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Roman Catholic Diocese of Görlitz

The Diocese of Görlitz is a diocese of the Roman Catholic church in Germany. The current ordinary is Wolfgang Ipolt For the history until 1821 see the History of the ancient See of Meissen. In order to insure the success of the Christian missions among the pagan Wends, Otto I suggested at the Roman Synod of 962 the creation of an archiepiscopal see at Magdeburg. Pope John XII consented, shortly before the execution of the plan in 968 it was decided at the Synod of Ravenna to create three bishoprics — Meissen and Zeitz — as suffragans of the Archdiocese of Magdeburg; the year in which the Diocese of Meissen was established is disputed, as the oldest extant records may be forgeries. In 1346 the diocese stretched from the Ore Mountains and Iser Mountains in the south, from there northwards downstream the Queis and Bober rivers, forming the eastern boundary, in the north downstream the Oder to the junction of the Lusatian Neisse and on along the Oder crossing to the middle course of the Spree in the northwest, thus including Upper Lusatia and Lower Lusatia.

The chief task of the bishops of the new see was the conversion of the Wends, to which Bishops Volkold and Eido devoted themselves with great zeal. Saint Benno, bishop of Meissen, devoted himself to missionary work among the Slavs. In the 13th century the pagan Wends were converted to Christianity, chiefly through the efforts of the great Cistercian monasteries, the most important of which were Dobrilugk and Neuzelle. In 1365 Pope Urban V appointed the Archbishop of Prague legatus natus, or perpetual representative of the Holy See, for the Dioceses of Meissen, of Bamberg and of Regensburg. William I, Margrave of Meissen prevailed on Pope Boniface IX in 1405 to free Meissen from the authority of the Magdeburg metropolitan and to place it as an exempt diocese directly under the Holy See. John VII of Schleinitz was a resolute opponent of Martin Luther, whose revolt began in neighbouring Wittenberg, conjointly with George of Saxony, endeavored to crush the innovations; the canonisation of Benno, urged by him, was intended to offset the progress of the Lutheranism.

John VIII of Maltitz and Nicholas II of Carlowitz were unable to withstand the ever-spreading Reformation, which after the death of Duke George triumphed in the Saxon part of the diocese. The last bishop, John of Haugwitz, placed his resignation in the hands of the cathedral chapter, in virtue of an agreement with Elector Augustus of Saxony, went over to Lutheranism and retired to the castle of Ruhetal near Mögeln. Before his resignation and conversion Haugwitz appointed Johannes Leisentritt as diocesan administrator, seated in Bautzen, competent for the Lusatian areas of the diocese outside of Saxony. Leisentritt failed to win the pope for establishing a new diocese comprising only the Lusatian areas of Meissen diocese. However, in 1567 the Holy See separated the Lusatian areas from the Saxon parts of the diocese and established there the Apostolic Prefecture of Meissen, seated in Bautzen, with Leisentritt as its first prefect. In canon law an apostolic prefecture is a diocese on approval.

According to its location and its seat the prefecture used to be called alternatively the Apostolic Prefecture of the Two Lusatias or Apostolic Prefecture of Bautzen. The liege lord of the Two Lusatias, the Catholic king of Bohemia did not offend the spreading of the Reformation in the Two Lusatias. So it depended on the local vassals if Protestantism prevailed or not; when in 1635 the Lutheran Electorate of Saxony annexed the Two Lusatias it guaranteed in the cession contract with Bohemia to leave the existing religious relations untouched. As a signatory of the Peace of Westphalia of 1648 Saxony agreed to maintain the religious status quo as given in the reference year of 1624 in all its territories acquired since. After the Prussian annexation of Lower Lusatia and eastern Upper Lusatia in 1815 the Holy See assigned the Lower Lusatian and eastern Upper Lusatian areas of the Meissen prefectureto the Prussian Prince-Bishopric of Breslau in 1821; the remaining prefecture, which had maintained a strong Catholic identity, used to be called since the Apostolic Prefecture of Upper Lusatia.

For the history between 1821 and 1972 see the History of the See of Breslau. The Bull De salute animarum disentangled Breslau diocese from Gniezno ecclesiastical province and made Breslau an exempt bishopric; the bull reconfined the Breslau diocesan area, adding the Prussian-annexed parts of the Apostolic Prefecture of Meissen in Lower Lusatia and eastern Upper Lusatia. Prince-Bishop Emmanuel von Schimonsky combatted the rationalistic tendencies which were rife among his clergy in regard to celibacy and the use of Latin in the church services and ceremonies. During the episcopate of his predecessor the government had promulgated a law, a source of much trouble to Schimonsky and his immediate successors. In spite of the protests of the episcop

Riot in English

Riot in English is the debut studio album by American singer Dale Bozzio. It was released on March 1988 by Paisley Park Records. Bozzio began working on the album after her divorce from Terry Bozzio and the break-up of their band Missing Persons, she got signed to Prince's record label Paisley Park Records and collaborated with Robert Brookins and Attala Zane Giles on the album while co-writing most of the songs. Musically, the songs took a different direction than her work with Missing Persons, incorporating more dance-pop sound rather than new wave music. Three singles were released from the album; the lead single "Simon Simon" reached the dance charts, peaking inside the top forty on the Billboard Dance Club Songs chart. However, the following singles. Joe Viglione from AllMusic gave the album three and a half out of five stars, he praised Bozzio's lyrics saying that "she knows how to pull a chic cliché and envelope it" and added that Prince gave her "the opportunity to prove she's as charming on record as she is in person and a talent in her own right apart from Missing Persons".

Credits adapted from the album's liner notes. Riot in English at AllMusic Riot in English at Discogs