Putty is a material with high plasticity, similar in texture to clay or dough used in domestic construction and repair as a sealant or filler. Painter's Putty is a linseed oil-based product used for filling holes, minor cracks and defacements in wood only. Putties can be made intumescent, in which case they are used for firestopping as well as for padding of electrical outlet boxes in fire-resistance rated drywall assemblies. In the latter case, hydrates in the putty produce an endothermic reaction to mitigate heat transfer to the unexposed side. Putty has been used extensively in glazing for fixing and sealing panes of glass into wooden frames, although its use is decreasing with the prevalence of PVC and metal window frames which use synthetic sealants such as silicone. Glazing putty is traditionally made by mixing a base of whiting with linseed oil in various proportions. There are a number of synthetic alternatives such as polybutene based putties, where the polybutene is a low molecular weight oligomer replacing the linseed oil.
Butyl rubber is added to the mixture to provide some strength and flexibility. In woodworking, water-based putties are more used, as these emit little odour, are more cleaned up and are compatible with water-based and latex sealers. Plumber's putty is waterproof, used to make watertight seals in plumbing. Pratley's Putty is an adhesive used for steel bonding. Certain types of putty have use in the field of terminal ballistics, where the putty can represent the average density of the human body; as such it can be used, for instance, to test the penetrative power of projectiles, or the stopping power of body armour. Play putty, such as silly putty, is for children to play with, comes in plastic eggs. Pratley's Putty Bondo Blu-Tack Caulking Epoxy putty Mortite putty Wood filler Grain filler "Putty". Encyclopædia Britannica. 22. 1911. Putty & Mastic at wiki. DIY FAQ.org.uk
Scanning electron microscope
A scanning electron microscope is a type of electron microscope that produces images of a sample by scanning the surface with a focused beam of electrons. The electrons interact with atoms in the sample, producing various signals that contain information about the surface topography and composition of the sample; the electron beam is scanned in a raster scan pattern, the position of the beam is combined with the intensity of the detected signal to produce an image. In the most common SEM mode, secondary electrons emitted by atoms excited by the electron beam are detected using an Everhart-Thornley detector; the number of secondary electrons that can be detected, thus the signal intensity, among other things, on specimen topography. SEM can achieve resolution better than 1 nanometer. Specimens are observed in high vacuum in conventional SEM, or in low vacuum or wet conditions in variable pressure or environmental SEM, at a wide range of cryogenic or elevated temperatures with specialized instruments.
An account of the early history of SEM has been presented by McMullan. Although Max Knoll produced a photo with a 50 mm object-field-width showing channeling contrast by the use of an electron beam scanner, it was Manfred von Ardenne who in 1937 invented a true microscope with high magnification by scanning a small raster with a demagnified and finely focused electron beam. Ardenne applied the scanning principle not only to achieve magnification but to purposefully eliminate the chromatic aberration otherwise inherent in the electron microscope, he further discussed the various detection modes and theory of SEM, together with the construction of the first high magnification SEM. Further work was reported by Zworykin's group, followed by the Cambridge groups in the 1950s and early 1960s headed by Charles Oatley, all of which led to the marketing of the first commercial instrument by Cambridge Scientific Instrument Company as the "Stereoscan" in 1965, delivered to DuPont; the signals used by a scanning electron microscope to produce an image result from interactions of the electron beam with atoms at various depths within the sample.
Various types of signals are produced including secondary electrons, reflected or back-scattered electrons, characteristic X-rays and light, absorbed current and transmitted electrons. Secondary electron detectors are standard equipment in all SEMs, but it is rare for a single machine to have detectors for all other possible signals. In secondary electron imaging, the secondary electrons are emitted from close to the specimen surface. SEI can produce high-resolution images of a sample surface, revealing details less than 1 nm in size. Back-scattered electrons are beam electrons that are reflected from the sample by elastic scattering, they emerge from deeper locations within the specimen and the resolution of BSE images is less than SE images. However, BSE are used in analytical SEM, along with the spectra made from the characteristic X-rays, because the intensity of the BSE signal is related to the atomic number of the specimen. BSE images can provide information about the distribution, but not the identity, of different elements in the sample.
In samples predominantly composed of light elements, such as biological specimens, BSE imaging can image colloidal gold immuno-labels of 5 or 10 nm diameter, which would otherwise be difficult or impossible to detect in secondary electron images. Characteristic X-rays are emitted when the electron beam removes an inner shell electron from the sample, causing a higher-energy electron to fill the shell and release energy; the energy or wavelength of these characteristic X-rays can be measured by Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy or Wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and used to identify and measure the abundance of elements in the sample and map their distribution. Due to the narrow electron beam, SEM micrographs have a large depth of field yielding a characteristic three-dimensional appearance useful for understanding the surface structure of a sample; this is exemplified by the micrograph of pollen shown above. A wide range of magnifications is possible, from about 10 times to more than 500,000 times, about 250 times the magnification limit of the best light microscopes.
SEM samples have to be small enough to fit on the specimen stage, may need special preparation to increase their electrical conductivity and to stabilize them, so that they can withstand the high vacuum conditions and the high energy beam of electrons. Samples are mounted rigidly on a specimen holder or stub using a conductive adhesive. SEM is used extensively for defect analysis of semiconductor wafers, manufacturers make instruments that can examine any part of a 300 mm semiconductor wafer. Many instruments have chambers that can tilt an object of that size to 45° and provide continuous 360° rotation. Nonconductive specimens collect charge when scanned by the electron beam, in secondary electron imaging mode, this causes scanning faults and other image artifacts. For conventional imaging in the SEM, specimens must be electrically conductive, at least at the surface, electrically grounded to prevent the accumulation of electrostatic charge. Metal objects require little special preparation for SEM except for cleaning and conductively mounting to a specimen stub.
Non-conducting materials are coated with an ultrathin coating of electrically conducting material, deposited on the sample either by low-vacuum sputter coating or by high-vacuum evaporation. Conductive materials in current use for specimen coating include gold, gold/palladium alloy, platinum, i
London Zoo is the world's oldest scientific zoo. It was opened in London on 27 April 1828, was intended to be used as a collection for scientific study. In 1831 or 1832, the animals of the Tower of London menagerie were transferred to the zoo's collection, it was opened to the public in 1847. Today, it houses a collection of 673 species of animals, with 19,289 individuals, making it one of the largest collections in the United Kingdom; the zoo is sometimes called Regent's Zoo. It is managed under the aegis of the Zoological Society of London, is situated at the northern edge of Regent's Park, on the boundary line between the City of Westminster and the borough of Camden; the Society has a more spacious site at ZSL Whipsnade Zoo in Bedfordshire to which the larger animals such as elephants and rhinos have been moved. As well as being the first scientific zoo, ZSL London Zoo opened the first Reptile house, first public Aquarium, first insect house and the first children's zoo. ZSL receives no state funding and relies on'Fellows' and'Friends' memberships, entrance fees and sponsorship to generate income.
The Zoological Society of London was established by Sir Stamford Raffles and Sir Humphry Davy in 1826, who obtained the land for the zoo and saw the plans before Raffles died of apoplexy that year on 5 July – his birthday. After his death, the third Marquis of Lansdowne took over the project and supervised the building of the first animal houses; the zoo opened in April 1828 to fellows of the Society, providing access to species such as Arabian oryx, greater kudus and the now extinct quagga and thylacine. The Society was granted a Royal Charter in 1829 by King George IV, in 1847 the zoo opened to the public to aid funding, it was believed that tropical animals could not survive outside in London's cold weather and so they were all kept indoors until 1902, when Dr Peter Chalmers Mitchell was appointed secretary of the Society. He set about a major reorganisation of the buildings and enclosures of the zoo, bringing many of the animals out into the open, where many thrived; this was an idea inspired by Hamburg Zoo, led to newer designs to many of the buildings.
Mitchell envisaged a new 600-acre park to the north of London, in 1926 Hall Farm, near to Whipsnade village, was bought. In 1931, Whipsnade Wild Animal Park opened; the first woman to be a curator at the London Zoo was Evelyn Cheesman, in 1920. In 1962,'Caroline', an Arabian oryx, was lent to Phoenix Zoo, Arizona in the world's first international co-operative breeding programme. Today, the zoo participates in breeding programmes for over 130 species. At the beginning of the 1990s, the zoo had 7,000 animals. Many of the species in London Zoo could not be seen anywhere else in the country, such as the wombat, Tasmanian devil or long-nosed potoroo. Although this vast collection was part of the zoo's appeal, it may have been one of the main causes of its financial problems; this contributed to the zoo being faced with closure in the 1980s. Due to the public change of attitude to animals kept in captivity and unsuitably cramped space, the zoo suffered dwindling visitor numbers. However, when it was announced that London Zoo would close in 1991, a swell of public support in visitors and donations allowed the zoo to continue its work, attempt to balance its books, take on the huge task of restoring its buildings and creating environments more suitable for animal behaviour in the late 20th century.
One benefit of the'swell of public support' was the development of volunteer staff. Employed by both Education and Animal care, these volunteers give one day a week to assist the running of London Zoo and can be recognised by their red pullovers. During World War II bombings, the London Zoo was closed multiple times for over a week at a time starting 11:00am on 3 September 1939, when all Zoological Places were closed by order of the Government. On 27 September 1940, high explosive bombs damaged the Rodent house, the Civet house, the gardener's office, the propagating sheds, the North Gate and the Zebra house. In January 1941, the Camel House was hit, during World War II the aquarium could not open until May 1943 due to extensive bombings. No animals were harmed during the incidents, although a zebra, a female ass, her foal escaped from the zoo during the bombings. For safety reasons, all venomous animals were killed at the London Zoo during World War II. Wounded men were let into the London Zoo for free during World War II.
Land of the Lions is an enclosure for ZSL London Zoo's Asiatic lions, opened in Spring 2016 by HM Queen Elizabeth II. The enclosure is 2,500 square metres in size, designed to resemble the Gir Forest National Park in India; the exhibit home to a troop of Hanuman langurs and a band of dwarf mongoose, demonstrates how the lions' natural habitat overlaps with the local urban environments. Tiger Territory is ZSL London Zoo's Sumatran tiger enclosure, designed by architect Michael Kozdon and opened by HRH Duke of Edinburgh in March 2013; the zoo owns one tiger: a male named Asim, who arrived from Denmark in January 2019. Asim killed the zoo's female tiger, 10-year old Melati, on 8 February 2019. Melati's previous mate, Jae-Jae, was moved to France the previous month. Jae-Jae and Melati produced two cubs born in June 2016; the enclosure is 2,500 square metres in size, features authentic
Henkel AG & Company, KGaA, is a German chemical and consumer goods company headquartered in Düsseldorf, Germany. It is a multinational company active both in the consumer and industrial sector. Founded in 1876, the DAX 30 company is organized into three globally operating business units and is known for brands such as Loctite, Fa amongst others. In the fiscal year 2017, Henkel reported sales of over 20 billion euros and an operating profit of 3.055 billion euros. More than 80 percent of its 53,700 employees work outside of Germany; the company was founded in 1876 in Aachen as Cie by Fritz Henkel and two more partners. They marketed his first product, "Universalwaschmittel". In 1878, to take advantage of the better transport links and sales opportunities, Henkel relocated his company to Düsseldorf on the Rhine. Düsseldorf was the gateway to the Ruhr region, which became the most important industrial area of the German Empire from the 19th century onward; that year, the first German brand-name detergent appeared: Henkel's Bleich-Soda, an affordably-priced product supplied in sturdy paper bags.
Made from water-glass and soda, it was the result of Fritz Henkel's own research. The soda was obtained from Weber in Duisburg. In 1879, Fritz Henkel was entered as the sole owner in the register of companies. Sales of Henkel's Bleaching Soda increased so that within just one year the rented factory on the Schützenstraße in Düsseldorf was unable to meet the demand. Fritz Henkel decided to build his own factory with a railway link. In 1883, to improve liquidity and make better use of the company's travelling sales staff, Fritz Henkel decided to sell merchandise in addition to his detergents. Sales started in 1884; the range included the colorant ultramarine, gloss starch, a liquid cleaning agent, a pomade for cleaning, beef extract, a hair pomade. Soon Henkel developed its international presence—in 1886, Henkel opened its first international sales office in Austria. Carl Pathe had gone to Vienna as a representative the year before. In 1893, Henkel established its first business links with Italy. In 1903, founded by Hans Schwarzkopf, launched a powder shampoo.
Persil came in 1907 as the first "self-acting laundry detergent." Henkel has been a family-run business since the beginning. In 1893, Fritz Henkel, Jr. joined the firm as an apprentice. After receiving commercial training he became his father's right-hand man in commercial matters, he put Henkel's brand-name product business on a sound footing, developed its successful advertising still further and was responsible for the company's field service. On 25 July 1904, he became a partner in Henkel, transformed into a general commercial partnership. By this time, 110 people were employed at the Holthausen site. On 25 April 1905, Dr. Hugo Henkel, the youngest son of Fritz Henkel, Sr. joined the company as a chemist. He was in charge of Chemical Products and Technology. Over the years, he laid the foundations of systematic research and introduced advanced technologies and new raw materials. In 1908, he became a liable partner in the company. In 1912, total production in Düsseldorf-Holthausen rose to 49,890 tons.
At 19,750 tons, Persil laundry detergent accounted for 40 percent of this, just five years after its market launch. The number of employees increased by 89 relative to the previous year, resulting in a total workforce of 1,024. Around half were female. A first-aid center was set up in the plant and a full-time nurse was employed. In the previous year Henkel had installed ball fields and play areas to encourage exercise during break times. Female employees could attend the plant's own housekeeping school during the lunch break. On 11 January 1923, troops from Belgium occupied the Rhineland; the occupation made delivery of adhesives from suppliers used for the packaging of Persil unreliable. The disruption caused Henkel to internally manufacture adhesives for its own needs. Henkel found there was a demand for adhesives on the market, on 22 June 1923, the first adhesive shipment left the plant. During World War II, foreign civilian slavery workers and prisoners of war were working for the company. Henkel was part of a large-scale restitution settlement.
On 16 April 1945, American troops occupied Henkel's Düsseldorf site. On 5 June, the British military command in Düsseldorf took over from the Americans. From 20 July, the British military government granted permission for the production of adhesives, P3 and water-glass by Henkel, for soaps and detergents as well as shoe polish by Thompson. In February 1946, Matthes & Weber in Duisburg was given permission to process available raw materials into soda. On 20 September 1945, five members of the Henkel family and another seven members of the Management Board and the Supervisory Board were interned. In 1949, the launch of Schauma shampoo by Schwarzkopf marked the start of the most successful German shampoos. In 1954, Henkel-subsidiary Dreiring launched a new type of toilet soap. From 1970 onward it was joined by a series of Fa deodorants, shower gels and bubble baths, making Fa one of the best known umbrella brands in the toiletry sector. Pritt, the world's first glue stick, made its debut in 1969.
Over the years, other products were introduced under this brand, underlining Henkel's importance in the office and stationery supplies sector. Exports of Pritt began in the same year making this Henkel's most widespread global brand
Faber-Castell is one of the world's largest and oldest manufacturers of pens, other office supplies and art supplies, as well as high-end writing instruments and luxury leather goods. Headquartered in Stein, Germany, it operates 20 sales units throughout the globe; the Faber-Castell Group employs a staff of 7,000 and does business in more than 100 countries. The House of Faber-Castell is the family which founded and continues to exercise leadership within the corporation, they manufacture about 2 billion pencils in 120 different colors every year. There are about 14 manufacturing plants which manufacture writing instruments. Faber-Castell was founded in 1761 at Stein near Nuremberg by cabinet maker Kaspar Faber as the A. W. Faber Company, has remained in the Faber family for eight generations It opened branches in New York, London and expanded to Vienna and St. Petersburg, it opened a factory in Geroldsgrün. It expanded internationally and launched new products under Kaspar Faber's ambitious great-grandson, Lothar.
In 1900, after the marriage of Lothar's granddaughter with a count of Castell, the A. W. Faber enterprise took the name of Faber-Castell and a new logo, combining the Faber motto, Since 1761, with the "jousting knights" of the Castells' coat-of-arms. A. W. Faber is the oldest brand-name pencil continuously sold in the US since 1870. Today, the company operates 14 factories and 20 sales units, with six in Europe, four in Asia, three in North America, five in South America, one each in Australia and New Zealand; the Faber-Castell Group employs a staff of 7,000 and does business in more than 100 countries. Beginning in the 1850s Faber started to use graphite from Siberia and cedar wood from Florida to produce its pencils. Faber-Castell is well known for its brand of PITT Artist pens; the pens, used by comic and manga artists such as Adam Hughes, emit an India ink, both acid-free and archival, comes in a variety of colors. The following chart contains all the Faber-Castell product lines. From about 1880 to 1975 Faber-Castell was one of the world's major manufacturers of slide rules, the best known of, the 2/83N.
The immensely wealthy Lothar Faber was ennobled in 1861 and made Baron von Faber in the Kingdom of Bavaria in 1881. The sons of his only son Wilhelm having died young, a marriage for his granddaughter and heiress Ottilie was arranged with a scion of one of Germany's ruling comital dynasties, yet in the conservative German Empire of fin-de-siècle Europe, the marriage of a Faber into a family of the high nobility was regarded as too bold a leap upward socially. A morganatic marriage would have been required, the Faber pencil works could not have remained in the hands of their descendants because trafficking in commerce was still considered an act of social derogation among members of the Hochadel. To resolve this dilemma, the chosen groom, Count Alexander von Castell-Rüdenhausen renounced his birth rank prior to the marriage; the Castell family had been Imperial counts in Franconia, known since the 11th century. When the Holy Roman Empire was dissolved under pressure from Napoleon I in 1806, the Castell lands were annexed by the Kingdom of Bavaria.
Although deprived of sovereignty, in 1815 the Castells were mediatized, their rank with the reigning dynasties of Europe being formally recognized, family would be granted the hereditary title of Prince. Count Alexander, a younger son of the first prince, married the pencil heiress, Baroness Ottilie von Faber, in 1898, he was granted the new hereditary title of Count von Faber-Castell in Bavaria for the descendants of their marriage. Although Alexander and Ottilie divorced in 1918, the Faber business trust had transferred headship of the company to Alexander, who kept the Fabers' renovated palace at Stein. In 1927 Alexander resumed his original name for himself, his second wife, their son, Count Radulf, his issue by the first marriage had never been considered dynasts of the House of Castell, but they inherited the vast Faber fortune and continue to include Castell in their name with the comital title. Various branches of the family continued to flourish, but the Faber and Faber-Castell corporate holdings passed to the eldest male of the patrilineage.
Alexander and Ottilie's only son, Count Roland von Faber-Castell, inherited headship of the Faber-Castell companies from his parents. His eldest son, Hubertus left the family business after a dispute with his father, was succeeded by his younger brother, Anton-Wolfgang, who left a son, Count Charles Alexander von Faber-Castell of his 1986 marriage to Carla Mathilde Lamesch, his widow, Mary Hogan, continues as managing director of Faber-Castell’s cosmetics division. Anton-Wolfgang's niece, Countess Floria-Franziska von Faber-Castell was married at Kronberg on 17 May 2003 in a much-publicised wedding attended by members of Europe's reigning families, to Donatus, Hereditary Prince of Hesse, a great-grandson of King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy and a grand-nephew of Princess Sophie of Greece and Denmark, sister of Britain's prince consort Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. Floria is a daughter of Count Roland's firstborn son. Graf von Faber-Castell
A generic trademark known as a genericized trademark or proprietary eponym, is a trademark or brand name that, due to its popularity or significance, has become the generic name for, or synonymous with, a general class of product or service against the intentions of the trademark's holder. The process of a product's name becoming genericized is known as genericide. A trademark is said to become genericized when it begins as a distinctive product identifier but changes in meaning to become generic; this happens when the products or services with which the trademark is associated have acquired substantial market dominance or mind share, such that the primary meaning of the genericized trademark becomes the product or service itself rather than an indication of source for the product or service. A trademark thus popularized has its legal protection at risk in some countries such as the United States and United Kingdom, as its intellectual property rights in the trademark may be lost and competitors enabled to use the genericized trademark to describe their similar products, unless the owner of an affected trademark works sufficiently to correct and prevent such broad use.
Thermos, Kleenex, Q-Tip, ChapStick, Dumpster, Band-Aid, Hoover, Jet Ski, Speedo are examples of trademarks that have become genericized in the US and elsewhere. Genericization or "loss of secondary meaning" may be either among the general population or among just a subpopulation, for example, people who work in a particular industry; some examples of the latter type from the vocabulary of physicians include the names Luer-Lok and Port-a-Cath, which have genericized mind share because: The users may not realize that the term is a brand name rather than a medical eponym or generic-etymology term. No alternative generic name for the idea comes to mind. Most genericization occurs because of heavy advertising that fails to provide an alternative generic name or that uses the trademark in similar fashion to generic terms. Thus, when the Otis Elevator Company advertised that it offered "the latest in elevator and escalator design," it was using the well-known generic term "elevator" and Otis's trademark "Escalator" for moving staircases in the same way.
The Trademark Office and the courts concluded that, if Otis used their trademark in that generic way, they could not stop Westinghouse from calling its moving staircases "escalators", a valuable trademark was lost through genericization. The pharmaceutical industry affords some protection from genericization of trade names due to the modern practice of assigning a nonproprietary name for a drug based upon chemical structure. Brand-name drugs have well-known nonproprietary names from the beginning of their commercial existence while still under patent, preventing the aforementioned problem of "no alternative generic name for the idea coming to mind". For example when Abilify was new, its nonproprietary name, was well documented. Another example is Warfarin, known as an ingredient in rat poison before it was approved for human use under the brand name of Coumadin. Examples of genericization before the modern system of generic drugs include aspirin, introduced to the market in 1897, heroin, introduced in 1898.
Both were trademarks of Bayer AG. However, U. S. court rulings in 1918 and 1921 found the terms to be genericized, stating the company's failure to reinforce the brand's connection with their product as the reason. Bayer's involvement in the Great Phenol Plot during World War I, subsequently the U. S. declaration of war on Germany, were involved in the case of aspirin and heroin. A different sense of the word genericized in the pharmaceutical industry refers to products whose patent protection has expired. For example, Lipitor was genericized in the U. S. when the first competing generic version was approved by the FDA in November 2011. In this same context, the term genericization refers to the process of a brand drug losing market exclusivity to generics. Trademark erosion, or genericization, is a special case of antonomasia related to trademarks, it happens when a trademark becomes so common that it starts being used as a common name and the original company has failed to prevent such use. Once it has become an appellative, the word cannot be registered any more.
Nintendo is an example of a brand that fought trademark erosion, having managed to replace excessive use of its name by the then-neologism game console. Whether or not a mark is popularly identified as genericized, the owner of the mark may still be able to enforce the proprietary rights that attach to the use or registration of the mark, as long as the mark continues to identify the owner as the commercial origin of the applicable products or services. If the mark does not perform this essential function and it is no longer possible to enforce rights in relation to the mark, the mark may have become generic. In many legal systems a generic mark forms part of the public domain and can be commercially exploited by anyone. There exists the possibility of a trademark becoming a revocable generic term in German trademark law; the process by which trademark rights are diminished or lost as a result of common use in the marketplace is known as genericization. This process occurs over a period of time in which a mark is not used as a trademark (i.e. where it is not used to identify the pr
Adventures in Stationery
Adventures in Stationery: A Journey Through Your Pencil Case is a non-fiction book by James Ward about stationery. It was published by British publisher Profile Books in 2014. In Adventures in Stationery, James Ward presents the history of numerous items of stationery, integrated with his personal opinions and current trends; some of the topics discussed include the invention of the ballpoint pen by László Bíró, the development of the Pritt glue stick, the design of the paperclip, the shape of Stabilo highlighters, the possible uses of Blu-Tack, urban legends about the development of ballpoint pens during the Space Race. Andrew Martin of The Observer wrote in a review that Adventures in Stationery is "elegantly written, but in a strangely blank, glassy-eyed tone" and opined that although Ward's personal anecdotes were interesting, more interviews with other subjects should have been included in the book. In a review for the Financial Times, Alexander Gilmour wrote that "Ward writes with a blend of wit, unhealthy obsession and pure love" and described the book as "high-class pornography for the stationery enthusiast".
The Independent's Rhodri Marsden commented that the book "certainly is serious, while frivolous", referring to its contents as "fascinating". Alex Sarll of the Irish Examiner summarised the book as a "chatty, witty treasure-trove" of facts and believed it "deserves a wider audience" than just stationery fans. Ben Richardson, who gave the book 2 out of 5 stars in a review for the South China Morning Post, felt that it was little more than "a laundry list of'fancy that!' factoids" and that Ward should have integrated more "interactions with real people"