A poet shirt is a type of shirt made as a loose-fitting blouse with full bishop sleeves decorated with large frills on the front and on the cuffs. It has a laced-up V-neck opening, designed to pull over the head, but can have a full-length opening fastened by buttons; the collar folded over with points. Fabrics used in its manufacture include linen, cotton and velvet, while frills may be of the same fabric or of lace. Intended as a male garment, it is worn by women today. Although descended from the shirts worn by men in the 17th and 18th centuries, the modern poet blouse combines two aspects: the fineness of ruffled shirts worn as an undergarment by aristocrats and the informality of plain shirts worn as a standalone garment by workmen. Inspired by Romanticism, it was a popular style for boys during the 19th century and for the pseudo-historical costumes worn by Hollywood actors portraying characters such as swordsmen or pirates during the 20th century. One example of this is professional musician/actor Meat Loaf, known for his eccentric on-stage attire since the late 1970s, which consists of either sequined black vests, or a tuxedo consisting of a black blazer, matching pants & shoes, a white poet blouse with a red handkerchief, which he holds in his hand or ties to the microphone stand.
Many fans & music reviewers such as inthestudio.net would come to refer to this look as his "prom tux" in popular culture, as this type of suit is most associated with high school proms. A tailored version of the poet shirt became fashionable for young men during the 1960s in London. Jane Ormsby Gore described her discussions at that time with her husband, Michael Rainey, who owned a men's clothing shop in Chelsea: "We were influenced by Byron … those Byron shirts with frilly fronts and big sleeves". Epitomised by bands such as Duran Duran and Spandau Ballet, the vogue for androgynous frilly blouses played a significant part in the New Romantic male fashion of the 1980s. Today, the style remains popular in some modern movements such as the Goth subculture, where it may be valued for its romantic or swashbuckling image, intended as part of a themed costume or worn in defiance of mainstream conventions as a deliberate expression of gender ambiguity. A ruffled poet shirt worn with a wide belt or other item of clothing traditionally associated with pirates, has been the central theme of a spate of fashion trends stimulated by the Pirates of the Caribbean series of adventure films, the first of, released in 2003
A pleat is a type of fold formed by doubling fabric back upon itself and securing it in place. It is used in clothing and upholstery to gather a wide piece of fabric to a narrower circumference. Pleats are categorized as pressed, that is, ironed or otherwise heat-set into a sharp crease, or unpressed, falling in soft rounded folds. Pleats sewn into place are called tucks. A vertically hanging piece of fabric such as a skirt or a drape will be described in terms of its "fullness." Fullness represents the thickness/ depth of the pleats in relation to the original width of the fabric: fabric sewn at "zero fullness" would be flat and have no pleats. Accordion pleats or knife pleats are a form of tight pleating which allows the garment to expand its shape when moving. Accordion pleating is used for some dress sleeves, such as pleating the end of the elbow, with the fullness of the pleat gathered at the cuff; this form of pleating inspired the "skirt dancing" of Loie Fuller. Accordion pleats may be used in hand fans.
Box pleats are knife pleats back-to-back, have a tendency to spring out from the waistline. They have the same 3:1 ratio as knife pleats, may be stacked to form "stacked-" or "double-box pleats"; these stacked box pleats have a 5:1 ratio. They create a bulkier seam. Inverted box pleats have the "box" on the inside rather than the outside. Cartridge pleats are used to gather a large amount of fabric into a small waistband or armscye without adding bulk to the seam; this type of pleating allows the fabric of the skirt or sleeve to spring out from the seam. During the 15th and 16th centuries, this form of pleating was popular in the garments of men and women. Fabric is evenly gathered using two or more lengths of basting stitches, the top of each pleat is whipstitched onto the waistband or armscye. Cartridge pleating was resurrected in 1840s fashion to attach the full bell-shaped skirts to the fashionable narrow waist. Fluted pleats or "flutings" are small, rounded or pressed pleats used as trimmings.
The name comes from their resemblance to a pan flute. Fortuny pleats are crisp pleats set in silk fabrics by designer Mariano Fortuny in the early 20th century, using a secret pleat-setting process, still not understood. Honeycomb pleats are narrow, rolled pleats used as a foundation for smocking. Kick pleats are short pleats leading upwards from the bottom hem of garments such as skirts or coats at the back, they allow the garment to drape straight down when stationary while allowing freedom of movement. Organ pleats are parallel rows of rounded pleats resembling the pipes of a pipe organ. Carl Köhler suggests. Plissé pleats are narrow pleats set by gathering fabric with stitches, wetting the fabric, "setting" the pleats by allowing the wet fabric to dry under weight or tension. Linen chemises or smocks pleated with this technique have been found in the 10th century Viking graves in Birka. Rolled pleats create tubular pleats. A piece of the fabric to be pleated is pinched and rolled until it is flat against the rest of the fabric, forming a tube.
A variation on the rolled pleat is the stacked pleat, rolled and requires at least five inches of fabric per finished pleat. Both types of pleating create a bulky seam. Watteau pleats are one or two box pleats found at the back neckline of 18th century sack-back gowns and some late 19th century tea gowns in imitation of these; the term is not contemporary, but is used by costume historians in reference to these styles as portrayed in the paintings of Antoine Watteau. Kingussie pleats, named after the town in Scotland, are a rarely seen type of pleat used in some Scottish kilts, they consist of a single centrally located box pleat in the rear of the kilt with knife pleats fanning out on either side. Clothing features pleats for practical reasons as well as for purely stylistic reasons. Shirts and blouses have pleats on the back to provide freedom of movement and on the arm where the sleeve tapers to meet the cuff; the standard men's shirt has a box pleat in the center of the back just below the shoulder or alternately one simple pleat on each side of the back.
Jackets designed for active outdoor wear have pleats to allow for freedom of movement. Norfolk jackets have double-ended inverted box pleats at the back. Skirts and kilts can include pleats of various sorts to add fullness from the waist or hips, or at the hem, to allow freedom of movement or achieve design effects. One or more kick pleats may be set near the hem of a straight skirt to allow the wearer to walk comfortably while preserving the narrow style line. Modern kilts may be made with either box pleats or knife pleats, can be pleated to the stripe or pleated to the sett. Pleats just below the waistband on the front of the garment are typical of many styles of formal and casual trousers including suit trousers and khaki
A camisole is a sleeveless undergarment for women extending to the waist. The camisole is made of satin, nylon, or cotton. Camisole referred to jackets of various kinds, including overshirts, women's négligées, sleeved jackets worn by men. In modern usage a camisole or cami is a loose-fitting sleeveless woman's undergarment which covers the top part of the body but is shorter than a chemise. A camisole extends to the waist but is sometimes cropped to expose the midriff, or extended to cover the entire pelvic region. Camisoles are manufactured from light materials cotton-based satin or silk, or stretch fabrics such as lycra, nylon, or spandex. A camisole has thin "spaghetti straps" and can be worn over a brassiere or without one. Since 1989, some camisoles have come with a built-in underwire bra or other support which eliminates the need for a bra among those who prefer one. Starting around the 2000s, camisoles have been known to be used as outerwear. A variety of sleeveless body shaping undergarments have been derived from the camisole shape, offering medium control of the bust, waist and/or abdomen.
Such control camisoles are the most casual of shaping garments, covering the torso from above the chest to at or below the waist. They look similar to tight-fitting cotton or silk camisoles, but the straps are wider, the hems longer, the stretchy, shiny fabric provides a smoothing touch. Babydoll Basque Brassiere Bustier Camiknickers Corset Slip dress - another item of women's underwear that has become outerwear. Barbier, Muriel & Boucher, Shazia; the Story of Lingerie. Parkstone. ISBN 1-85995-804-4 Saint-Laurent, Cecil; the Great Book of Lingerie. Academy editions. ISBN 0-85670-901-8 The Free Library citations for camisole in Thackeray, Charlotte Brontë, Somerset Maugham
Embroidery is the craft of decorating fabric or other materials using a needle to apply thread or yarn. Embroidery may incorporate other materials such as pearls, beads and sequins. In modern days, embroidery is seen on caps, coats, dress shirts, dresses and golf shirts. Embroidery is available with a wide variety of yarn color; some of the basic techniques or stitches of the earliest embroidery are chain stitch, buttonhole or blanket stitch, running stitch, satin stitch, cross stitch. Those stitches remain the fundamental techniques of hand embroidery today; the process used to tailor, patch and reinforce cloth fostered the development of sewing techniques, the decorative possibilities of sewing led to the art of embroidery. Indeed, the remarkable stability of basic embroidery stitches has been noted: It is a striking fact that in the development of embroidery... There are no changes of materials or techniques which can be felt or interpreted as advances from a primitive to a more refined stage.
On the other hand, we find in early works a technical accomplishment and high standard of craftsmanship attained in times. The art of embroidery has been found worldwide and several early examples have been found. Works in China have been dated to the Warring States period. In a garment from Migration period Sweden 300–700 AD, the edges of bands of trimming are reinforced with running stitch, back stitch, stem stitch, tailor's buttonhole stitch, whip-stitching, but it is uncertain whether this work reinforced the seams or should be interpreted as decorative embroidery. Ancient Greek mythology has credited the goddess Athena with passing down the art of embroidery along with weaving, leading to the famed competition between herself and the mortal Arachne. Depending on time and materials available, embroidery could be the domain of a few experts or a widespread, popular technique; this flexibility led from the royal to the mundane. Elaborately embroidered clothing, religious objects, household items were seen as a mark of wealth and status, as in the case of Opus Anglicanum, a technique used by professional workshops and guilds in medieval England.
In 18th-century England and its colonies, samplers employing fine silks were produced by the daughters of wealthy families. Embroidery was a skill marking a girl's path into womanhood as well as conveying rank and social standing. Conversely, embroidery is a folk art, using materials that were accessible to nonprofessionals. Examples include Hardanger from Norway, Merezhka from Ukraine, Mountmellick embroidery from Ireland, Nakshi kantha from Bangladesh and West Bengal, Brazilian embroidery. Many techniques had a practical use such as Sashiko from Japan, used as a way to reinforce clothing. Embroidery was an important art in the Medieval Islamic world; the 17th-century Turkish traveler Evliya Çelebi called it the "craft of the two hands". Because embroidery was a sign of high social status in Muslim societies, it became popular. In cities such as Damascus and Istanbul, embroidery was visible on handkerchiefs, flags, shoes, tunics, horse trappings, sheaths, covers, on leather belts. Craftsmen embroidered items with silver thread.
Embroidery cottage industries, some employing over 800 people, grew to supply these items. In the 16th century, in the reign of the Mughal Emperor Akbar, his chronicler Abu al-Fazl ibn Mubarak wrote in the famous Ain-i-Akbari: "His majesty pays much attention to various stuffs; the imperial workshops in the towns of Lahore, Agra and Ahmedabad turn out many masterpieces of workmanship in fabrics, the figures and patterns and variety of fashions which now prevail astonish the most experienced travelers. Taste for fine material has since become general, the drapery of embroidered fabrics used at feasts surpasses every description." The development of machine embroidery and its mass production came about in stages in the Industrial Revolution. The first embroidery machine was the Hand-Embroidery Machine, invented in France in 1832 by Josué Heilmann; the machine used a combination of machine looms and teams of women embroidering the textiles by hand. The manufacture of machine-made embroideries in St. Gallen in eastern Switzerland flourished in the latter half of the 19th century.
Embroidery can be classified according to what degree the design takes into account the nature of the base material and by the relationship of stitch placement to the fabric. The main categories are free or surface embroidery, counted embroidery, needlepoint or canvas work. In free or surface embroidery, designs are applied without regard to the weave of the underlying fabric. Examples include Japanese embroidery. Counted-thread embroidery patterns are created by making stitches over a predetermined number of threads in the foundation fabric. Counted-thread embroidery is more worked on an even-weave foundation fabric such as embroidery canvas, aida cloth, or specially woven cotton and linen fabrics. Examples include cross-stitch and some forms of blackwork embroidery. While similar to counted thread in regards to technique, in canvas work or needlepoint, threads are stitched through a fabric mesh to create a dense pattern that covers the foundation fabric. Examples of canvas work include bargello and Berlin wool work.
Embroidery can be classified by the similarity of appearance. In drawn thr
A Garibaldi shirt was a woman's fashion, a red wool shirt named after the Italian patriot Giuseppe Garibaldi first popularized in 1860. It was the direct ancestor of the modern women's blouse. Giuseppe Garibaldi was an Italian folk hero, a nationalist in favor of Italian independence from Austrian domination. Garibaldi's "total sincerity and honesty, exceptional physical courage gave him the kind of personal magnetism which made women of all classes love him, men of all classes follow him in circumstances of acute danger." During the Expedition of the Thousand campaign in 1860, his volunteer followers were known as "Redshirts" for their uniforms, it is these who inspired the fashion. According to a brief history of the shirt waist written in 1902, the fashion for the Garibaldi shirt was initiated by Empress Eugénie of France, its first mention is in 1860, clothing historian says of it: "The Garibaldi jacket, of scarlet cashmere with military trimmings of gold braid, was hailed as'the gem of the season'."
It was popular during the first half of the 1860s. Versions in white and lighter fabrics appeared, children wore it. "Camicia rossa" or red shirt is a type of clothing. The century illustrated monthly magazine, Volume 74 explains that "One...relic is none other than a veritable camicia rossa, or red shirt, worn by Garibaldi at siege". A Cultural History of the Modern Age: The Crisis of the European Soul says that "For a considerable time Garibaldi was the most famous man in Europe, the red shirt, la camicia rossa, became the fashion for ladies outside Italy" During the American Civil War, the Garibaldi Guard, composed of European immigrants, from New York City, served in the Union Army, wearing the red, Garibaldi shirts, as a part of their battle dress uniforms; the Garibaldi shirt was popularized in 1860 and the baggy, bloused style was worn by women and remained popular for some years turning into the Victorian shirt waist modern woman's blouse. Zouave jacket, another military-inspired fashion of the same era
A domestic worker, domestic helper, domestic servant, manservant or menial, is a person who works within the employer's household. Domestic helpers perform a variety of household services for an individual or a family, from providing care for children and elderly dependents to housekeeping, including cleaning and household maintenance. Other responsibilities may include cooking and ironing, shopping for food and other household errands; such work has always needed to be done but before the Industrial Revolution and the advent of labour saving devices, it was physically much harder. Some domestic helpers live within their employer's household. In some cases, the contribution and skill of servants whose work encompassed complex management tasks in large households have been valued. However, for the most part, domestic work, while necessary, is undervalued. Although legislation protecting domestic workers is in place in many countries, it is not extensively enforced. In many jurisdictions, domestic work is poorly regulated and domestic workers are subject to serious abuses, including slavery.
Servant is an older English word for "domestic worker", though not all servants worked inside the home. Domestic service, or the employment of people for wages in their employer's residence, was sometimes called "service" and has been part of a hierarchical system. In Britain a developed system of domestic service peaked towards the close of the Victorian era reaching its most complicated and rigidly structured state during the Edwardian period, which reflected the limited social mobility before World War I; the United Kingdom's Master and Servant Act 1823 was the first of its kind. The Act influenced the creation of domestic service laws in other nations, although legislation tended to favour employers. However, before the passing of such Acts servants, workers in general, had no protection in law; the only real advantage that domestic service provided was the provision of meals and sometimes clothes, in addition to a modest wage. Service was an apprentice system with room for advancement through the ranks.
The conditions faced by domestic workers have varied throughout history and in the contemporary world. In the course of twentieth-century movements for labour rights, women's rights and immigrant rights, the conditions faced by domestic workers and the problems specific to their class of employment have come to the fore. In 2011, the International Labour Organization adopted the Convention Concerning Decent Work for Domestic Workers. At its 301st Session, the International Labour Organization Governing Body agreed to place an item on decent work for domestic workers on the agenda of the 99th Session of the International Labour Conference with a view to the setting of labour standards. In July 2011, at the annual International Labour Conference, held by the ILO, conference delegates adopted the Convention on Domestic Workers by a vote of 396 to 16, with 63 abstentions; the Convention recognized domestic workers as workers with the same rights as other workers. On 26 April 2012, Uruguay was the first country to ratify the convention.
Many domestic workers are live-in domestics. Though they have their own quarters, their accommodations are not as comfortable as those reserved for the family members. In some cases, they sleep in the kitchen or small rooms, such as a box room, sometimes located in the basement or attic. Domestic workers may live in their own home, though more they are "live-in" domestics, meaning that they receive their room and board as part of their salaries. In some countries, because of the large gap between urban and rural incomes, the lack of employment opportunities in the countryside an ordinary middle class urban family can afford to employ a full-time live-in servant; the majority of domestic workers in China, Mexico and other populous developing countries, are people from the rural areas who are employed by urban families. Employers may require their domestic workers to wear a uniform, livery or other "domestic workers' clothes" when in their employers' residence; the uniform is simple, though aristocratic employers sometimes provided elaborate decorative liveries for use on formal occasions.
Female servants wore long, dark-coloured dresses or black skirts with white belts and white blouses, black shoes, male servants and butlers would wear something from a simple suit, or a white dress shirt with tie, knickers. In traditional portrayals, the attire of domestic workers was more formal and conservative than that of those whom they serve. For example, in films of the early 20th century, a butler might appear in a tailcoat, while male family members and guests appeared in lounge suits or sports jackets and trousers depending on the occasion. In portrayals, the employer and guests might wear casual slacks or jeans, while a male domestic worker wore a jacket and tie or a white dress shirt with black trousers, necktie or bowtie, maybe waistcoat, or a female domestic worker either a blouse and skirt or a uniform. On 30 March 2009, Peru adopted a law banning employers from requiring domestic workers to wear uniform at public places. However, it's not explained. Chile adopted a similar law in 2014 banning employers to require domestic workers to wear uniform at public places.
In the United States, slavery ended in 1865, the Freedmen’s Bureau informed the former slaves now classified as fr
1890s in Western fashion
Fashion in the 1890s in European and European-influenced countries is characterized by long elegant lines, tall collars, the rise of sportswear. It was an era of great dress reforms led by the invention of the drop-frame safety bicycle, which allowed women the opportunity to ride bicycles more comfortably, therefore, created the need for appropriate clothing. Another great influence on women's fashions of this era among those considered part of the Aesthetic movement in America, was the political and cultural climate; because women were taking a more active role in their communities, in the political world, in society as a whole, their dress reflected this change. The more freedom to experience life outside the home that women of the Gilded Age acquired, the more freedom of movement was experienced in fashions as well; as the emphasis on athleticism influenced a change in garments which allowed for freedom of movement, the emphasis on less rigid gender roles influenced a change in dress which allowed for more self-expression, a more natural silhouette of women’s bodies were revealed.
Corsets were rejected in favor of more comfortable, free-flowing skirts and dresses which, before the Aesthetic movement prevailed, would not have been acceptable in public. Fashionable women's clothing styles shed some of the extravagances of previous decades, but corseting continued unmitigated, or slightly increased in severity. Early 1890s dresses consisted of a tight bodice with the skirt gathered at the waist and falling more over the hips and undergarments than in previous years. Puffy leg-of-mutton sleeves made a comeback, growing bigger each year until reaching their largest size around 1895. During the mid-1890s, skirts took on an A-line silhouette, bell-like; the late 1890s returned to tighter sleeves with small puffs or ruffles capping the shoulder but fitted to the wrist. Skirts took on a trumpet shape, fitting more over the hip and flaring just above the knee. Corsets in the 1890s helped define the hourglass figure as immortalized by artist Charles Dana Gibson. In the late 1890s, the corset elongated, giving the women a slight S-bend silhouette that would be popular well into the Edwardian era.
Changing attitudes about acceptable activities for women made sportswear popular for women, with such notable examples as the bicycling dress and the tennis dress. Unfussy, tailored clothes, adapted from the earlier theme of men's tailoring and simplicity of form, were worn for outdoor activities and traveling; the shirtwaist, a costume with a bodice or waist tailored like a man's shirt with a high collar, was adopted for informal daywear and became the uniform of working women. Walking suits featured ankle-length skirts with matching jackets; the notion of "rational dress" for women's health was a discussed topic in 1891, which led to the development of sports dress. This included ample skirts with a belted blouse for hockey. In addition, cycling became popular and led to the development of "cycling costumes", which were shorter skirts or "bloomers" which were Turkish trouser style outfits. By the 1890s, women bicyclists wore bloomers in public and in the company of men as well as other women.
Bloomers seem to have been more worn in Paris than in England or the United States and became quite popular and fashionable. In the United States, bloomers were more intended for exercise than fashion; the rise of American women's college sports in the 1890s created a need for more unencumbered movement than exercise skirts would allow. By the end of the decade, most colleges that admitted women had women's basketball teams, all outfitted in bloomers. Across the nation's campuses, baggy bloomers were paired with blouses to create the first women's gym uniforms; the rainy daisy was a style of walking or sports skirt introduced during this decade named after Daisy Miller, but named for its practicality in wet weather, as the shorter hemlines did not soak up puddles of water. They were useful for cycling, walking or sporting pursuits as the shorter hems were less to catch in the bicycle mechanisms or underfoot, enabled freer movement. Swimwear was developed made of navy blue wool with a long tunic over full knickers.
Afternoon dresses typical of the time period had high necks, wasp waists, puffed sleeves and bell-shaped skirts. Evening gowns skirts with long trains; the 1890s in both Europe and North America saw growing acceptance of artistic or aesthetic dress as mainstream fashion influenced by the philosophies of John Ruskin and William Morris. This was seen in the adoption of the uncorseted tea gown for at-home wear. In the United States during this period, the Jenness Miller Magazine, reported that tea gowns were being worn outside the home for the first time in fashionable summer resorts. Before women acquired a more prominent role outside the home, before they were involved in more community and political pursuits, a more traditionally Victorian and what was considered modest dress dominated; as Mary Blanchard writes in her article in The American History Review, “Boundaries and the Victorian Body: Aesthetic Fashion in Gilded Age America,” “Little noticed, but crucial, was a shift in attitudes toward women's fashion in the 1870s and 1880s, a countercultural shift taking place under the aegis of the Aesthetic Movement.
At this time, some women used their bodies and their dress as public art forms not only to defy the moral implications of domesticity