A blog is a discussion or informational website published on the World Wide Web consisting of discrete informal diary-style text entries. Posts are displayed in reverse chronological order, so that the most recent post appears first, at the top of the web page; until 2009, blogs were the work of a single individual of a small group, covered a single subject or topic. In the 2010s, "multi-author blogs" emerged, featuring the writing of multiple authors and sometimes professionally edited. MABs from newspapers, other media outlets, think tanks, advocacy groups, similar institutions account for an increasing quantity of blog traffic; the rise of Twitter and other "microblogging" systems helps integrate MABs and single-author blogs into the news media. Blog can be used as a verb, meaning to maintain or add content to a blog; the emergence and growth of blogs in the late 1990s coincided with the advent of web publishing tools that facilitated the posting of content by non-technical users who did not have much experience with HTML or computer programming.
A knowledge of such technologies as HTML and File Transfer Protocol had been required to publish content on the Web, early Web users therefore tended to be hackers and computer enthusiasts. In the 2010s, the majority are interactive Web 2.0 websites, allowing visitors to leave online comments, it is this interactivity that distinguishes them from other static websites. In that sense, blogging can be seen as a form of social networking service. Indeed, bloggers do not only produce content to post on their blogs, but often build social relations with their readers and other bloggers. However, there are high-readership blogs. Many blogs provide commentary on topic, ranging from politics to sports. Others function as more personal online diaries, others function more as online brand advertising of a particular individual or company. A typical blog combines text, digital images, links to other blogs, web pages, other media related to its topic; the ability of readers to leave publicly viewable comments, interact with other commenters, is an important contribution to the popularity of many blogs.
However, blog owners or authors moderate and filter online comments to remove hate speech or other offensive content. Most blogs are textual, although some focus on art, videos and audio. In education, blogs can be used as instructional resources; these blogs are referred to as edublogs. Microblogging is another type of blogging, featuring short posts. On February 16, 2011, there were over 156 million public blogs in existence. On February 20, 2014, there were around 172 million Tumblr and 75.8 million WordPress blogs in existence worldwide. According to critics and other bloggers, Blogger is the most popular blogging service used today. However, Blogger does not offer public statistics. Technorati lists 1.3 million blogs as of February 22, 2014. The term "weblog" was coined by Jorn Barger on December 17, 1997; the short form, "blog", was coined by Peter Merholz, who jokingly broke the word weblog into the phrase we blog in the sidebar of his blog Peterme.com in April or May 1999. Shortly thereafter, Evan Williams at Pyra Labs used "blog" as both a noun and verb and devised the term "blogger" in connection with Pyra Labs' Blogger product, leading to the popularization of the terms.
Before blogging became popular, digital communities took many forms including Usenet, commercial online services such as GEnie, Byte Information Exchange and the early CompuServe, e-mail lists, Bulletin Board Systems. In the 1990s, Internet forum software created running conversations with "threads". Threads are topical connections between messages on a virtual "corkboard". From June 14, 1993, Mosaic Communications Corporation maintained their "What's New" list of new websites, updated daily and archived monthly; the page was accessible by a special ``. The earliest instance of a commercial blog was on the first business to consumer Web site created in 1995 by Ty, Inc. which featured a blog in a section called "Online Diary". The entries were maintained by featured Beanie Babies that were voted for monthly by Web site visitors; the modern blog evolved from the online diary where people would keep a running account of the events in their personal lives. Most such writers journalers. Justin Hall, who began personal blogging in 1994 while a student at Swarthmore College, is recognized as one of the earlier bloggers, as is Jerry Pournelle.
Dave Winer's Scripting News is credited with being one of the older and longer running weblogs. The Australian Netguide magazine maintained the Daily Net News on their web site from 1996. Daily Net News ran links and daily reviews of new websites in Australia. Another early blog was Wearable Wireless Webcam, an online shared diary of a person's personal life combining text, digital video, digital pictures transmitted live from a wearable computer and EyeTap device to a web site in 1994; this practice of semi-automated blogging with live video together with text was referred to as sousveillance, such journals were used as evidence in legal matters. Some early bloggers, such as The Misanthropic Bitch, who began in 1997 referred to their online presence as a zine, before the term blog entered common usage. Early blogs were manually updated components of common Websites. In 1995, the "Online Diary" on the Ty, In
Davender S. Malik is an Indian American mathematician and professor of mathematics and computer science at Creighton University. Malik attended the University of Delhi in New Delhi, receiving his bachelor's and master's degrees in mathematics, where he won the Prof. Ram Behari Gold Medal in 1980 for his high marks. At the University of Waterloo in Ontario, Canada, he received a master's degree in pure mathematics. In the United States, Malik went to Ohio University, earning an M. S. in computer science, a Ph. D. in mathematics in 1985, writing his dissertation on "A Study of Q-Hypercyclic Rings." In 1985, Malik joined the faculty of Creighton University. In 2013 he became the first holder of the Frederick H. and Anna K. Scheerer Endowed Chair in Mathematics, his research has focused on ring theory, abstract algebra, information science, fuzzy mathematics, including fuzzy automata theory, fuzzy logic, applications of fuzzy set theory in other disciplines. In the academic community, Malik has been a member of the American Mathematical Society and Phi Kappa Phi.
Within his community, co-created a Creighton program in which faculty help area high school students pursue scientific research, to be published in their own student journal. Malik has published 18 books, he has created a computer science line of textbooks that includes extensive and complete programming examples and case studies throughout using programming languages such as C++ and Java. The books he has written include: ProgrammingC++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design C++ Programming: Program Design Including Data Structures Data Structures Using C++ Data Structures Using Java Java programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design Java programming: Program Design including Data structures Java programming: Guided Learning With Early Objects Introduction to C++ Programming, Brief Edition MathematicsFundamentals of Abstract Algebra Fuzzy Commutative Algebra Fuzzy Discrete Structures Fuzzy Mathematics in Medicine Fuzzy Automata and Languages: Theory and Applications Fuzzy Semigroups Application of Fuzzy Logic to Social Choice Theory Faculty webpage at Creighton University
The 1901 Stanford football team was an American football team that represented Stanford University as an independent during the 1901 college football season. The team was led by Charles Fickert, the first former Stanford player to serve as head football coach at his alma mater; the team played its home games at California. Stanford compiled a 3–1–2 record in the regular season and was invited to represent the West in the Tournament East-West football game to be held in Tournament Park in Pasadena, California on New Year's Day, 1902, facing East representative Michigan, a team which had yet to yield a point all season. Stanford had no better luck, losing 49–0 in what would be known as the Rose Bowl. After the conclusion of the 1901 football season, Stanford was invited to play against Michigan in a game to be held on New Year's Day, 1902 in Tournament Park in Pasadena, California; the game was dubbed the Tournament East–West Football Game and was held as part of the Tournament of Roses event to encourage tourism to the mild climate of Southern California at a time of year when most of the nation was experiencing cold winter weather.
In the game, Stanford was no match for Michigan, which had outscored its opponents 501–0 during the regular season. Led by fullback Neil Snow, who ran for five touchdowns, the Wolverines led 49–0 with eight minutes remaining before the teams agreed to end the game early; the outcome of the game soured the Tournament of Roses committee on football, it was not until 1916 that football was again included as part of the festivities. The game is considered the first-ever postseason bowl game in college football
Deep is the third solo studio album by English musician Peter Murphy. Produced by Simon Rogers, the album was released on 19 December 1989 through RCA and Beggars Banquet Records and features contributions from Murphy's backing band, The Hundred Men; the album spawned three singles: "The Line Between the Devil's Teeth", "Cuts You Up" and "A Strange Kind of Love". The track "Cuts You Up" became a modern rock hit in 1990, spending seven weeks at the top of the U. S. charts and crossing over to Billboard Hot 100, where it peaked at number 55. The other singles charted on the Modern Rock Tracks chart, peaking at numbers 18 and 21, respectively. Ned Raggett of Allmusic praised the album, stating that "Deep showed Murphy balancing mass appeal and his own distinct art with perfection," and wrote that "Murphy sounds like he's having the time of his life, singing both for the sheer joy of it and for the dramatic power of his commanding voice." All tracks are written by Paul Statham. Notes All US versions of the album contain a different mix of "Crystal Wrists", done by Peter Walsh.
Peter Murphy – vocals, mixing, designThe Hundred Men Terl Bryant – drums, percussion Eddie Branch – bass Paul Statham – guitar, keyboards Peter Bonas – guitarOther musicians Gill Tingay – harp Jim Williams – guitar Technical personnel Simon Rogers – production, acoustic guitar.
In aircraft, a V-tail or Vee-tail is an unconventional arrangement of the tail control surfaces that replaces the traditional fin and horizontal surfaces with two surfaces set in a V-shaped configuration when viewed from the front or rear of the aircraft. The aft edge of each twin surface is a hinged control surface, sometimes called a ruddervator, which combines the functions of both a rudder and elevators; the V-tail was invented in 1930 by Polish engineer Jerzy Rudlicki and was tested for the first time on the Hanriot H-28 trainer aircraft, modified by a Polish aerospace manufacturer Plage and Laśkiewicz in the summer of 1931. The X-shaped tail surfaces of the experimental Lockheed XFV were a V tail that extended both above and below the fuselage. Despite its advantages, the V-tail has not become popular in aircraft design; the most popular conventionally V-tailed aircraft, mass-produced is the Beechcraft Bonanza Model 35 known as the V-tail Bonanza or V-Tail. Other examples include the Lockheed F-117 Nighthawk stealth fighter and the Fouga CM.170 Magister trainer.
The Cirrus Vision SF50 jet is a recent example of a civilian aircraft adopting the V-tail. Some gliders, like the Lehtovaara PIK-16 Vasama, were designed with a V-tail, but the production Vasamas had a cruciform tail; the Blohm & Voss P 213 Miniaturjäger was one of the first aircraft having an inverted V-tail. Unmanned aerial vehicles such as the LSI Amber, the General Atomics GNAT and the General Atomics MQ-1 Predator would feature this type of tail; the Ultraflight Lazair ultralights, of which over 2000 were produced, featured an inverted V-tail, which carried the rear landing gear. Ideally, with fewer surfaces than a conventional three-aerofoil tail or a T-tail, the V-tail is lighter and has less wetted surface area, so thus produces less induced and parasitic drag. However, NACA studies indicated that the V-tail surfaces must be larger than simple projection into the vertical and horizontal planes would suggest, such that total wetted area is constant. Light jet aircraft such as the Cirrus Vision SF50, the Eclipse 400 or the Northrop Grumman RQ-4 Global Hawk unmanned aerial drone have the power plant placed outside the aircraft.
In such cases V-tails are used to avoid placing the vertical stabilizer in the exhaust of the engine, which would disrupt the flow of the exhaust, reducing thrust and increasing wear on the stabilizer leading to damage over time. In the mid-1980s, the Federal Aviation Administration grounded the Beechcraft Bonanza due to safety concerns. While the Bonanza met the initial certification requirements, it had a history of fatal mid-air breakups during extreme stress, at a rate exceeding the accepted norm; the type was deemed airworthy and restrictions removed after Beechcraft issued a structural modification as an Airworthiness Directive. V-tailed aircraft require longer rear fuselages than aircraft with conventional empennages to prevent yawing; this tendency, called "snaking", was apparent on taking off and landing on the Fouga CM.170 Magister, which has a short fuselage. Ruddervators are the control surfaces on an airplane with a V-tail configuration, they are located at the trailing edge of each of the two airfoils making up the tail of the plane.
The first use of ruddervators may have been on the Coandă-1910's X-tail, although there is no proof that the aircraft flew. The Coandă-1911 flew with ruddervators on its X-tail. Polish engineer Jerzy Rudlicki designed the first practical ruddervators in 1930, tested on a modified Hanriot HD.28 trainer in 1931. The name is a portmanteau of the words elevator. In a conventional aircraft tail configuration, the rudder provides yaw control and the elevator provides pitch control. Ruddervators provide the same control effect as conventional control surfaces, but through a more complex control system that actuates the control surfaces in unison. Yaw moving the nose to the left is produced on an upright V tail by moving the pedals left which deflects the left-hand ruddervator down and left and the right-hand ruddervator up and left; the opposite produces yaw to the right. Pitch nose up is produced by moving the control column or stick back which deflects the left-hand ruddervator up and right and the right-hand ruddervator up and left.
Pitch nose down is produced by moving the control column or stick forward which induces the opposite ruddervator movements. Cruciform tail Pelikan tail T-tail Twin tail Simple Aerodynamics Of The V-Tail, from "Flying the Beech Bonanza" by Eckalbar, John C
Hispanic and Latino American Muslims are Hispanic and Latino Americans who are of the Islamic faith. Hispanic and Latino Americans are an ethnolinguistic group of citizens of the United States with origins in the countries of Latin America or the Iberian peninsula. Islam is an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God, that Muhammad is a messenger of God; the primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, claimed to be the verbatim word of God, the teachings and normative examples of Muhammad. Muslims believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith, revealed many times before through prophets including Adam, Abraham and Jesus, the Quran in its Arabic to be the unaltered and final revelation of God; the Spaniards took the Roman Catholic faith to Latin America, Roman Catholicism continues to be the largest, but not the only, religious denomination among most Hispanics. As for the Arabs, they took Islam to few Latin American countries such as Mexico, El Salvador and Colombia.
As true with other religious converts, Latinos convert to Islam due to their newfound belief in the teachings of Islam. For Muslims, this consists of acceptance in the belief of tawhid, Islamic monotheism, a belief that Muhammad is a messenger of God; this is declaration of faith. For example, Latinos have argued that Islamic values harmonize with the traditional values of Latino culture. Converts have cited such similarities as respect for social solidarity, the family, the importance of religion, education. Many Latino converts come from Catholic backgrounds and the similarities between Catholicism and Islam give them a sense of familiarity with their new religion. However, some Latino Muslims had difficulty with the Church, believing in original sin, in the Holy Trinity. Islam solves the problems. Dr. Fathi Osman, resident scholar at the Omar Foundation, says "in their own countries Hispanics did not see the Church supporting the rights of the poor. Rather it sided with the rich and the influential."
This, has contributed to some Latinos converting to Islam. In addition, Islam draws in converts because of the nature of the religion is that a person has a direct relationship with God. One does not need a mediator, like a priest in Catholicism. There is a relative simplicity within Islam with theology in this respect; some Latino Muslims claim conversion to Islam as a return to their true heritage. Muslim Moors invaded Spain in 711 and their last stronghold fell in 1492; the process of conversion is instead referred to as "reversion" due to it being the rediscovery and connection with a lost heritage and tie to Islam. Islam began to have a more significant influence on the Latino community in the barrios in the Northeast in the early 70s through converts being introduced to the religion in African-American mosques. Others made the connection through others who were affiliated with the Nation of Islam and found solidarity with their understanding of racial struggle. Other reasons for conversion include finding resonance with Islam after researching other religions, or having an academic interest in Islam that leads to a spiritual interest.
Others choose to convert because they are dating or married to someone, Muslim. The concept of liberation theology has Christian roots in the Latin American struggle for social justice in light of colonialism and oppression, but the term has been applied in an Islamic context. Islamic liberation theology emerged from the struggle against "settler colonialism and apartheid in South Africa." According to Palombo, “ll liberation theologies emerge during struggles for socioeconomic and psychological liberation from objective and subjective forms of oppression,” and “the revelatory activity of God in history demonstrates a'preferential option for the poor' and sides against those who exert oppression and domination.”Islam is seen as "refusing" the concept of separation of religion and politics of the Enlightenment, which in turn leads to the necessity for social and political activism, much like the Muslim activists of the 20th century that challenged colonialism and corruption of the government.
In addition, the Qur'an tells the stories of the prophets and their "belief in God and the struggle for social justice," which further motivates Muslims to follow the example of the prophets and engage in social activism. Similar to the struggle of African Americans, Latino Muslims can find solidarity and a similar theological understanding of struggle and oppression through Islam. Islamic liberation theology is similar to Christian liberation theology in many ways, but the break from Christianity, Catholicism in particular, allows many Latino Muslims to disassociate from their historical oppressors in the Americas. Although there are inconsistent exact numbers of conversions, many scholars and chaplains cite Islam as the fastest growing religion among the incarcerated population, it is estimated that 15% of the U. S. prison population is Muslim composed of African Americans but followed by Latinos. In 1991 an estimated 35,000 people in prison converted to Islam every year, more recent estimates range from 30,000–40,000 per year.
With the growth of the imprisoned population with mass incarceration and the growth of Islam in the U. S. these numbers are bound to be under-representing the Muslim convert population in prison. Islam allows those convicted of crimes to recover from the stigma of being a "criminal". By following the teachings of Islam, people who are convicted of a crime have a moral framework for rehabilitation and recovery as well