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Blue-water navy

A blue-water navy is a maritime force capable of operating globally across the deep waters of open oceans. While definitions of what constitutes such a force vary, there is a requirement for the ability to exercise sea control at wide ranges; the term "blue-water navy" is a maritime geographical term in contrast with "brown-water navy" and "green-water navy". The Defense Security Service of the United States has defined the blue-water navy as "a maritime force capable of sustained operation across the deep waters of open oceans. A blue-water navy allows a country to project power far from the home country and includes one or more aircraft carriers. Smaller blue-water navies are able to dispatch fewer vessels abroad for shorter periods of time." In public discourse blue-water capability is identified with the operation of iconic capital ships such as battleships/battlecruisers, aircraft carriers, nuclear submarines. For instance, during the debate in the 1970s whether Australia should replace HMAS Melbourne, a former chief of navy claimed that if Australia did not replace her last aircraft carrier, she "would no longer have a blue-water navy".

In the end Australia did not buy a new carrier, but former Parliamentary defence advisor Gary Brown could still claim in 2004 that her navy remained "an effective blue-water force". The Soviet Navy towards the end of the Cold War is another example of a blue-water navy that had minimal carrier aviation, relying instead on submarines, missile-carrying surface ships, long-range bombers based on land. A blue-water navy implies force protection from sub-surface and airborne threats and a sustainable logistic reach, allowing a persistent presence at range. A hallmark of a true blue-water navy is the ability to conduct replenishment at sea, the commissioning of underway replenishment ships is a strong sign of a navy's blue-water ambitions. While a blue-water navy can project sea control power into another nation's littoral, it remains susceptible to threats from less capable forces. Maintenance and logistics at range have high costs, there might be a saturation advantage over a deployed force through the use of land-based air or surface-to-surface missile assets, diesel-electric submarines, or asymmetric tactics such as Fast Inshore Attack Craft.

An example of this vulnerability was the October 2000 USS Cole bombing in Aden. The term'blue-water navy' should not be confused with the capability of an individual ship. For example, vessels of a green-water navy can operate in blue water for short periods of time. A number of nations have extensive maritime assets but lack the capability to maintain the required sustainable logistic reach; some of them join coalition task groups in blue-water deployments such as anti-piracy patrols off Somalia. According to a dictionary definition, blue-water capability refers to an oceangoing fleet able to operate on the high seas far from its nation's homeports; some operate throughout the world. In their 2012 publication, "Sea Power and the Asia-Pacific", professors Geoffrey Till and Patrick C. Bratton outlined what they termed as "concise criteria" with regard to the definitions of brown and blue-water navies. Quote, they go on to say that with such a definition and understanding of naval hierarchy, it is still "ambiguous".

For example, while France and the United States may be considered blue-water navies, he states that the "operational capability and geographic reach of both navies are different." Another definition states that'brown-water' refers to the littoral areas within 100 nautical miles of the coastline.'Green-water' begins from 100 nautical miles out to the next major land formation, while'blue-water' is the ability to project force out to at least 1,500 nautical miles beyond the coast. Traditionally a distinction used to be made between a coastal brown-water navy operating in the littoral zone to 200 nautical miles and an oceangoing blue-water navy. However, the United States Navy created a new term, green-water navy, to replace the term'brown-water navy' in US Navy parlance. Today, a brown-water navy has become to be known as a predominately riverine force. Despite the above however, there is no agreed definition of the term. There have been many attempts by naval scholars and other authorities to classify world navies, including.

All identify a basic common criteria such as. The table below shows the world naval hierarchy according to the classification system by professors Daniel Todd and Michael Lindberg, their system outlines ten ranks, distinguished by capability. Since it has been used by various other experts to illustrate the subject. According to Todd and Lindberg, a "blue-water navy" is one that can project any sort of power beyond its own territorial waters; however they used the principle of loss of strength gradient and other criteria to distinguish navies by capability under the four "blue-water" ranks. The six ranks of "Non blue-water navies" can be further broken down into "green-water" and "brown-water navies", according

Bhavana Balakrishnan

Bhavana Balakrishnan spelt as Bhavna Balakrishnan simply known as VJ Bhavana is an Indian television anchor, cricket commentator, video jockey, playback singer and dancer. She is one of the popular sports journalists in India after Mayanti Langer, she works as a broadcaster for Star Sports and hosted several programmes for the channel. Bhavana was one of the fewest women to serve as a commentator during the 2019 Cricket World Cup, she is a trained classical Bharathanatiyam dancer since her childhood. She completed her postgraduate MBA degree at the Great Lakes Institute of Management, Chennai before pursuing her career in media. Bhavana ventured into television, she hosted her first television show Beach Girls Show. She joined Star Vijay channel and became a full-time anchor with the channel since 2011, her first programme with Vijay TV was Super Singer Junior and hosted Airtel Super Singer until 2018. She hosted other shows with Vijay TV including Jodi Number One Jodi Fun Unlimited. In 2018, she joined Star Sports as a sports journalist and hosted shows including Indian Premier League and Pro Kabaddi League.

She served as commentator for the Star Sports Tamil during the 2018 IPL season and was just one of two female presenters during the 2018 Indian Premier League. She made her debut as singer in 2018 and released her first single The MashUp Series by BB, she married Mumbai based businessman Nikhil Ramesh and resides in Mumbai

Deportation of the Meskhetian Turks

The Deportation of the Meskhetian Turks was the forced transfer by the Soviet government of the entire Meskhetian Turk population from the Meskheti region of the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic to Central Asia on 14 November 1944. During the deportation, between 92,307 and 94,955 Meskhetian Turks were forcibly removed from 212 villages, they were packed into cattle wagons and sent to the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic. Members of other ethnic groups were deported during the operation, including Kurds and Hemshils, bringing the total to 115,000 evicted people, they were placed in special settlements. The deportation and harsh conditions in exile caused between 14,895 deaths, at a minimum; the expulsion was executed by NKVD chief Lavrentiy Beria on the orders of Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin and involved 4,000 NKVD personnel. 34 million rubles were allocated to carry out the operation. It was a part of the Soviet forced settlement program and population transfers that affected several million members of Soviet ethnic minorities between the 1930s and the 1950s.

Around 32,000 people Armenians, were settled by the Soviet government in the areas cleared of Meskhetia. After Stalin's death, the new Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev delivered a secret speech in 1956 in which he condemned and reversed Stalin's deportations of various ethnic groups, many of which were allowed to their places of origin; however though they were released from the special settlements, the Meskhetian Turks, along with the Crimean Tatars and Volga Germans, remained in exile. Due to the secrecy of their expulsion and the politics of the Soviet Union, the deportation of the Meskhetian Turks remained unknown and was subject to little scholarly research until they were targeted by violent riots in Uzbekistan in 1989. In 1991, the newly independent Georgia refused to give Meskhetian Turks the right to return to the Meskheti region; the Meskhetian Turks numbered between 260,000 and 335,000 people in 2006, are today scattered across seven countries of the former Soviet Union, where many are stateless.

The Meskhetian Turks known as Akhiska Turks lived in the Meskheti region in the south of present-day Georgia. There is no consensus among historians regarding their origin. Either they are ethnic Turks or Turkicized Georgians who converted to Islam during the Ottoman rule of the region; the Ottoman army conquered the Meskheti region part of the Principality of Samtskhe, during the Turkish military expedition of 1578. Turkish historians are of the view that the Turkic tribes had settled in the region as early as the eleventh and twelfth centuries when Georgian king David IV invited the Kipchaks Turkic tribes to defend his border regions from the Seljuk Turks; the area became part of the Russian Empire in 1829 following the Russo-Turkish War. In 1918, near the end of World War I and at the beginning of the Russian Civil War, Georgia proclaimed independence, while some Muslim communities in Meskheti proclaimed a semi-autonomous confederation and prepared for a unification with the dissolving Ottoman Empire.

Ottoman troops moved into this area and numerous clashes broke out between the Christian and Muslim populations of the region. In 1921 Soviet forces took control of Georgia and signed the Treaty of Kars which divided Meshketi between Turkey and the newly Soviet Georgia. In the 1920s, Joseph Stalin emerged as the new General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Ben Kiernan, an American academic and historian, described Stalin's era as "by far the bloodiest of Soviet or Russian history". Between 1928 and 1937, the Meskhetian Turks were pressured by the Soviet authorities to adopt Georgian names; the 1926 Soviet census listed 137,921 Turks in the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic, but this figure included Azerbaijanis. In the 1939 Soviet census, most Meskhetian Turks were classified as Azerbaijanis. On 31 July 1944, the Soviet State Defense Committee decree N 6277ss stated: "... in order to defend Georgia's state border and the state border of the USSR we are preparing to relocate Turks and Hemshils from the border strip".

On 23 September 1944, the People's Commissar for Internal Affairs of the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic informed the NKVD that it was ready to accept new settlers: Turks, Hemshils. The Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic said. 239 railcars were prepared to transport the people were mobilized. The Meskhetian Turks were one of the six ethnic groups from the Caucasus who were deported in 1943 and 1944 in their entirety by the Soviet secret police—the other five were the Chechens, the Ingush, the Balkars, the Karachays and the Kalmyks, their deportation was poorly documented. Historians date the expulsion of the Meskhetian Turks to Soviet Central Asia either to 14 or 15 November 1944; the operation was completed by 26 November. At the start of the operation, the Soviet soldiers arrived as early as 4:00 a.m. at the homes of the Meskhetian Turks and did not tell them were they were being taken to. The population was not given advance notice. Get ready. Take foodstuffs for three days. Two hours for preparation."

Studebaker trucks were used to drive the Meskhetian Turks to the nearby railway stations. In the deportation, between 92,307 and 94,955 Meskhetian Turks, distributed in 16,700 families, were forcibly resettled from 212 villages, they deported eastwards to Central Asia. By 4:00 p.m. on 17 November, 81,234 people had been dispatched. O