Land speed racing
Land speed racing is a form of motorsport. Land speed racing is best known for the efforts to break the absolute land speed record, but it is not limited to specialist vehicles. A record is defined as the speed over a course of fixed length, averaged over two runs. Under current FIA rules, two runs are required in opposite directions within one hour, a new record mark must exceed the previous one by at least one percent to be validated. Records are set in either flying mile; the sport's origins date to the 1930s in California, when the Southern California Timing Association first held meets for a variety of hot rodded vehicles. Since, any vehicle – car, truck, or motorcycle – able to meet the safety regulations has been able to make an attempt to break the existing record; the record is set by averaging one in either direction, within the space of two hours. All vehicles are separated by classes based on displacement. Vintage engines, like the Ford Flathead, Buick Straight Eight, Stovebolt engine and others are raced in the vintage classes.
These consist of: XF: Ford Flathead XO: Overhead valve engines and non Ford flatheads built up to 1959. XXF: Ford flatheads with overhead valve head conversions. XXO: Overhead valve engines with specialist cylinder heads. V4: Vintage four cylinder engines made before 1935. Overhead valve/Overhead. V4F: Vintage flathead four cylinder engines built before 1935, valvetrain must remain a valve in block. In 1906, Dorothy Levitt broke the women's world speed record for the flying kilometer, recording a speed of 91 mph and receiving the sobriquet the "Fastest Girl on Earth", she drove a six-cylinder Napier motorcar, a 100 hp development of the K5, in a speed trial in Blackpool. A subsequent record was set by Lee Breedlove, the wife of Craig Breedlove, who piloted her husband's Spirit of America - Sonic 1 to a record of 308.506 mph in 1965. According to author Rachel Kushner, Craig Breedlove had talked Lee into taking the car out for a record attempt in order to monopolize the salt flats for the day and block one of his competitors from making a record attempt.
The current women's absolute record is held by Kitty O'Neil, in the jet-powered SMI Motivator, set at the Alvord Desert in 1976. O'Neil reached 512.710 mph. There is no "wheel-driven" category as such; the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile validates records in a variety of classes, of which the "wheel-driven" classes are in Category A and Category B. The accepted record is fastest average speed recorded over any one-mile or one-kilometer distance, averaged over two runs in opposite directions within one hour of each other; the most recent wheel-driven record holders have been from a variety of different classes within Category A. In 2008 Tom Burkland broke the piston-engined, wheel-driven record for the flying mile, recording a speed of 415.896 mph. He drove the Burkland family streamliner powered by two 450+ cu. in. Supercharged alcohol-fueled Donovan engines, with crankshafts bolted together nose-to-nose. In September, 2010 George Poteet made a serious attempt to break the piston-engined wheel-driven record for the flying mile and flying kilometer.
His car, Speed Demon, built by Ron Main, is powered by a 299 cu in aluminum block'Hellfire' V8, built by Kenny Duttweiler. Their effort was thwarted by a number of parts failures; the team stated their intention to return in 2011 to set a record over 450 mph, at the 2011 Bonneville Speed Week, Poteet achieved 426 mph In 2012, the Target 550 team of Marlo Treit and Les Davenport planned to raise the record for this class to more than 500 mph in Viking 31, built by Jim Hume. Powered by two Dodge hemis with Whipple supercharger, it has a frontal area of 8.61 sq ft and is more than 40 ft long. The model was tested in the Western Washington University wind tunnel, with assistance from Dr. Michael Seal. Drag racing Hot rod Land speed record Street racing Autoracing Speed Records at Curlie Aussie Invader official website - Australian challengers to the supersonic showdown The UK Land Speed Racing Association Speed Record Club - The Speed Record Club seeks to promote an informed and educated enthusiast identity and impartially to the best of its ability on record-breaking engineering, events and history.
The Land Speed Record in the Sixties: an on-line collection Land speed Record site for dedicated enthusiasts Landracing.com SCTA site
Gary Gabelich was an American motorsport driver who set the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile Land Speed Record with the rocket car Blue Flame on October 23, 1970, on a dry lake bed at Bonneville Salt Flats near Wendover, Utah. Gary Gabelich was born 29 August 1940 and was raised in southern California and attended Long Beach Polytechnic High School, he grew up during the height of the Southern California race scene and became friends with many famous racers of the era like drag racer Tom McEwen. The nearby Lions Drag Strip was adjacent to Long Beach and he was influenced by the NHRA drag racing legend Big Joe Reath of the Reath Automotive Speed Shop in Long Beach. Gabelich married Rae Marie Ramsey, she graduated Palo Alto High School Palo Alto, CA in 1964 and moved to Long Beach in 1968. Guy Michael Gabelich was born in the early 1980s, she was a flight attendant and a member of the Long Beach city council. Gabelich's father was of Croatian American descent and his mother was Mexican American.
Gabelich died in January 1984 in a motorcycle crash. Gabelich drove a split window 1960 era Volkswagen delivery van for Vermillion's Drug store in his younger days, he lived with his parents in the Bixby Knolls area of California during this time. He went to work for North American Aviation which became North American Rockwell after a 1967 merger with Rockwell-Standard. Gabelich started in the mail room and stayed for nine years in various positions from staff assistant before becoming a part-time test subject for Project Apollo in the years 1968 and 1969. Gabelich served as an Apollo test astronaut in 1968-1969 as stated on the plaque his family dedicated to him in 2001. Unlike the actual astronauts, he was not flying the capsules, but testing their long-term viability in weightless conditions, their tolerance and performance under conditions of extreme lateral forces and, though they spoke of it on televised moon shots, the toilet facilities. Gabelich was Mercury Seven astronaut Wally Schirra's exact size and he did a lot of space checkout for him and testing of capsules and equipment before they were man-rated for operational use.
Project Mercury ended in the early 1960s and Wally Schirra went on to become commander of Apollo 7. Gabelich broke the LSR by achieving average speeds of 622.407 mph over a flying mile and 630.388 mph over a flying kilometer. The thrust used during this attempt was between 15,000 pounds. A top speed of 650 mph was momentarily attained during one run; the FIA rules dictate that a land speed mark is recognized only after two runs through the FIA measured kilometer and mile courses. The two corresponding speeds are averaged for the official time and speed. Additionally both runs must be made within one hour. Gabelich averaged 629.412 mph on his first run and 631.367 mph on his second run for an average speed of 630.388 mph establishing a new kilometer FIA LSR. The mile FIA LSR was the first exceeding 1,000 km/h and remained unbeaten until 1983, when Richard Noble broke it driving Thrust 2; the faster kilometer FIA LSR remained unbroken for 27 years when ThrustSSC went supersonic in 1997. In 1969 Gabelich established a quarter mile Drag boat record of 200.44 mph This is not the same as the Union Internationale Motonautique Water Speed Record in which Donald Campbell broke 200 mph on 23 July 1955 in the Bluebird K7.
Gabelich was injured in the crash of an experimental 4 wheel drive Funny Car in 1972 that careered out of control at 180 mph during a quarter mile run severing his left forearm and broke his left leg so that more than a year he still wore a cast. This incident ended his racing career and he never raced again, concentrating instead on a new supersonic vehicle. In the early 1980s he established the "Rocketman Corporation" with Tom Daniel; the objective was to build a vehicle capable of reaching speeds in the 800 mph range. This conceptual vehicle was named "American Way" but the project was cut short by his untimely death in January 1984 in a motorcycle crash. Gabelich was part of the cast in the 1977 movie Joyride to nowhere and he made a documentary, One Second from Eternity: The History of the Land Speed Record in 1971. Gabelich and his family appeared on Family Feud with Richard Dawson, where he presented the key to the city of Long Beach, California to Dawson. In 2008 Gabelich was inducted into the Long Beach Motorsports Walk of Fame in front of the Convention Center on Pine Avenue.
He was represented at the ceremony by his wife Rae, a Long Beach City Councilwoman who retired in 2012 after eight years of service. Blue Flame Land speed record Rocket car Blue Flame Gary Gabelich Break the Record - Blue Flame LSR video
Tonawanda (town), New York
Tonawanda is a town in Erie County, New York, United States. As of the 2010 census, the town had a population of 73,567; the town is the northern inner ring suburb of Buffalo. It is sometimes referred to, along with its constituent village of Kenmore, as "Ken-Ton"; the town was established in 1836, up to 1903 it included what is now the city of Tonawanda. This area was under French control from the 17th century until ceded to the British after the French and Indian War; the first settlers arrived around 1805. Rapid growth began after the construction of the Erie Canal, completed in 1825. Tonawanda occupies the northwest corner of Erie County and is bounded on the north by the Erie Canal, which here follows Tonawanda Creek; the town of Tonawanda was established by separation from the town of Buffalo. At that time it included land that became part of the town of Grand Island and the entire city of Tonawanda. In 1899, Kenmore incorporated as a village of the town, remained the town's primary residential and commercial district until the rest of the town was developed into suburban housing in the 1940s and 1950s.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 20.3 square miles, of which 18.7 square miles is land and 1.5 square miles, or 7.61%, is water. The north border of the town is the city of Tonawanda and Tonawanda Creek, part of the Erie Canal, the west border is the Niagara River. Ellicott Creek flows parallel to Tonawanda Creek in the northern part of the town, with a confluence just east of the Niagara River; the east border, marked by U. S. Route 62, is the town of Amherst. Forming the southern border is the village of Kenmore and the city of Buffalo. Fort Erie, Ontario - southwest City of Buffalo - south Town of Amherst - east City of North Tonawanda, Niagara County - north City of Tonawanda - north Town of Grand Island - northwest Interstate 190 passes through the western part of town from the Buffalo city line to the South Grand Island Bridges onto Grand Island north to Niagara Falls, NY, Niagara Falls, Ontario. Interstate 290 travels through the town from I-190 beyond to Amherst.
U. S. Route 62, north-south highway that marks the east town line as Niagara Falls Blvd. New York State Route 265, north-south highway through western part of town from the Buffalo city line to the city of Tonawanda line. New York State Route 266, north-south roadway paralleling the Niagara River in the town from the Buffalo city line to the city of Tonawanda line. New York State Route 324, east-west highway through the town from Niagara Falls Blvd. to River Rd. where it crosses the South Grand Island Bridge onto Grand Island. New York State Route 325, north-south road from Sheridan Dr./Grand Island Blvd. to River Rd.. It is the only part of Sheridan Drive not signed as NY 324 and continues as Sheridan westward from where it NY 324 becomes Grand Island Boulevard. New York State Route 384, north-south highway in the town from the Kenmore village line to the city of Tonawanda line. New York State Route 425, north-south highway in the northern part of town beginning at the I-290 and Colvin Blvd interchange that heads north into the city of Tonawanda by way of the Twin Cities Memorial Highway.
As of the census of 2010, there were 78,155 people, 33,278 households, 21,164 families residing in the town. The population density was 4,156.3 people per square mile. There were 34,634 housing units at an average density of 1,841.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 93.01% White, 1.41% Black or African American, 0.30% Native American, 0.40% Asian, 1.30% Pacific Islander, 0.36% from other races, 1.60% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.70% of the population. There were 32,951 households out of which 22.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.1% were married couples living together, 11.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 41.4% were non-families. In 2009, citizen environmental monitoring of air quality problems resulted in an investigation by the United States Environmental Protection Agency into emissions from Tonawanda Coke Corporation, a producer of foundry coke located on River Road, Tonawanda. In 1998 TCC had been cited by the EPA for violations of oil spill prevention sections of the federal Clean Water Act following contamination of the nearby Niagara River.
The investigations into air quality revealed TCC was using an unreported pressure-relief system to vent coke oven gases containing benzene direct to the atmosphere, operating a coke-quenching tower without pollution-control baffles, dumping hazardous waste in the form of coal tar sludge. In March 2013 TCC was convicted by a federal jury on 11 counts of violating the Clean Air Act and three counts of violating the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. In March 2014 TCC was sentenced in federal court to pay a $12.5 million penalty and $12.2 million in community service payments for the violations. TCC's Environmental Control Manager, Mark L. Kamholz, was convicted of 11 counts of violating the CAA, one count of obstruction of justice and three counts of violating the RCRA, was sentenced to one year in prison, 100 hours of community service, a $20,000 fine. In July 2014 DuPont was fined $440,000 for violations of the CAA at its plant at Sheridan Drive and River Road; the EPA found that the plant had inadequate pollution-c
Hydrogen peroxide is a chemical compound with the formula H2O2. In its pure form, it is a pale blue, clear liquid more viscous than water. Hydrogen peroxide is the simplest peroxide, it is used as bleaching agent and antiseptic. Concentrated hydrogen peroxide, or "high-test peroxide", is a reactive oxygen species and has been used as a propellant in rocketry, its chemistry is dominated by the nature of its unstable peroxide bond. Hydrogen peroxide is unstable and decomposes in the presence of light; because of its instability, hydrogen peroxide is stored with a stabilizer in a weakly acidic solution. Hydrogen peroxide is found in biological systems including the human body. Enzymes that use or decompose hydrogen peroxide are classified as peroxidases; the boiling point of H2O2 has been extrapolated as being 150.2 °C 50 °C higher than water. In practice, hydrogen peroxide will undergo explosive thermal decomposition if heated to this temperature, it may be safely distilled at lower temperatures under reduced pressure.
In aqueous solutions hydrogen peroxide differs from the pure substance due to the effects of hydrogen bonding between water and hydrogen peroxide molecules. Hydrogen peroxide and water form a eutectic mixture; the boiling point of the same mixtures is depressed in relation with the mean of both boiling points. It occurs at 114 °C; this boiling point is 14 °C greater than that of pure water and 36.2 °C less than that of pure hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide is a nonplanar molecule as shown by Paul-Antoine Giguère in 1950 using infrared spectroscopy, with C2 symmetry. Although the O−O bond is a single bond, the molecule has a high rotational barrier of 2460 cm−1; the increased barrier is ascribed to repulsion between the lone pairs of the adjacent oxygen atoms and results in hydrogen peroxide displaying atropisomerism. The molecular structures of gaseous and crystalline H2O2 are different; this difference is attributed to the effects of hydrogen bonding, absent in the gaseous state. Crystals of H2O2 are tetragonal with the space group D44P4121.
Hydrogen peroxide has several structural analogues with Hm−X−X−Hn bonding arrangements. It has the highest boiling point of this series, its melting point is fairly high, being comparable to that of hydrazine and water, with only hydroxylamine crystallising more indicative of strong hydrogen bonding. Diphosphane and hydrogen disulfide exhibit only weak hydrogen bonding and have little chemical similarity to hydrogen peroxide. All of these analogues are thermodynamically unstable. Structurally, the analogues all adopt similar skewed structures, due to repulsion between adjacent lone pairs. Alexander von Humboldt synthesized one of the first synthetic peroxides, barium peroxide, in 1799 as a by-product of his attempts to decompose air. Nineteen years Louis Jacques Thénard recognized that this compound could be used for the preparation of a unknown compound, which he described as eau oxygénée – subsequently known as hydrogen peroxide. An improved version of Thénard's process used hydrochloric acid, followed by addition of sulfuric acid to precipitate the barium sulfate byproduct.
This process was used from the end of the 19th century until the middle of the 20th century. Thénard and Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac synthesized sodium peroxide in 1811; the bleaching effect of peroxides and their salts on natural dyes became known around that time, but early attempts of industrial production of peroxides failed, the first plant producing hydrogen peroxide was built in 1873 in Berlin. The discovery of the synthesis of hydrogen peroxide by electrolysis with sulfuric acid introduced the more efficient electrochemical method, it was first implemented into industry in 1908 in Weißenstein, Austria. The anthraquinone process, still used, was developed during the 1930s by the German chemical manufacturer IG Farben in Ludwigshafen; the increased demand and improvements in the synthesis methods resulted in the rise of the annual production of hydrogen peroxide from 35,000 tonnes in 1950, to over 100,000 tonnes in 1960, to 300,000 tonnes by 1970. Pure hydrogen peroxide was long believed to be unstable, as early attempts to separate it from the water, present during synthesis, all failed.
This instability was due to traces of impurities, which catalyze the decomposition of the hydrogen peroxide. Pure hydrogen peroxide was first obtained in 1894—almost 80 years after its discovery—by Richard Wolffenstein, who produced it by vacuum distillation. Determination of the molecular structure of hydrogen peroxide proved to be difficult. In 1892 the Italian physical chemist Giacomo Carrara determined its molecular mass by freezing-point depression, which confirmed that its molecular formula is H2O2. At least half a dozen hypothetical molecular structures seemed to be consistent with the available evidence. In 1934, the English mathematical physicist William Penney and the Scottish physicist Gordon Sutherland proposed a molecular structure for hydrogen peroxide, similar to the presently accepted one. Hydrogen peroxide was prepared industrially by hydrolysis of ammonium persulfate, itself obtained by the electrolysis of a solution
A rocket car is a land rocket vehicle powered by a rocket engine. A rocket dragster is a rocket car used for competing in drag racing, this type holds the unofficial world record for the 1/4 mile. Rocket cars are capable of high speeds, at one time held the land speed record. Rocket cars differ from jet-powered cars in that they carry both fuel and oxidizer on board, eliminating the need for an air inlet and compressor which add weight and increase drag. Rocket cars run their engines for short periods of time less than 20 seconds, but the acceleration levels that rocket cars can reach due to their high thrust-to-weight ratio are high and high speeds are easily achieved. Sammy Miller in 1984 at Santa Pod Raceway recorded the quickest quarter mile elapsed time of 3.58 seconds at 386.26 mph using a hydrogen peroxide powered engine car called Vanishing Point. The record was witnessed by 10,000 officials in attendance; this is in excess of the performance of more familiar piston engined dragsters.
A different type of rocket propulsion uses hybrid rockets with nitrous oxide as the oxidant such as the British rocket dragster,'Laffin-Gas'. In America, rocket dragsters fell into disuse after their hydrogen peroxide propellant became too expensive and they are banned in most events for safety reasons due to their high performance. However, they continue to run at several European venues. Tesla Motors plans to produce a rocket-power-assisted production road car, as an option package; the "SpaceX" option package for the 2020s Tesla Roadster was announced in 2018. This optioned up Roadster package would add cold gas thrusters powered by compressed air to improve performance. Alexandru Ciurcu, Romanian rocketry pioneer Max Valier, Austrian rocketry pioneer Friedrich Sander, rocketry pioneer Bloodhound SSC, hybrid jet/rocket car under development as of 2013 Blue Flame, a vehicle that held the land speed record Budweiser Rocket, the first land vehicle claimed to have unofficially broken the Sound barrier Heylandt Rocket Car, see Arthur Rudolph Opel RAK.1, the first rocket car Valier-Heylandt Rak 7, the first rocket car with liquid propulsion Kitty O'Neil and the Space Age Racing Team, setting the all-time quarter-mile record at 3.22 seconds in 1977 JATO Rocket Car, an urban legend Rocket sled Turbonique, a pioneer rocket power company The Devil at Your Heels, a documentary covering an attempt to cross the Saint Lawrence River in a rocket car Early History of the Hydrogen Peroxide Rocket Dragster by Franklin Ratliff "Latest Rocket Car Uses Power In Steering", September 1932, Popular Mechanics
In both road and rail vehicles, the wheelbase is the distance between the centers of the front and rear wheels. For road vehicles with more than two axles, the wheelbase is the distance between the steering axle and the centerpoint of the driving axle group. In the case of a tri-axle truck, the wheelbase would be the distance between the steering axle and a point midway between the two rear axles; the wheelbase of a vehicle equals the distance between its rear wheels. At equilibrium, the total torque of the forces acting on a vehicle is zero. Therefore, the wheelbase is related to the force on each pair of tires by the following formula: F f = d r L m g F r = d f L m g where F f is the force on the front tires, F r is the force on the rear tires, L is the wheelbase, d r is the distance from the center of mass to the rear wheels, d f is the distance from the center of gravity to the front wheels, m is the mass of the vehicle, g is the gravity constant. So, for example, when a truck is loaded, its center of gravity shifts rearward and the force on the rear tires increases.
The vehicle will ride lower. The amount the vehicle sinks will depend on counter acting forces, like the size of the tires, tire pressure, the spring rate of the suspension. If the vehicle is accelerating or decelerating, extra torque is placed on the rear or front tire respectively; the equation relating the wheelbase, height above the ground of the CM, the force on each pair of tires becomes: F f = d r L m g − h c m L m a F r = d f L m g + h c m L m a where F f is the force on the front tires, F r is the force on the rear tires, d r is the distance from the CM to the rear wheels, d f is the distance from the CM to the front wheels, L is the wheelbase, m is the mass of the vehicle, g is the acceleration of gravity, h c m is the height of the CM above the ground, a is the acceleration. So, as is common experience, when the vehicle accelerates, the rear sinks and the front rises depending on the suspension; when braking the front noses down and the rear rises.:Because of the effect the wheelbase has on the weight distribution of the vehicle, wheelbase dimensions are crucial to the balance and steering.
For example, a car with a much greater weight load on the rear tends to understeer due to the lack of the load on the front tires and therefore the grip from them. This is why it is crucial, when towing a single-axle caravan, to distribute the caravan's weight so that down-thrust on the tow-hook is about 100 pounds force. A car may oversteer or "spin out" if there is too much force on the front tires and not enough on the rear tires; when turning there is lateral torque placed upon the tires which imparts a turning force that depends upon the length of the tire distances from the CM. Thus, in a car with a short wheelbase, the short lever arm from the CM to the rear wheel will result in a greater lateral force on the rear tire which means greater acceleration and less time for the driver to adjust and prevent a spin out or worse. Wheelbases provide the basis for one of the most common vehicle size class systems; some luxury vehicles are offered with long-wheelbase variants to increase the spaciousness and therefore the luxury of the vehicle.
This practice can be found on full-size cars like the Mercedes-Benz S-Class, but ultra-luxury vehicles such as the Rolls-Royce Phantom and large family cars like the Rover 75 came with'limousine' versions. Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Tony Blair was given a long-wheelbase version of the Rover 75 for official use, and some SUVs like the VW Tiguan and Jeep Wrangler come in LWB models In contrast, coupé varieties of some vehicles such as the Honda Accord are built on shorter wheelbases than the sedans they are derived from. The wheelbase on many commercially available bicycles and motorcycles is so short, relative to the height of their centers of mass, that they are able to perform stoppies and wheelies. In skateboarding the word'wheelbase' is used for the distance between the two inner pairs of mounting holes on the deck; this is different from the distance between the rotational centers
Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile
The Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile is an association established on 20 June 1904 to represent the interests of motoring organisations and motor car users. To the general public, the FIA is known as the governing body for many auto racing events; the FIA promotes road safety around the world. Headquartered at 8 Place de la Concorde, the FIA consists of 246 member organisations in 145 countries worldwide, its current president is Jean Todt. The FIA is known by its French name or initials in non-French-speaking countries, but is rendered as International Automobile Federation, its most prominent role is in the licensing and sanctioning of Formula One, World Endurance Championship, World Rally Championship and various forms of sports car and touring car racing. The FIA along with the Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme certify land speed record attempts; the International Olympic Committee provisionally recognized the federation in 2011, granted full recognition in 2013. The Association Internationale des Automobile Clubs Reconnus was founded in Paris on 20 June 1904, as an association of national motor clubs.
The association was designed to represent the interests of motor car users, as well as to oversee the burgeoning international motor sport scene. In 1922, the AIACR delegated the organisation of automobile racing to the Commission Sportive Internationale, which would set the regulations for international Grand Prix motor racing; the European Drivers' Championship was introduced in 1931, a title awarded to the driver with the best results in the selected Grands Prix. Upon the resumption of motor racing after the Second World War, the AIACR was renamed the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile; the FIA established a number of new racing categories, among them Formulas One and Two, created the first World Championship, the Formula One World Drivers' Championship, in 1950. The CSI determined the regulations for holding Grands Prix and selected the races that formed part of the World Championships – a World Sportscar Championship was established in 1953 – but the organisers of the individual races were responsible for accepting entries, paying prize money, the general running of each event.
In Formula One, this led to tension between the teams, which formed themselves into the Formula One Constructors Association founded in 1974, event organisers and the CSI. The FIA and CSI were amateur organisations, FOCA under the control of Bernie Ecclestone began to take charge of various aspects of organising the events, as well as setting terms with race organisers for the arrival of teams and the amount of prize money; this led to the FIA President Prince Metternich attempting to reassert its authority by appointing Jean-Marie Balestre as the head of the CSI, who promptly reformed the committee into the autonomous Fédération Internationale du Sport Automobile. Under Balestre's leadership FISA and the manufacturer-backed teams became involved in a dispute with FOCA; the conflict saw several races being cancelled or boycotted, large-scale disagreement over the technical regulations and their enforcement. The dispute and the Concorde Agreement, written to end it, would have significant ramifications for the FIA.
The agreement led to FOCA acquiring commercial rights over Formula One, while FISA and the FIA would have control over sport's regulations. FOCA chief Bernie Ecclestone became an FIA Vice-President with control over promoting the FIA's World Championships, while FOCA legal advisor and former March Engineering manager Max Mosley would end up becoming FISA President in 1991. Mosley succeeded Balestre as President of the FIA in 1993 and restructured the organisation, dissolving FISA and placing motor racing under the direct management of the FIA. Following the 1994 San Marino Grand Prix, which saw the deaths of Ayrton Senna and Roland Ratzenberger, the FIA formed an Expert Advisory Safety Committee to research and improve safety in motor racing. Chaired by Formula One medical chief Professor Sid Watkins, the committee worked with the Motor Industry Research Association to strengthen the crash resistance of cars and the restraint systems and to improve the drivers personal safety; the recommendations of the committee led to more stringent crash tests for racing vehicles, new safety standards for helmets and race suits, the eventual introduction of the HANS device as compulsory in all international racing series.
The committee worked on improving circuit safety. This led to a number of changes at motor racing circuits around the world, the improvement of crash barriers and trackside medical procedures; the FIA was a founder member of the European New Car Assessment Programme, a car safety programme that crash-tests new models and publishes safety reports on vehicles. Mosley was the first chairman of the organisation; the FIA helped establish the Latin NCAP and Global NCAP. The Competition Directorate of the European Commission and the FIA were involved in a dispute over the commercial administration of motorsport during the 1990s; the Competition Commissioner, Karel Van Miert had received a number of complaints from television companies and motorsport promoters in 1997 that the FIA had been abusing its position as motorsport's governing body. Van Miert's initial inquiry had not concluded by 1999, which resulted in the FIA suing the European Commission, alleging that the delay was causing damaging uncertainty, receiving an apology from the Commission over the leaking of documents relating to the case.
Mario Monti took over as Commissioner in 1999, the European