest city in Germany, the Duchy of Bavaria dates back to the year 555. In the 17th century CE, the Duke of Bavaria became a Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire, the Kingdom of Bavaria existed from 1806 to 1918, when Bavaria became a republic. In 1946, the Free State of Bavaria re-organised itself on democratic lines after the Second World War, Bavaria has a unique culture, largely because of the states Catholic majority and conservative traditions. Bavarians have traditionally been proud of their culture, which includes such as Oktoberfest. The state has the second largest economy among the German states by GDP figures, modern Bavaria includes parts of the historical regions of Franconia, Upper Palatinate and Swabia.
The Bavarians emerged in a north of the Alps, previously inhabited by Celts. The Bavarians spoke Old High German but, unlike other Germanic groups, they seem to have coalesced out of other groups left behind by Roman withdrawal late in the 5th century. These peoples may have included the Celtic Boii, some remaining Romans, Allemanni, Thuringians, Scirians, the name Bavarian means Men of Baia which may indicate Bohemia, the homeland of the Celtic Boii and of the Marcomanni. They first appear in written sources circa 520, a 17th century Jewish chronicler David Solomon Ganz, citing Cyriacus Spangenberg, claimed that the diocese was named after an ancient Bohemian king, Boiia, in the 14th century BCE. From about 554 to 788, the house of Agilolfing ruled the Duchy of Bavaria and their daughter, became Queen of the Lombards in northern Italy and Garibald was forced to flee to her when he fell out with his Frankish overlords. Garibalds successor, Tassilo I, tried unsuccessfully to hold the frontier against the expansion of Slavs.
Tassilos son Garibald II seems to have achieved a balance of power between 610 and 616, after Garibald II little is known of the Bavarians until Duke Theodo I, whose reign may have begun as early as 680. From 696 onwards he invited churchmen from the west to organize churches and his son, led a decisive Bavarian campaign to intervene in a succession dispute in the Lombard Kingdom in 714, and married his sister Guntrud to the Lombard King Liutprand. At Theodos death the duchy was divided among his sons, at Hugberts death the duchy passed to a distant relative named Odilo, from neighbouring Alemannia. He was defeated near Augsburg in 743 but continued to rule until his death in 748, saint Boniface completed the peoples conversion to Christianity in the early 8th century. Bavaria was in ways affected by the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century
Battle of Blenheim
The Battle of Blenheim, fought on 13 August 1704, was a major battle of the War of the Spanish Succession. The overwhelming Allied victory ensured the safety of Vienna from the Franco-Bavarian army, Louis XIV of France sought to knock Emperor Leopold out of the war by seizing Vienna, the Habsburg capital, and gain a favourable peace settlement. Vienna was pressure from Rákóczis Hungarian revolt from its eastern approaches. Realising the danger, the Duke of Marlborough resolved to alleviate the peril to Vienna by marching his forces south from Bedburg, after securing Donauwörth on the Danube, Marlborough sought to engage the Electors and Marsins army before Marshal Tallard could bring reinforcements through the Black Forest. However, with the Franco-Bavarian commanders reluctant to fight until their numbers were deemed sufficient, the battle has gone down in history as one of the turning points of the War of the Spanish Succession. Bavaria was knocked out of the war, and Louis hopes for a victory came to an end.
France suffered over 30,000 casualties including the commander-in-chief, Marshal Tallard, before the 1704 campaign ended, the Allies had taken Landau, and the towns of Trier and Trarbach on the Moselle in preparation for the following years campaign into France itself. By 1704, the War of the Spanish Succession was in its fourth year, Vienna had been saved by dissension between the two commanders, leading to the brilliant Villars being replaced by the less dynamic Marshal Marsin. In the courts of Versailles and Madrid, Viennas fall was confidently anticipated, a scarlet caterpillar, upon which all eyes were at once fixed, began to crawl steadfastly day by day across the map of Europe, dragging the whole war with it. Marlboroughs march started on 19 May from Bedburg,20 miles north-west of Cologne, the army consisted of 66 squadrons,31 battalions and 38 guns and mortars totalling 21,000 men. This force was to be augmented en route such that by the time Marlborough reached the Danube, whilst Marlborough led his army, General Overkirk would maintain a defensive position in the Dutch Republic in case Villeroi mounted an attack.
In this assumption Marlborough proved correct, Villeroi shadowed the Duke with 30,000 men in 60 squadrons and 42 battalions, such a long march would almost certainly involve a high wastage of men and horses through exhaustion and disease. However, Marlborough was convinced of the urgency – I am very sensible that I take a deal upon me, he had earlier written to Godolphin, but should I act otherwise. Whilst Allied preparations had progressed, the French were striving to maintain, Tallard returned with his own force to the Rhine, once again side-stepping Thüngens efforts to intercept him. The whole operation was a military achievement. On 26 May, Marlborough reached Coblenz, where the Moselle meets the Rhine, If he intended an attack along the Moselle the Duke must now turn west, instead, the following day the army crossed to the right bank of the Rhine. There will be no campaign on the Moselle, wrote Villeroi who had taken up a position on the river. A second possible objective now occurred to the French – an Allied incursion into Alsace, with Villeroi shadowing Marlboroughs every move, Marlboroughs gamble that the French would not move against the weakened Dutch position in the Netherlands paid off
The name in English was derived from the Dutch burgemeester. In some cases, Burgomaster was the title of the head of state and head of government of a sovereign city-state, contemporary titles are commonly translated into English as mayor. Bürgermeister, in German, in Germany and formerly in Switzerland, in Switzerland, the title was abolished mid-19th century, various current titles for roughly equivalent offices include Gemeindepräsident, Stadtpräsident and Stadtamtmann. Oberbürgermeister is the most common version for a mayor in a big city in Germany, the Ober- prefix is used in many ranking systems for the next level up including military designations. The mayors of cities, which comprise one of Germanys 112 urban districts usually bear this title. Urban districts are comparable to independent cities in the English-speaking world, the mayors of some cities, which do not comprise an urban district, but often used to comprise one until the territorial reforms in the 1970s, bear the title Oberbürgermeister.
In the Netherlands nominated by the council but appointed by the crown. In theory above the parties, in practice a high-profile party-political post, bourgmestre in Belgium and the Democratic Republic of the Congo Bürgermeister Burmistras, derived from German. Burmistrz, a title, derived from German. The German form Oberbürgermeister is often translated as Nadburmistrz, the German-derived terminology reflects the involvement of German settlers in the early history of many Polish towns. Borgmästare, kommunalborgmästare, the title is not used in Sweden in present times, boargemaster Pormestari In history in many free imperial cities the function of burgomaster was usually held simultaneously by three persons, serving as an executive college. One of the three being burgomaster in chief for a year, the second being the prior burgomaster in chief, präsidierender Bürgermeister is now an obsolete formulation sometimes found in historic texts
French First Republic
In the history of France, the First Republic, officially the French Republic, was founded on 21 September 1792 during the French Revolution. The First Republic lasted until the declaration of the First Empire in 1804 under Napoleon, under the Legislative Assembly, which was in power before the proclamation of the First Republic, France was engaged in war with Prussia and Austria. The foreign threat exacerbated Frances political turmoil amid the French Revolution and deepened the passion, in the violence of 10 August 1792, citizens stormed the Tuileries Palace, killing six hundred of the Kings Swiss guards and insisting on the removal of the king. A renewed fear of action prompted further violence, and in the first week of September 1792, mobs of Parisians broke into the citys prisons. This included nobles and political prisoners, but numerous common criminals, such as prostitutes and petty thieves, many murdered in their cells—raped and this became known as the September Massacres. The resulting Convention was founded with the purpose of abolishing the monarchy.
The Conventions first act, on 10 August 1792, was to establish the French First Republic, the King, by a private citizen bearing his family name of Capet, was subsequently put on trial for crimes of high treason starting in December 1792. On 16 January 1793 he was convicted, and on 21 January, throughout the winter of 1792 and spring of 1793, Paris was plagued by food riots and mass hunger. The new Convention did little to remedy the problem until late spring of 1793, despite growing discontent with the National Convention as a ruling body, in June the Convention drafted the Constitution of 1793, which was ratified by popular vote in early August. The Committees laws and policies took the revolution to unprecedented heights, after the arrest and execution of Robespierre in July 1794, the Jacobin club was closed, and the surviving Girondins were reinstated. A year later, the National Convention adopted the Constitution of the Year III and they reestablished freedom of worship, began releasing large numbers of prisoners, and most importantly, initiated elections for a new legislative body.
On 3 November 1795, the Directory was established, the period known as the French Consulate began with the coup of 18 Brumaire in 1799. Members of the Directory itself planned the coup, indicating clearly the failing power of the Directory, Napoleon Bonaparte was a co-conspirator in the coup, and became head of the government as the First Consul. He would proclaim himself Emperor of the French, ending the First French Republic and ushering in the French First Empire