Jennifer Lynn Lopez is an American singer, actress and producer. In 1991, Lopez began appearing as a Fly Girl dancer on In Living Color, where she remained a regular until she decided to pursue an acting career in 1993. For her first leading role in the 1997 Selena biopic of the same name, Lopez received a Golden Globe nomination and became the first Latin actress to earn over US$1 million for a film, she went on to star in Anaconda and Out of Sight establishing herself as the highest-paid Latin actress in Hollywood. Lopez ventured into the music industry with her debut studio album On the 6, which helped propel the Latin pop movement in American music. With the simultaneous release of her second studio album J. Lo and her romantic comedy The Wedding Planner in 2001, Lopez became the first woman to have a number one album and film in the same week, her 2002 remix album, J to tha L–O! The Remixes, became the first in history to debut at number one on the U. S. Billboard 200; that year, she released her third studio album This Is Me...
And appeared in Maid in Manhattan. After starring in Gigli, a critical and commercial failure, Lopez subsequently starred in the successful romantic comedies Shall We Dance? and Monster-in-Law. Her fifth studio album, Como Ama una Mujer, received the highest first-week sales for a debut Spanish album in the United States. Following an unsuccessful period, she returned to prominence in 2011 with her appearance as a judge on American Idol, released her seventh studio album Love?. In 2016, she began starring in the crime drama series Shades of Blue and commenced a residency show, Jennifer Lopez: All I Have, at Planet Hollywood Las Vegas. Since 2017, Lopez has served as a judge on World of Dance. In 2018, she starred in the film Second Act. With a cumulative film gross of US$3 billion and estimated global sales of 80 million records, Lopez is regarded as the most influential Latin performer in the United States. In 2012, Forbes ranked her as the most powerful celebrity in the world, as well as the 38th most powerful woman in the world.
Time listed her among the 100 most influential people in the world in 2018. Her most successful singles on the US Billboard Hot 100 include: "If You Had My Love", "Love Don't Cost a Thing", "I'm Real", "Ain't It Funny", "Jenny from the Block", "All I Have", "On the Floor", one of the best-selling singles of all time. For her contributions to the music industry, Lopez has received a landmark star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, the Billboard Icon Award and the Michael Jackson Video Vanguard Award among other honors, her other ventures include clothing lines, fragrances, a production company, a charitable foundation. Jennifer Lynn Lopez was born on July 24, 1969, in The Bronx borough of New York City, to Puerto Rican parents Guadalupe Rodríguez and David López, she has an older sister, a younger sister, Lynda, a journalist. David worked the night shift at the Guardian Insurance Company before becoming a computer technician at the firm, while Guadalupe was a homemaker; when Lopez was born, the family was living in a small apartment in the Castle Hill neighborhood.
A few years her parents had saved up enough money to be able to purchase a two-story house, considered a big deal for the poor family. At the age of five, Lopez began taking dancing lessons, she toured New York with her school. Her parents stressed the importance of work ethic and being able to speak English, they encouraged their three daughters to put on performances at home—singing and dancing in front of each other and their friends so that they would stay "out of trouble". Lopez spent her entire academic career in Catholic schools. In school, Lopez did gymnastics, ran track on a national level, was a member of the school's softball team, she excelled athletically rather than academically. While attending her final year of high school, Lopez learned about a film casting, seeking several teenage girls for small roles, she auditioned and was cast in My Little Girl, a low-budget film co-written and directed by Connie Kaiserman. Lopez acted as a young woman at a center for troubled girls. After she finished filming her role in the film, Lopez realized that she wanted to become a "famous movie star".
To please her parents, she enrolled in Baruch College, only to drop out after one semester. She told her parents about her dream of becoming a movie star, but they insisted that it was a "really stupid" idea and that "no Latinos did that"; the differences in opinions led Lopez to move out of their family home and into an apartment in Manhattan. During this period, Lopez performed in regional productions of the musicals Jesus Christ Superstar and Oklahoma!. From there, she was hired for the chorus in a Golden Musicals of Broadway, which toured Europe for five months, she was unhappy with the role. She got a job on the show Synchronicity in Japan, where she acted as a dancer and choreographer. Lopez was selected as a backup dancer for the New Kids on the Block in 1991 and performed with them during their performance of "Games" at the 18th Annual American Music Awards. Shortly after, Lopez gained her first regular high-profile job as a Fly Girl dancer on the television program In Living Color, she applied for the job.
Out of 2,000 applicants, Lopez made it to the finals. She was the runner-up but received the role when the winner was unable to accept the job, she moved to Los Angeles to film the series and remained a r
Michigan is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States. The state's name, originates from the Ojibwe word mishigamaa, meaning "large water" or "large lake". With a population of about 10 million, Michigan is the tenth most populous of the 50 United States, with the 11th most extensive total area, is the largest state by total area east of the Mississippi River, its capital is Lansing, its largest city is Detroit. Metro Detroit is among the nation's largest metropolitan economies. Michigan is the only state to consist of two peninsulas; the Lower Peninsula is noted as shaped like a mitten. The Upper Peninsula is separated from the Lower Peninsula by the Straits of Mackinac, a five-mile channel that joins Lake Huron to Lake Michigan; the Mackinac Bridge connects the peninsulas. The state has the longest freshwater coastline of any political subdivision in the world, being bounded by four of the five Great Lakes, plus Lake Saint Clair; as a result, it is one of the leading U.
S. states for recreational boating. Michigan has 64,980 inland lakes and ponds. A person in the state is never more than six miles from a natural water source or more than 85 miles from a Great Lakes shoreline; the area was first occupied by a succession of Native American tribes over thousands of years. Inhabited by Natives, Métis, French explorers in the 17th century, it was claimed as part of New France colony. After France's defeat in the French and Indian War in 1762, the region came under British rule. Britain ceded this territory to the newly independent United States after Britain's defeat in the American Revolutionary War; the area was part of the larger Northwest Territory until 1800, when western Michigan became part of the Indiana Territory. Michigan Territory was formed in 1805, but some of the northern border with Canada was not agreed upon until after the War of 1812. Michigan was admitted into the Union in 1837 as a free one, it soon became an important center of industry and trade in the Great Lakes region and a popular immigrant destination in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Although Michigan developed a diverse economy, it is known as the center of the U. S. automotive industry, which developed as a major economic force in the early 20th century. It is home to the country's three major automobile companies. While sparsely populated, the Upper Peninsula is important for tourism thanks to its abundance of natural resources, while the Lower Peninsula is a center of manufacturing, agriculture and high-tech industry; when the first European explorers arrived, the most populous tribes were Algonquian peoples, which include the Anishinaabe groups of Ojibwe, Odaawaa/Odawa, the Boodewaadamii/Bodéwadmi. The three nations co-existed peacefully as part of a loose confederation called the Council of Three Fires; the Ojibwe, whose numbers are estimated to have been between 25,000 and 35,000, were the largest. The Ojibwe were established in Michigan's Upper Peninsula and northern and central Michigan, inhabited Ontario and southern Manitoba, Canada; the Ottawa lived south of the Straits of Mackinac in northern and southern Michigan, but in southern Ontario, northern Ohio and eastern Wisconsin.
The Potawatomi were in southern and western Michigan, in addition to northern and central Indiana, northern Illinois, southern Wisconsin, southern Ontario. Other Algonquian tribes in Michigan, in the south and east, were the Mascouten, the Menominee, the Miami, the Sac, the Fox; the Wyandot were an Iroquoian-speaking people in this area. French voyageurs and coureurs des bois settled in Michigan in the 17th century; the first Europeans to reach what became Michigan were those of Étienne Brûlé's expedition in 1622. The first permanent European settlement was founded in 1668 on the site where Père Jacques Marquette established Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan as a base for Catholic missions. Missionaries in 1671–75 founded outlying stations at Saint Ignace and Marquette. Jesuit missionaries were well received by the area's Indian populations, with few difficulties or hostilities. In 1679, Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle built Fort Miami at present-day St. Joseph. In 1691, the French established a trading post and Fort St. Joseph along the St. Joseph River at the present-day city of Niles.
In 1701, French explorer and army officer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit or "Fort Pontchartrain on-the-Strait" on the strait, known as the Detroit River, between lakes Saint Clair and Erie. Cadillac had convinced King Louis XIV's chief minister, Louis Phélypeaux, Comte de Pontchartrain, that a permanent community there would strengthen French control over the upper Great Lakes and discourage British aspirations; the hundred soldiers and workers who accompanied Cadillac built a fort enclosing one arpent and named it Fort Pontchartrain. Cadillac's wife, Marie Thérèse Guyon, soon moved to Detroit, becoming one of the first European women to settle in what was considered the wilderness of Michigan; the town became a major fur-trading and shipping post. The Église de Saint-Anne was founded the same year. While the original building does not survive, the congregation remains active. Cadillac departed to serve as the French governor of Louisiana from 1710 to 1716.
French attempts to consol
A city manager is an official appointed as the administrative manager of a city, in a council–manager form of city government. Local officials serving in this position are sometimes referred to as the chief executive officer or chief administrative officer in some municipalities. Dayton, Ohio suffered a great flood in 1913, responded with the innovation of a paid, non-political city manager, hired by the commissioners to run the bureaucracy. Other small or middle sized American cities in the West, adopted the idea. In Europe, smaller cities in the Netherlands were specially attracted by the plan. By 1940 there were small cities with city managers that grew enormously by the end of the century: Austin, Texas. In a technical sense, the term "city manager," as opposed to CAO, implies more discretion and independent authority, set forth in a charter or some other body of codified law, as opposed to duties being assigned on a varying basis by a single superior such as a mayor. Most sources trace the first city manager to Staunton, Virginia in 1908.
Some of the other cities that were among the first to employ a manager were Sumter, South Carolina and Dayton, Ohio. The first "City Manager's Association" meeting of eight city managers was in December 1914; the city manager, operating under the council-manager government form, was created in part to remove city government from the power of the political parties, place management of the city into the hands of an outside expert, a business manager or engineer, with the expectation that the city manager would remain neutral to city politics. By 1930 200 American cities used a city manager form of government; as the top appointed official in the city, the city manager is responsible for most if not all of the day-to-day administrative operations of the municipality, in addition to other expectations. Some of the basic roles and powers of a city manager include: Supervision of day-to-day operations of all city departments and staff through department heads. In addition, many states, such as the states of New Hampshire and Missouri, have codified in law the minimum functions a local "manager" must perform.
The City Manager position focuses on efficiency and providing a certain level of service for the lowest possible cost. The competence of a city manager can be assessed using composite indicators. Manager members of the ICMA are bound by a rather rigid and enforced code of ethics, established in 1924. Since that time the code had been up-dated/revised on seven occasions, the latest taking place in 1998; the updates have taken into account the evolving duties and expectations of the profession. In the early years of the profession, most managers came from the ranks of the engineering professions. Today the typical and preferred background and education for the beginning municipal manager is a master's degree in Public Administration and at least several years’ experience as a department head in local government or as an assistant city manager; as of 2005 more than 60% of those in the profession had a MPA, MBA, or other related higher-level degree. The average tenure of a manager is now 7–8 years and has risen over the years.
Tenures tend to be less in smaller communities and higher in larger ones, they tend to vary as well depending on the region of the country. Educational Level of Local Government Managers: Local government Local government in the United States council-manager government Clerk Kemp, Roger L. Managing America's Cities: A Handbook for Local Government Productivity, McFarland and Co. Jefferson, NC, USA, London, Eng. UK 1998. _______, Model Government Charters: A City, Regional and Federal Handbook, McFarland and Co. Jefferson, NC, USA, London, Eng. UK, 2003 _______, Forms of Local Government: A Handbook on City and Regional Options, McFarland and Co. Jefferson, NC, USA, London, Eng. UK, 2007. Stillman, Richard Joseph; the rise of the city manager: A public professional in local government. Weinste
George Timothy Clooney is an American actor and businessman. He is the recipient of three Golden Globe Awards and two Academy Awards, one for acting in Syriana and the other for co-producing Argo. In 2018, he was the recipient of the AFI Lifetime Achievement Award, at the age of 57. Clooney made his acting debut on television in 1978, gained wide recognition in his role as Dr. Doug Ross on the long-running medical drama ER, from 1994 to 1999, for which he received two Primetime Emmy Award nominations. While working on ER, he began attracting a variety of leading roles in films, with his breakthrough role in From Dusk till Dawn, the crime comedy Out of Sight, in which he first worked with director Steven Soderbergh, who would become a long-time collaborator. In 1999, he took the lead role in a well-received war satire, set during the Gulf War. In 2001, Clooney's fame widened with the release of his biggest commercial success, the heist comedy remake Ocean's Eleven, the first of what became a trilogy, starring Clooney.
He made his directorial debut a year with the biographical spy comedy Confessions of a Dangerous Mind, has since directed the historical drama Good Night, Good Luck, the sports comedy Leatherheads, the political drama The Ides of March, the war film The Monuments Men. Clooney won an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for the Middle East thriller Syriana, subsequently earned Best Actor nominations for the legal thriller Michael Clayton and the comedy-dramas Up in the Air and The Descendants. In 2013, he received the Academy Award for Best Picture for producing the political thriller Argo, he has been nominated for Academy Awards in six different categories, a record he shares with Walt Disney. In 2009, Clooney was included in Time's annual Time 100 as one of the "Most Influential People in the World", he is noted for his political and economic activism, has served as one of the United Nations Messengers of Peace since January 31, 2008. He is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, he is married to human rights lawyer Amal Clooney.
Clooney was born on May 1961, in Lexington, Kentucky. His mother, Nina Bruce, was a beauty city councilwoman, his father, Nick Clooney, is a former anchorman and television host, including five years on the AMC network. Clooney is of Irish and English ancestry, his maternal great-great-great-great-grandmother, Mary Ann Sparrow, was the half-sister of Nancy Lincoln, mother of President Abraham Lincoln. Clooney has an older sister named Adelia. Cabaret singer and actress Rosemary Clooney was an aunt. Through Rosemary, his cousins include actors Miguel Ferrer, Rafael Ferrer, Gabriel Ferrer, married to singer Debby Boone. Clooney was raised a strict Roman Catholic but said in 2006 that he did not know if he believed "in Heaven, or God." He has said, "Yes, we were Catholic, big-time, whole family, whole group." He began his education at the Blessed Sacrament School in Kentucky. He attended St. Michael's School in Ohio; the Clooneys moved back to Kentucky. In middle school, Clooney developed Bell's palsy, a medical condition that paralyzes the face.
The malady went away within a year. In an interview with Larry King, he stated, it takes about nine months to go away. It was the first year of high school, a bad time for having half your face paralyzed." He described one positive outcome of the condition: "It's a great thing that it happened to me because it forced me to engage in a series of making fun of myself. And I think; the practical jokes have to be aimed at you."After his parents moved to Augusta, Clooney attended Augusta High School. He has stated that he earned all As and a B in school, played baseball and basketball, he tried out to play professional baseball with the Cincinnati Reds in 1977, but he did not pass the first round of player cuts and was not offered a contract. He attended Northern Kentucky University from 1979 to 1981, majoring in broadcast journalism, briefly attended the University of Cincinnati, but did not graduate from either, he earned money selling women's shoes, insurance door-to-door, stocking shelves, working in construction, cutting tobacco.
Clooney's first role was as an extra in the television mini-series Centennial in 1978, based on the novel of the same name by James A. Michener and was filmed in Clooney's hometown of Augusta, Kentucky. Clooney's first major role came in 1984 in the short-lived sitcom E/R, he played a handyman on the series The Facts of Life and appeared as Bobby Hopkins, a detective, on an episode of The Golden Girls. His first prominent role was a semi-regular supporting role in the sitcom Roseanne, playing Roseanne Barr's supervisor Booker Brooks, followed by the role of a construction worker on Baby Talk, a co-starring role on the CBS drama Bodies of Evidence as Detective Ryan Walker, a year-long turn as Det. James Falconer on Sisters. In 1988, Clooney played a role in the comedy-horror film Return of the Killer Tomatoes. In 1990, he starred in the short-lived ABC police drama Sunset Beat. During this period, Clooney was a student at the Beverly Hills Playhouse acting school for five years. Clooney rose to fame when he played Dr. Doug Ross, alongside Anthony Edwards, Ju
A metropolitan area, sometimes referred to as a metro area or commuter belt, is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry and housing. A metro area comprises multiple jurisdictions and municipalities: neighborhoods, boroughs, towns, suburbs, districts and nations like the eurodistricts; as social and political institutions have changed, metropolitan areas have become key economic and political regions. Metropolitan areas include one or more urban areas, as well as satellite cities and intervening rural areas that are socioeconomically tied to the urban core measured by commuting patterns. In the United States, the concept of the metropolitan statistical area has gained prominence. Metropolitan areas may themselves be part of larger megalopolises. For urban centres outside metropolitan areas, that generate a similar attraction at smaller scale for their region, the concept of the regiopolis and regiopolitan area or regio was introduced by German professors in 2006.
In the United States, the term micropolitan statistical area is used. A metropolitan area combines an urban agglomeration with zones not urban in character, but bound to the center by employment or other commerce; these outlying zones are sometimes known as a commuter belt, may extend well beyond the urban zone, to other political entities. For example, New York on Long Island is considered part of the New York metropolitan area. In practice, the parameters of metropolitan areas, in both official and unofficial usage, are not consistent. Sometimes they are little different from an urban area, in other cases they cover broad regions that have little relation to a single urban settlement. Population figures given for one metro area can vary by millions. There has been no significant change in the basic concept of metropolitan areas since its adoption in 1950, although significant changes in geographic distributions have occurred since and more are expected; because of the fluidity of the term "metropolitan statistical area," the term used colloquially is more "metro service area," "metro area," or "MSA" taken to include not only a city, but surrounding suburban and sometimes rural areas, all which it is presumed to influence.
A polycentric metropolitan area contains multiple urban agglomerations not connected by continuous development. In defining a metropolitan area, it is sufficient that a city or cities form a nucleus with which other areas have a high degree of integration. See the many lists of metropolitan areas itemized at § Lists of metropolitan areas; the Australian Bureau of Statistics defines Greater Capital City Statistical Areas as the areas of functional extent of the seven state capitals and the Australian Capital Territory. GCCSAs replaced "Statistical Divisions" used until 2011. In Brazil, metropolitan areas are called "metropolitan regions"; each State defines its own legislation for the creation and organization of a metropolitan region. The creation of a metropolitan region is not intended for any statistical purpose, although the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics uses them in its reports, their main purpose is to allow for a better management of public policies of common interest to all cities involved.
They don't have political, electoral or jurisdictional power whatsoever, so citizens living in a metropolitan region do not elect representatives for them. Statistics Canada defines a census metropolitan area as an area consisting of one or more adjacent municipalities situated around a major urban core. To form a CMA, the metropolitan area must have a population of at least 100,000, at least half within the urban core. To be included in the CMA, adjacent municipalities must have a high degree of integration with the core, as measured by commuter flows derived from census data. In Chinese, there used to be no clear distinction between "megalopolis" and "metropolitan area" until National Development and Reform Commission issued Guidelines on the Cultivation and Development of Modern Metropolitan Areas on Feb 19, 2019, in which a metropolitan area was defined as "an urbanized spatial form in a megalopolis dominated by supercity or megacity, or a large metropolis playing a leading part, within the basic range of 1-hour commute area."
The European Union's statistical agency, has created a concept named Larger Urban Zone. The LUZ represents an attempt at a harmonised definition of the metropolitan area, the goal was to have an area from a significant share of the resident commute into the city, a concept known as the "functional urban region". France's national statistics institute, the INSEE, names an urban core and its surrounding area of commuter influence an aire urbaine; this statistical method applies to agglomerations of all sizes, but the INSEE sometimes uses the term aire métropolitaine to refer to France's largest aires urbaines. In German definition, metropolian areas are eleven most densely populated areas in the Federal Republic of Germany, they comprise the major German cities and their surrounding catchment areas and form the political and cultural centres of the country. For urban centres outside metropolitan areas, that generate a similar attraction at smaller scale for their region, the concept of the Regiopolis and regiopolitan area or regio was introduced by German professors in 2006.
In India, a metropolitan city is defin
Oakland County, Michigan
Oakland County is a county in the U. S. state of Michigan. It is part of metropolitan Detroit; as of the 2010 census, its population was 1,202,362, making it the second-most populous county in Michigan, behind neighboring Wayne County. The county seat is Pontiac; the county was founded in 1819 and organized in 1820. Oakland County is composed of 62 cities and villages, is part of the Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI Metropolitan Statistical Area; the city of Detroit is in neighboring Wayne County, south of 8 Mile Road. Oakland County is among the ten highest income counties in the United States with populations over one million people, it is home to Oakland University, a large public institution that straddles the Auburn Hills and Rochester Hills border. The county's knowledge-based economic initiative, coined "Automation Alley", has developed one of the largest employment centers for engineering and related occupations in the United States, but Oakland County has shared in the recent economic hardships brought on by troubles at General Motors and Chrysler.
It has fared better than Detroit and Flint, as its economy is more diverse and less reliant on manufacturing jobs. All three automotive companies are major employers within southeast Michigan and have a significant presence in Oakland County. Founded by Territorial Governor Lewis Cass in 1819, sparsely settled Oakland was twice its current size; as was customary at the time, as populations increased, other counties were organized from its land area. Woodward Avenue and the Detroit and Pontiac Railroad helped draw settlers in the 1840s. By 1840, Oakland had more than fifty lumber mills, processing wood harvested from the region and the Upper Peninsula. Pontiac, located on the Clinton River, became the county seat. After the Civil War, Oakland was still a rural, agricultural county with numerous isolated villages. By the end of the 19th century, three rail lines served Pontiac, the city attracted carriage and wagon factories. In the late 1890s streetcars were constructed here and to Detroit. At that time, developers made southern Oakland County a suburb of Detroit.
Migration worked both ways. Several thousand people moved from Oakland County farms to Detroit. By 1910, a number of rich Detroiters had summer homes and some year-round residences in what became Bloomfield Hills; the auto age enveloped Pontiac in the early 1900s. The Oakland Motor Car Company was founded in 1907 and became a part of General Motors Corp., soon Pontiac's dominant firm. In the 1950s, the Detroit metropolitan population began migrating to the suburbs, aided by the GI Bill for veterans and federal subsidies for highways and freeways. Oakland County is among the ten highest-income counties in the United States with more than one million population; the median price of a home in Oakland County increased to $164,697, more than $30,000 above the national median. Oakland County is home to popular super-regional shopping malls such as Somerset Collection, Twelve Oaks Mall, Great Lakes Crossing Outlets. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 907 square miles, of which 868 square miles is land and 40 square miles is water.
Oakland County was divided into 25 separate townships, which are listed below. Each township is equal in size at six miles by six miles, for a total township area of 36 square miles; the roots of this design were born out of the Land Ordinance of 1785 and the subsequent Northwest Ordinance of 1787. Oakland County itself is a prime example of the land policy, established, as all townships are equal in size. Section 16 in each township was reserved for financing and maintaining public education, today many schools in Oakland County townships are located within that section. Wayne County, where the city of Detroit is located, borders Oakland County to the south. 8 Mile Road known as "Baseline Road" in some areas, is the boundary between these counties. The baseline was used during the original surveying for Michigan, it serves as the northern/southern boundaries for counties from Lake St. Clair to Lake Michigan; as more working and middle-class populations moved to the suburbs from the 1950s on, this divide became known as an unofficial racial dividing line between what became the predominantly black city and exclusively white suburbs.
Since the late 20th century, the patterns of de facto segregation have faded as the suburbs have become more diverse. Middle-class African Americans have left the city, settling in inner-ring suburbs, notably Southfield, west of Woodward Avenue. Based on the 2010 Census, the following cities have significant minority ethnic populations: Farmington, Farmington Hills, Oak Park, Lathrup Village, Orchard Lake Village, Rochester Hills, Wixom, West Bloomfield, Bloomfield Hills and Madison Heights. Ferndale has a concentration of Arab Americans, who live in nearby areas, numerous Asian Americans Indians, have settled in these areas. Lapeer County Genesee County Macomb County Wayne County Washtenaw County Livingston County As of the 2010 Census, there were 1,202,362 people and 315,175 families residing in the county. 77.3% were White, 13.6% Black or African American, 5.6% Asian, 0.3% Native American, 1.0% of some other race and 2.2% of two or more r
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti