A blood bank is a center where blood gathered as a result of blood donation is stored and preserved for use in blood transfusion. The term "blood bank" refers to a division of a hospital where the storage of blood product occurs and where proper testing is performed. However, it sometimes refers to a collection center, indeed some hospitals perform collection. For blood donation agencies in various countries, see List of blood donation agencies and List of blood donation agencies in the United States. Whole blood or blood with RBC, is transfused to patients with anaemia/iron deficiency, it helps to improve the oxygen saturation in blood. It can be stored at 1.0 °C-6.0 °C for 35–45 days. Platelet transfusion, is transfused to those; this can be stored at room temperature for 5–7 days. The donation of Plasma is called. Plasma transfusion is indicated to patients with severe infections or serious burns. Fresh frozen plasma can be stored at a low temperature of -25 °C for up to 12 months. While the first blood transfusions were made directly from donor to receiver before coagulation, it was discovered that by adding anticoagulant and refrigerating the blood it was possible to store it for some days, thus opening the way for the development of blood banks.
John Braxton Hicks was the first to experiment with chemical methods to prevent the coagulation of blood at St Mary's Hospital, London in the late 19th century. His attempts, using phosphate of soda, were unsuccessful; the first non-direct transfusion was performed on March 27, 1914 by the Belgian doctor Albert Hustin, though this was a diluted solution of blood. The Argentine doctor Luis Agote used a much less diluted solution in November of the same year. Both used sodium citrate as an anticoagulant; the First World War acted as a catalyst for the rapid development of blood banks and transfusion techniques. Canadian Lieutenant Lawrence Bruce Robertson was instrumental in persuading the Royal Army Medical Corps to adopt the use of blood transfusion at the Casualty Clearing Stations for the wounded. In October 1915, Robertson performed his first wartime transfusion with a syringe to a patient suffering from multiple shrapnel wounds, he followed this up with four subsequent transfusions in the following months, his success was reported to Sir Walter Morley Fletcher, director of the Medical Research Committee.
Robertson published his findings in the British Medical Journal in 1916, and—with the help of a few like minded individuals —was able to persuade the British authorities of the merits of blood transfusion. Robertson went on to establish the first blood transfusion apparatus at a Casualty Clearing Station on the Western Front in the spring of 1917. Oswald Hope Robertson, a medical researcher and U. S. Army officer was attached to the RAMC in 1917, where he was instrumental in establishing the first blood banks, in preparation for the anticipated Third Battle of Ypres, he used sodium citrate as the anticoagulant, the blood was extracted from punctures in the vein, was stored in bottles at British and American Casualty Clearing Stations along the Front. He experimented with preserving separated red blood cells in iced bottles. Geoffrey Keynes, a British surgeon, developed a portable machine that could store blood to enable transfusions to be carried out more easily; the world's first blood donor service was established in 1921 by the secretary of the British Red Cross, Percy Oliver.
Volunteers were subjected to a series of physical tests to establish their blood group. The London Blood Transfusion Service expanded rapidly. By 1925, it was providing services for 500 patients and it was incorporated into the structure of the British Red Cross in 1926. Similar systems were established in other cities including Sheffield and Norwich, the service's work began to attract international attention. Similar services were established in France, Austria, Belgium and Japan. Vladimir Shamov and Sergei Yudin in the Soviet Union pioneered the transfusion of cadaveric blood from deceased donors. Yudin performed such a transfusion for the first time on March 23, 1930 and reported his first seven clinical transfusions with cadaveric blood at the Fourth Congress of Ukrainian Surgeons at Kharkiv in September. In 1930, Yudin organized the world's first blood bank at the Nikolay Sklifosovsky Institute, which set an example for the establishment of further blood banks in different regions of the Soviet and in other countries.
By the mid-1930s Soviet had set up a system of at least 65 large blood centers and more than 500 subsidiary ones, all storing "canned" blood and shipping it to all corners of the country. One of the earliest blood banks was established by Frederic Durán-Jordà during the Spanish Civil War in 1936. Duran joined the Transfusion Service at the Barcelona Hospital at the start of the conflict, but the hospital was soon overwhelmed by the demand for blood and the paucity of available donors. With support from the Department of Health of the Spanish Republican Army, Duran established a blood bank for the use of wounded soldiers and civilians; the 300–400 ml of extracted blood was mixed with 10% citrate solution in a modified Duran Erlenmeyer flask. The blood was stored in a sterile glass enclosed under pressure at 2 °C. During 30 months of work, the Transfusion Service of Barcelona registered 30,000 donors, processed 9,000 liters of blood. In 1937 Bernard Fantus, director of therapeutics at the Cook County Hospital in Chicago, established the one of the fir
National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
The National Academies of Sciences and Medicine is the collective scientific national academy of the United States. The name is used interchangeably in two senses: as an umbrella term for its three quasi-independent honorific member organizations, and as the brand for studies and reports issued by the operating arm of the three academies, the National Research Council. The NRC was first formed in 1916 as an activity of the NAS. Now jointly governed by all three academies, it produces some 200 publications annually which are published by the National Academies Press; the US National Academy of Sciences was created by an Act of Incorporation dated March 3, 1863, signed by President of the United States Abraham Lincoln The Act stated that "... the Academy shall, whenever called upon by any department of the Government, examine and report upon any subject of science or art.... " With the American civil war raging, the new Academy was presented with few problems to solve, but it did address matters of "... coinage and measures, iron ship hulls, the purity of whiskey..."
All subsequently affiliated organizations have been created under this same overall congressional charter, including the two younger academies, National Academy of Engineering and NAM. Under this same charter, the National Research Council was created in 1916. On June 19 of that year US President Woodrow Wilson requested that the National Academy of Sciences organize a "National Research Council"; the purpose of the Council was in part to foster and encourage "the increased use of scientific research in the development of American industries... the employment of scientific methods in strengthening the national defense... and such other applications of science as will promote the national security and welfare."At the time, the Academy's effort to support national defense readiness, the Committee on Nitric Acid Supply, was approved by Secretary of War Newton D. Baker. Nitric acid was the substance basic in the making of propellants such as cordite, high explosives, dyes and other products but availability was limited due to World War I.
The NRC, through its committee, recommended importing Chilean saltpeter and the construction of four new ordinance plants. These recommendations were accepted by the War Department in June 1917, although the plants were not completed prior to the end of the war. In 1918, Wilson formalized the NRC's existence under Executive Order 2859. Wilson's order declared the function of the NRC to be in general: "o stimulate research in the mathematical. Physical, biological sciences, and in the application of these sciences to engineering, agriculture. Medicine, and other useful arts. With the object of increasing knowledge, of strengthening the national defense, of contributing in other ways to the public welfare."During World War I, the United States was at war, the NRC operated as the Department of Science and Research of the Council of National Defense as well as the Science and Research Division of the United States Army Signal Corps. When war was first declared, the Council had organized committees on gas warfare.
On June 1, 1917, the council convened a meeting of scientific representatives of the United Kingdom and France with interested parties from the U. S. on the subject of submarine detection. Another meeting with the British and French was held in Paris in October 1918, at which more details of their work was disclosed; as a result of these meetings, the NRC recommended that scientists be brought together to work on the problems associated with submarine detection. Due to the success of council-directed research in producing a sound-based method of detecting submarines, as well as other military innovations, the NRC was retained at the end of the war, though it was decoupled from the military. NRC's Articles of Organization have been changed only three times: in 1956, January 1993, July 2015; the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering and National Academy of Medicine are honorary membership organizations, each of which has its own governing Council, each of which elects its own new members.
The membership of the three academies totals more than 6,300 scientists and health professionals. New members for each organization are elected annually by current members, based on their distinguished and continuing achievements in original research. By the terms of the original 1863 Congressional charter, the three academies serve pro bono as "advisers to the nation on science and medicine." The program units known as the National Research Council, are collectively the operating arm of the three academies for the purpose of providing objective policy advice. Although separately chartered, it falls under the overall charter of the National Academy of Sciences, whose ultimate fiduciary body is the NAS Council. In actual practice, the NAS Council delegates governing authority to a Governing Board of the National Research Council, chaired jointly by the presidents of the three academies, with additional members chosen by them or specified in the charters of the academies. Under this three-academy umbrella, the program units produce reports that shape policies, inform public opinion, advance the pursuit of science and medicine.
There are seven major divisions: Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, Division of E
Serum total protein
Serum total protein known as total protein, is a biochemical test for measuring the total amount of protein in serum. Protein in the serum is made up of globulin; the globulin in turn is made up of α1, α2, β, γ globulins. These fractions can be quantitated using protein electrophoresis, but the total protein test is a faster and cheaper test that estimates the total of all fractions together; the traditional method for measuring total protein uses the biuret reagent, but other chemical methods such as Kjeldahl method, dye-binding and refractometry are now available. The measurement is performed on automated analysers along with other laboratory tests; the reference range for total protein is 60-80g/L. But this may vary depending on the method of analysis. Concentrations below the reference range reflect low albumin concentration, for instance in liver disease or acute infection. Low total protein may be a sign of immunodeficiency. Concentrations above the reference range are found in paraproteinaemia, Hodgkin's lymphoma, leukaemia or any condition causing an increase in immunoglobulins.
Total protein is commonly elevated in dehydration and C677T gene mutation. Total protein and A/G ratio at Lab Tests Online Total protein: analyte monograph - The Association for Clinical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine
Osmosis is the spontaneous net movement of solvent molecules through a selectively permeable membrane into a region of higher solute concentration, in the direction that tends to equalize the solute concentrations on the two sides. It may be used to describe a physical process in which any solvent moves across a selectively permeable membrane separating two solutions of different concentrations. Osmosis can be made to do work. Osmotic pressure is defined as the external pressure required to be applied so that there is no net movement of solvent across the membrane. Osmotic pressure is a colligative property, meaning that the osmotic pressure depends on the molar concentration of the solute but not on its identity. Osmosis is a vital process in biological systems. In general, these membranes are impermeable to large and polar molecules, such as ions and polysaccharides, while being permeable to non-polar or hydrophobic molecules like lipids as well as to small molecules like oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitric oxide.
Permeability depends on charge, or chemistry, as well as solute size. Water molecules travel through the plasma membrane, tonoplast membrane or protoplast by diffusing across the phospholipid bilayer via aquaporins. Osmosis provides the primary means by which water is transported out of cells; the turgor pressure of a cell is maintained by osmosis across the cell membrane between the cell interior and its hypotonic environment. Some kinds of osmotic flow have been observed since ancient times, e.g. on the construction of Egyptian pyramids. Jean-Antoine Nollet first documented observation of osmosis in 1748; the word "osmosis" descends from the words "endosmose" and "exosmose", which were coined by French physician René Joachim Henri Dutrochet from the Greek words ἔνδον, ἔξω, ὠσμός. In 1867, Moritz Traube invented selective precipitation membranes, advancing the art and technique of measurement of osmotic flow. Osmosis is the movement of a solvent across a semipermeable membrane toward a higher concentration of solute.
In biological systems, the solvent is water, but osmosis can occur in other liquids, supercritical liquids, gases. When a cell is submerged in water, the water molecules pass through the cell membrane from an area of low solute concentration to high solute concentration. For example, if the cell is submerged in saltwater, water molecules move out of the cell. If a cell is submerged in freshwater, water molecules move into the cell; when the membrane has a volume of pure water on both sides, water molecules pass in and out in each direction at the same rate. There is no net flow of water through the membrane; the mechanism responsible for driving osmosis has been represented in biology and chemistry texts as either the dilution of water by solute or by a solute's attraction to water. Both of these notions have been conclusively refuted; the diffusion model of osmosis is rendered untenable by the fact that osmosis can drive water across a membrane toward a higher concentration of water. The "bound water" model is refuted by the fact that osmosis is independent of the size of the solute molecules—a colligative property—or how hydrophilic they are.
It is hard to describe osmosis without a mechanical or thermodynamic explanation, but there is an interaction between the solute and water that counteracts the pressure that otherwise free solute molecules would exert. One fact to take note of is that heat from the surroundings is able to be converted into mechanical energy. Many thermodynamic explanations go into the concept of chemical potential and how the function of the water on the solution side differs from that of pure water due to the higher pressure and the presence of the solute counteracting such that the chemical potential remains unchanged; the virial theorem demonstrates that attraction between the molecules reduces the pressure, thus the pressure exerted by water molecules on each other in solution is less than in pure water, allowing pure water to "force" the solution until the pressure reaches equilibrium. Osmotic pressure is the main cause of support in many plants; the osmotic entry of water raises the turgor pressure exerted against the cell wall, until it equals the osmotic pressure, creating a steady state.
When a plant cell is placed in a solution, hypertonic relative to the cytoplasm, water moves out of the cell and the cell shrinks. In doing so, the cell becomes flaccid. In extreme cases, the cell becomes plasmolyzed – the cell membrane disengages with the cell wall due to lack of water pressure on it; when a plant cell is placed in a solution, hypotonic relative to the cytoplasm, water moves into the cell and the cell swells to become turgid. Osmosis is responsible for the ability of plant roots to draw water from the soil. Plants concentrate solutes in their root cells by active transport, water enters the roots by osmosis. Osmosis is responsible for controlling the movement of guard cells. Osmosis can be demonstrated; the water from inside the potato moves out to the solution, causing the potat
A blood donation occurs when a person voluntarily has blood drawn and used for transfusions and/or made into biopharmaceutical medications by a process called fractionation. Donation may be of specific components directly. Blood banks participate in the collection process as well as the procedures that follow it. Today in the developed world, most blood donors are unpaid volunteers who donate blood for a community supply. In some countries, established supplies are limited and donors give blood when family or friends need a transfusion. Many donors donate as an act of charity, but in countries that allow paid donation some donors are paid, in some cases there are incentives other than money such as paid time off from work. Donors can have blood drawn for their own future use. Donating is safe, but some donors have bruising where the needle is inserted or may feel faint. Potential donors are evaluated for anything; the screening includes testing for diseases that can be transmitted by a blood transfusion, including HIV and viral hepatitis.
The donor must answer questions about medical history and take a short physical examination to make sure the donation is not hazardous to his or her health. How a donor can donate varies from days to months based on what component they donate and the laws of the country where the donation takes place. For example, in the United States, donors must wait eight weeks between whole blood donations but only seven days between plateletpheresis donations and twice per seven-day period in plasmapheresis; the amount of blood drawn and the methods vary. The collection can be done manually or with automated equipment that takes only specific components of the blood. Most of the components of blood used for transfusions have a short shelf life, maintaining a constant supply is a persistent problem; this has led to some increased interest in autotransfusion, whereby a patient's blood is salvaged during surgery for continuous reinfusion—or alternatively, is "self-donated" prior to when it will be needed. Blood donations are divided into groups based on.
An'allogeneic' donation is when a donor gives blood for storage at a blood bank for transfusion to an unknown recipient. A'directed' donation is when a person a family member, donates blood for transfusion to a specific individual. Directed donations are rare when an established supply exists. A'replacement donor' donation is a hybrid of the two and is common in developing countries such as Ghana. In this case, a friend or family member of the recipient donates blood to replace the stored blood used in a transfusion, ensuring a consistent supply; when a person has blood stored that will be transfused back to the donor at a date after surgery, called an'autologous' donation. Blood, used to make medications can be made from allogeneic donations or from donations used for manufacturing. Blood is sometimes collected using similar methods for therapeutic phlebotomy, similar to the ancient practice of bloodletting, used to treat conditions such as hereditary hemochromatosis or polycythemia vera; this blood is sometimes treated as a blood donation, but may be discarded if it cannot be used for transfusion or further manufacturing.
The actual process varies according to the laws of the country, recommendations to donors vary according to the collecting organization. The World Health Organization gives recommendations for blood donation policies, but in developing countries many of these are not followed. For example, the recommended testing requires laboratory facilities, trained staff, specialized reagents, all of which may not be available or too expensive in developing countries. An event where donors come to donate allogeneic blood is sometimes called a'blood drive' or a'blood donor session'; these can occur at a blood bank, but they are set up at a location in the community such as a shopping center, school, or house of worship. Donors are required to give consent for the process and this requirement means minors cannot donate without permission from a parent or guardian. In some countries, answers are associated with the donor's blood, but not name, to provide anonymity. If a potential donor does not meet these criteria, they are'deferred'.
This term is used. Blood banks in the United States may be required to label the blood if it is from a therapeutic donor, so some do not accept donations from donors with any blood disease. Others, such as the Australian Red Cross Blood Service, accept blood from donors with hemochromatosis, it is a genetic disorder. The donor's race or ethnic background is sometimes important since certain blood types rare ones, are more common in certain ethnic groups. In the United States donors were segregated or excluded on race, religion, or ethnicity, but this is no longer a standard practice. Donors are screened for health risks; some of these restrictions are controversial, such as restricting donations from men who have sex with men because of the risk of transmitting HIV. In 2011, the UK reduced its blanket
An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water. The dissolved electrolyte separates into cations and anions, which disperse uniformly through the solvent. Electrically, such a solution is neutral. If an electric potential is applied to such a solution, the cations of the solution are drawn to the electrode that has an abundance of electrons, while the anions are drawn to the electrode that has a deficit of electrons; the movement of anions and cations in opposite directions within the solution amounts to a current. This includes most soluble salts and bases; some gases, such as hydrogen chloride, under conditions of high temperature or low pressure can function as electrolytes. Electrolyte solutions can result from the dissolution of some biological and synthetic polymers, termed "polyelectrolytes", which contain charged functional groups. A substance that dissociates into ions in solution acquires the capacity to conduct electricity.
Sodium, chloride, calcium and phosphate are examples of electrolytes. In medicine, electrolyte replacement is needed when a person has prolonged vomiting or diarrhea, as a response to strenuous athletic activity. Commercial electrolyte solutions are available for sick children and athletes. Electrolyte monitoring is important in the treatment of bulimia; the word electrolyte derives from the Greek lytós, meaning "able to be untied or loosened". Svante Arrhenius put forth, in his 1884 dissertation, his explanation of the fact that solid crystalline salts disassociate into paired charged particles when dissolved, for which he won the 1903 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Arrhenius's explanation was that in forming a solution, the salt dissociates into charged particles, to which Michael Faraday had given the name "ions" many years earlier. Faraday's belief had been. Arrhenius proposed that in the absence of an electric current, solutions of salts contained ions, he thus proposed. Electrolyte solutions are formed when a salt is placed into a solvent such as water and the individual components dissociate due to the thermodynamic interactions between solvent and solute molecules, in a process called "solvation".
For example, when table salt, NaCl, is placed in water, the salt dissolves into its component ions, according to the dissociation reaction NaCl → Na+ + Cl−It is possible for substances to react with water, producing ions. For example, carbon dioxide gas dissolves in water to produce a solution that contains hydronium and hydrogen carbonate ions. Molten salts can be electrolytes as, for example, when sodium chloride is molten, the liquid conducts electricity. In particular, ionic liquids, which are molten salts with melting points below 100 °C, are a type of conductive non-aqueous electrolytes and thus have found more and more applications in fuel cells and batteries. An electrolyte in a solution may be described as "concentrated" if it has a high concentration of ions, or "diluted" if it has a low concentration. If a high proportion of the solute dissociates to form free ions, the electrolyte is strong; the properties of electrolytes may be exploited using electrolysis to extract constituent elements and compounds contained within the solution.
Alkaline earth metals form hydroxides that are strong electrolytes with limited solubility in water, due to the strong attraction between their constituent ions. This limits their application to situations. In physiology, the primary ions of electrolytes are sodium, calcium, chloride, hydrogen phosphate, hydrogen carbonate; the electric charge symbols of plus and minus indicate that the substance is ionic in nature and has an imbalanced distribution of electrons, the result of chemical dissociation. Sodium is the main electrolyte found in extracellular fluid and potassium is the main intracellular electrolyte. All known higher lifeforms require a subtle and complex electrolyte balance between the intracellular and extracellular environments. In particular, the maintenance of precise osmotic gradients of electrolytes is important; such gradients affect and regulate the hydration of the body as well as blood pH, are critical for nerve and muscle function. Various mechanisms exist in living species that keep the concentrations of different electrolytes under tight control.
Both muscle tissue and neurons are considered electric tissues of the body. Muscles and neurons are activated by electrolyte activity between the extracellular fluid or interstitial fluid, intracellular fluid. Electrolytes may enter or leave the cell membrane through specialized protein structures embedded in the plasma membrane called "ion channels". For example, muscle contraction is dependent upon the presence of calcium and potassium. Without sufficient levels of these key electrolytes, muscle weakness or severe muscle contractions may occur. Electrolyte balance is maintained by oral, or in emergencies, intravenous intake of electrolyte-containing substances, is regulated by hormones, in general with the kidneys flushing out excess levels. In humans, electrolyte homeostasis is regulated by hormones such as antidiuretic hormones and parathyroid hormones. Serious electrol
Serum albumin referred to as blood albumin, is an albumin found in vertebrate blood. Human serum albumin is encoded by the ALB gene. Other mammalian forms, such as bovine serum albumin, are chemically similar. Serum albumin is produced by the liver, occurs dissolved in blood plasma and is the most abundant blood protein in mammals. Albumin is essential for maintaining the oncotic pressure needed for proper distribution of body fluids between blood vessels and body tissues, it acts as a plasma carrier by non-specifically binding several hydrophobic steroid hormones and as a transport protein for hemin and fatty acids. Too much or too little circulating serum albumin may be harmful. Albumin in the urine denotes the presence of kidney disease. Albumin appears in the urine of normal persons following long standing. Albumin functions as a carrier protein for steroids, fatty acids, thyroid hormones in the blood and plays a major role in stabilizing extracellular fluid volume by contributing to oncotic pressure of plasma.
Because smaller animals function at a lower blood pressure, they need less oncotic pressure to balance this, thus need less albumin to maintain proper fluid distribution. Albumin is synthesized in the liver as preproalbumin which has an N-terminal peptide, removed before the nascent protein is released from the rough endoplasmic reticulum; the product, proalbumin, is in turn cleaved in the Golgi vesicles to produce the secreted albumin. Albumin is a globular, water-soluble, un-glycosylated serum protein of approximate molecular weight of 65,000 Daltons. Albumin is negatively charged; the glomerular basement membrane is negatively charged in the body. According to this theory, that charge plays a major role in the selective exclusion of albumin from the glomerular filtrate. A defect in this property results in nephrotic syndrome leading to albumin loss in the urine. Nephrotic syndrome patients are sometimes given albumin to replace the lost albumin; the general structure of albumin is characterized by several long α helices allowing it to maintain a static shape, essential for regulating blood pressure.
Serum albumin contains eleven distinct binding domains for hydrophobic compounds. One hemin and six long-chain fatty acids can bind to serum albumin at the same time. Serum albumin is distributed in mammals; the human version is human serum albumin. Bovine serum albumin, or BSA, is used in immunodiagnostic procedures, clinical chemistry reagents, cell culture media, protein chemistry research, molecular biology laboratories. Human serum albumin Bovine serum albumin Blood plasma fractionation Chromatography in blood processing Lactalbumin Ovalbumin RCSB Protein Data Bank: Molecule of the Month – Serum Albumin Albumin binding prediction