Blood pressure is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels. Most of this pressure is due to work done by the heart by pumping blood through the circulatory system. Used without further specification, "blood pressure" refers to the pressure in large arteries of the systemic circulation. Blood pressure is expressed in terms of the systolic pressure over diastolic pressure and is measured in millimeters of mercury, above the surrounding atmospheric pressure. Blood pressure is one of the vital signs, along with respiratory rate, heart rate, oxygen saturation, body temperature. Normal resting blood pressure, in an adult is 120 millimetres of mercury systolic, 80 millimetres of mercury diastolic, abbreviated "120/80 mmHg". Globally, the average blood pressure, age standardized, has remained about the same since 1975 to the present, at approx. 127/79 mmHg in men and 122/77 mmHg in women, although these average data mask quite large divergent regional trends. Traditionally, blood pressure was measured non-invasively using auscultation with a mercury-tube sphygmomanometer.
Auscultation is still considered to be the gold standard of accuracy for non-invasive blood pressure readings in clinic. However, semi-automated methods have become common due to concerns about potential mercury toxicity, although cost, ease of use and applicability to ambulatory blood pressure or home blood pressure measurements have influenced this trend. Early automated alternatives to mercury-tube sphygmomanometers were seriously inaccurate, but modern devices validated to international standards achieve an average difference between two standardized reading methods of 5 mm Hg or less and a standard deviation of less than 8 mm Hg. Most of these semi-automated methods measure blood pressure using oscillometry. Blood pressure is influenced by cardiac output, total peripheral resistance and arterial stiffness and varies depending on situation, emotional state and relative health/disease states. In the short term, blood pressure is regulated by baroreceptors which act via the brain to influence the nervous and the endocrine systems.
Blood pressure, too low is called hypotension, pressure, high is called hypertension and normal levels of blood pressure is called normotension. Both hypertension and hypotension may be of sudden onset or of long duration. Long-term hypertension is a risk factor for many diseases, including heart disease and kidney failure. Long-term hypertension is more common than long-term hypotension, only diagnosed when it causes symptoms; the risk of cardiovascular disease increases progressively above 115/75 mmHg, below this level there is limited evidence. Observational studies demonstrate that people who maintain arterial pressures at the low end of these pressure ranges have much better long-term cardiovascular health. There is an ongoing medical debate over what is the optimal level of blood pressure to target when using drugs to lower blood pressure with hypertension in older people; the table shows the most recent classification of office blood pressure by The Task Force for the management of arterial hypertension of the European Society of Cardiology and the European Society of Hypertension.
Similar thresholds had been adopted by the American Heart Association for adults who are 18 years and older, but in November 2017 the American Heart Association announced revised definitions for blood pressure categories that increased the number of people considered to have high blood pressure. Blood pressure fluctuates from minute to minute and shows a circadian rhythm over a 24-hour period, with highest readings in the early morning and evenings and lowest readings at night. Loss of the normal fall in blood pressure at night is associated with a greater future risk of cardiovascular disease and there is evidence that night-time blood pressure is a stronger predictor of cardiovascular events than day-time blood pressure. Blood pressure varies over longer time periods and this variability predicts adverse outcomes. Blood pressure changes in response to temperature, emotional stress, consumption of food or liquid, dietary factors, physical activity, changes in posture and disease; the variability in blood pressure and the better predictive value of ambulatory blood pressure measurements has led some authorities, such as the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence in the UK, to advocate for the use of ambulatory blood pressure as the preferred method for diagnosis of hypertension.
Various other factors, such as age and sex influence a person's blood pressure. Differences between left and right arm blood pressure measurements tend to be small; however there is a consistent difference greater than 10 mmHg which may need further investigation, e.g. for peripheral arterial disease or obstructive arterial disease. There is no accepted diagnostic standard for hypotension, although pressures less than 90/60 are regarded as hypotensive. In practice blood pressure is considered too low. In pregnancy, it is the fetal heart and not the mother's heart that builds up the fetal blood pressure to drive blood through the fetal circulation; the blood pressure in the fetal aorta is 30 mmHg at 20 weeks of gestation, increases to 45 mmHg at 40 weeks of gestation. The average blood pressure for full-term infants: Systolic 65–95 mmHg Diastolic 30–60 mmHg In children, the normal ranges for blood pressure are lower than for adults and depend on height
Federal Highway 2 is a free part of the federal highway corridors that runs along the Mexico–United States border. The highway is in two separate improved segments, starting in the west at Tijuana, Baja California, on the Pacific coast and ending in the east in Matamoros, Tamaulipas, on the Gulf of Mexico. Fed. 2 passes through the border states of Baja California, Chihuahua, Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas. It has a total length of 1,963 kilometres. Fed. 2 has a connection to all official ports of entry into the United States, with the exception of the international bridge between Ojinaga and Presidio, between the two highway segments. These ports of entry allow road access to the four border states of the United States: California, New Mexico, Texas; as a result, customs inspection stations are common along some stretches of the highway. Both segments of Fed. 2 are located within the "Hassle Free Zone", the zone where a temporary import permit is not required for foreign vehicles. Tourist cards are only required to be obtained by tourists traveling on Fed.
2 between Sonoyta and Cananea, Sonora. The rest of Fed. 2 can be traveled without obtaining a tourist card as long as the stay does not last longer than 72 consecutive hours. Fed. 2 is divided into two discontinuous segments. The western segment begins in Tijuana, Baja California, terminates at El Porvenir, near Ciudad Juárez; the eastern segment begins at Ciudad Acuña, continues to the Gulf of Mexico at Playa Lauro Villar, near Matamoros. Between Tijuana and Mexicali in Baja California, again between Reynosa and Matamoros in Tamaulipas, the route is bypassed by Fed. 2D, a four-lane controlled-access toll road referred to in Mexico as an autopista. It is advised that drivers use pesos when paying tolls as US dollars may be accepted at a rate disadvantageous to the driver. Fed. 2 is considered to be part of Pacific Coastal Highway from Tijuana to Fed. 15 in Sonora. Fed. 2 passes through the border states of Baja California, Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas. The highway has connecting access to every official port of entry into the United States with the exception of the international bridge between Ojinaga and Presidio, within the gap between the two highway segments.
These ports of entry enable access from the highway to all four United States border states: California, New Mexico, Texas. As a result, customs inspection stations are common along some sections of the highway; the joining of the separate improved segments would not decrease travel time as the route follows the course of the Rio Grande around the Big Bend region of Texas. The gap between the two is more directly crossed by traveling along Interstate 10 and U. S. Highway 90 in the United States. Western terminus at Fed. 1 in Tijuana, Baja California Corredor Tijuana-Rosarito 2000 in eastern Tijuana Fed. 3 in Tecate Fed. 5 in Mexicali Fed. 8 in Sonoyta, Sonora Fed. 15 south in Santa Ana Fed. 15 north in Imuris Fed. 17 in Agua Prieta Fed. 10 in Janos, Chihuahua Fed. 45 in Ciudad Juárez The eastern terminus of this segment is in FM 1088 in Fort Hancock in El Porvenir port of entry in Chihuahua. The western terminus of this segment is in Spur 349 in Del Rio in Ciudad Acuña port of entry in Coahuila Fed. 29 in Ciudad Acuña Fed.
57 in Piedras Negras Fed. 85 in Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas Fed. 30 in Nueva Ciudad Guerrero Fed. 54 in Ciudad Mier Fed. 40 in Reynosa Fed. 97 in Reynosa Fed. 101 / Fed. 180 in MatamorosThe eastern terminus of this segment is at Playa Lauro Villar on the Gulf of Mexico. List of Mexican autopistas List of Mexico–United States border crossings List of crossings of the Rio Grande
The clavecin électrique was a musical instrument invented in 1759 by Jean-Baptiste Thillaie Delaborde, a French Jesuit priest. It is the earliest surviving electric-powered musical instrument, pre-dated only by the Denis d'or, only known from written accounts. Delaborde described the instrument in Le clavessin électrique; the mechanism was based on a contemporary warning-bell device, the instrument is an electric carillon. A number of bells, two for each pitch, hang from iron bars along with their clappers. A globe generator charges the iron bars; the musician presses a key and one of the bells of the corresponding pair is grounded, cut off from the charge source. The clapper oscillates between the grounded and the charged bells, producing the desired tone; the somewhat inappropriate choice of the instrument's name was defended by Delaborde, who claimed that it was far superior to a carillon. He mentioned that during a performance in a dark room the listener's "eyes are agreeably surprised by the brilliant sparks" that were produced by the instrument.
The press and the public admired the innovative machine. The model Delaborde himself built survives and is kept at the Bibliothèque nationale de France in Paris. Schiffer, Michael. 2003. Draw the Lightning Down: Benjamin Franklin and Electrical Technology In the Age of Enlightenment. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-23802-2 Audio demo and photographs of a contemporary reconstruction of the clavecin électrique Clavecin électrique at'120 Years of Electronic Music'
Beyond the Valley of the Murderdolls is the debut studio album of Horror punk band Murderdolls. It was released in 2002 by Roadrunner Records; the album reached number 40 on the UK Albums Chart, sold 100,000 copies in the U. S; the original pressing of the album featured 15 tracks, with a re-release containing six additional bonus tracks. Wednesday 13 – lead vocals, guitars, programming Joey Jordison – lead and rhythm guitar, drums, keyboard, backing vocals Tripp Eisen – select guitar solos, backing vocals In total 12 of the tracks were recorded by Wednesday 13's band Frankenstein Drag Queens from Planet 13 and one from an earlier band, Maniac Spider Trash; some of the lyrics were rearranged as well as song titles for the Murderdolls project. Wednesday 13 wrote all of these tracks
The Champion of Champions is a stakes race annually held at Los Alamitos Race Course in Cypress, California. It is the championship race for Quarter Horses; the field is determined by the winners of qualifying races held around the United States. The races are: Los Alamitos Winter Championship, Remington Park Championship, Vessels Maturity, All American Derby, Mildred Vessels Memorial, Robert L. Boniface Los Alamitos Invitational Championship, Los Alamitos Super Derby, the Bank of America Challenge Championship; the two fastest times in the Z. Wayne Griffin Directors Trials receive the last two berths; the winner of the Go Man Go Handicap qualifies as the first alternate if one of the qualifying race winners does not compete. The Champion of Champion was not held in 2014 due to concerns over the widespread use of clenbuterol, a drug not permitted at Los Alamitos. Speed record::20.939 - Apollitical Jess Most wins by a jockey: 4 - Jerry Nicodemus 4 - Bruce Pilkenton Most wins by a trainer: 9 - Blane Schvaneveldt Most wins by a horse: 3 - Refrigerator 2 - Dash For Cash 2 - SLM Big Daddy 2 - Tailor Fit In 2010, Apollitical Jess set a new track record with a time of:20.939.
Prior in 2008, Jess You and I set a new track record, becoming the first to break the 21 second barrier in the race when he recorded a time of:20.94. The second-place finisher, Little Bit of Baja eclipsed the old world record turning in a time of:20.97. In 2009, Freaky ran in 21.06 and in 2013 Last to Fire's time was:21.09. The previous record of:21.13 had been established in the 2007 running won by World Champion Blues Girl Too, which broke Dash For Cash's 1976 track record of:21.17. 2007's victory by Blues Girl Too made her the sport's all-time leading female earner.2005's renewal saw the first time the first four finishers of the Champion of Champions were three-year-olds. 1993 saw. During the summer of 1986, eight-year-old Sgt Pepper Feature was claimed for $12,500 and retired; the superstar gelding ran fifth in his 62nd race, retiring with just over $900,000 in career earnings. The group who claimed him includes Mike Pegram. 1983's running was the first running to feature Grade I status. 1979 saw Mr Doty Bars win at 22-1.
2017 saw Mr PYC To You win at 60-1. List of Champion of Champions winners https://web.archive.org/web/20080828030723/http://www.losalamitos.com/laqhr/cofc2006/history.html
Whit Taylor is a retired college and professional football quarterback. He was an all-Southeastern Conference quarterback for Vanderbilt University from 1979–1982, a period which included a trip to the 1982 Hall of Fame Bowl, his career at Vanderbilt led in 2003 to his recognition as an SEC Football Legend. After attempting a career in the National Football League, he became a backup quarterback for the Michigan Panthers of the United States Football League and became quarterback of the Denver Dynamite of the Arena Football League in 1987. In that year he became the first player to pass for ten touchdowns in any professional game of American football, a record which stood for over a decade. Taylor was a principal at a Tennessee high school, he is now a vice principal at a local elementary school. In 1987, Taylor lead the Denver Dynamite to a 45-16 victory over the Pittsburgh Gladiators in ArenaBowl I. Taylor threw four touchdowns during the game, three of them to future Arena Football Hall of Famer Gary Mullen.
He worked as a high school football coach and teacher in the Middle Tennessee area at Shelbyville's Central High School, his high school alma mater. In 2006, he left coaching to go into educational administration, he served as the Harris Middle School Assistant Principal for a few years. He was the Principal of Shelbyville Central High School, he is now the vice principal of Eastside Elementary. AFL stats from arenafan.com