Kentucky, officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States. Kentucky is one of four U. S. states constituted as a commonwealth, originally a part of Virginia, in 1792 Kentucky became the 15th state to join the Union. Kentucky is the 37th most extensive and the 26th most populous of the 50 United States, Kentucky is known as the Bluegrass State, a nickname based on the bluegrass found in many of its pastures due to the fertile soil. One of the regions in Kentucky is the Bluegrass Region in central Kentucky. In 1776, the counties of Virginia beyond the Appalachian Mountains became known as Kentucky County, the precise etymology of the name is uncertain, but likely based on an Iroquoian name meaning the meadow or the prairie. Kentucky is situated in the Upland South, a significant portion of eastern Kentucky is part of Appalachia. Kentucky borders seven states, from the Midwest and the Southeast, West Virginia lies to the east, Virginia to the southeast, Tennessee to the south, Missouri to the west and Indiana to the northwest, and Ohio to the north and northeast.
Only Missouri and Tennessee, both of which border eight states, touch more, Kentuckys northern border is formed by the Ohio River and its western border by the Mississippi River. The official state borders are based on the courses of the rivers as they existed when Kentucky became a state in 1792, for instance, northbound travelers on U. S.41 from Henderson, after crossing the Ohio River, will be in Kentucky for about two miles. Ellis Park, a racetrack, is located in this small piece of Kentucky. Waterworks Road is part of the land border between Indiana and Kentucky. Kentucky has a part known as Kentucky Bend, at the far west corner of the state. It exists as an exclave surrounded completely by Missouri and Tennessee, Road access to this small part of Kentucky on the Mississippi River requires a trip through Tennessee. The epicenter of the powerful 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes was near this area, much of the outer Bluegrass is in the Eden Shale Hills area, made up of short and very narrow hills.
The Jackson Purchase and western Pennyrile are home to several bald cypress/tupelo swamps, located within the southeastern interior portion of North America, Kentucky has a climate that can best be described as a humid subtropical climate. Temperatures in Kentucky usually range from daytime summer highs of 87 °F to the low of 23 °F. The average precipitation is 46 inches a year, Kentucky experiences four distinct seasons, with substantial variations in the severity of summer and winter. The highest recorded temperature was 114 °F at Greensburg on July 28,1930 while the lowest recorded temperature was −37 °F at Shelbyville on January 19,1994, due to its location, Kentucky has a moderate humid subtropical climate, with abundant rainfall
Protected areas of the United States
The protected areas of the United States are managed by an array of different federal, state and local level authorities and receive widely varying levels of protection. Some areas are managed as wilderness, while others are operated with acceptable commercial exploitation, as of 2015, the 25,800 protected areas covered 1,294,476 km2, or 14 percent of the land area of the United States. This is one-tenth of the land area of the world. The U. S. had a total of 787 National Marine Protected Areas, covering an additional 1,271,408 km2, some areas are managed in concert between levels of government. The Father Marquette National Memorial is an example of a park operated by a state park system. As of 2007, according to the United Nations Environment Programme, federal level protected areas are managed by a variety of agencies, most of which are a part of the National Park Service, a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior. They are often considered the jewels of the protected areas.
Other areas are managed by the United States Forest Service, the Bureau of Land Management, the United States Army Corps of Engineers is claimed to provide 30 percent of the recreational opportunities on federal lands, mainly through lakes and waterways that they manage. The highest levels of protection, as described by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, are Level I, the United States maintains 12 percent of the Level I and II lands in the world. These lands had an area of 210,000 sq mi. A confusing system for naming protected areas results in some types being used by more than one agency, for instance, both the National Park Service and the U. S. Forest Service operate areas designated National Preserves and National Recreation Areas. The National Park Service, the U. S. Forest Service, National Wilderness Areas are designated within other protected areas, managed by various agencies and sometimes wilderness areas span areas managed by multiple agencies. States and local zoning bodies may or may not choose to protect these, the state of Colorado, for example, is very clear that it does not set any limits on owners of NRHP properties.
State parks vary widely from urban parks to large parks that are on a par with national parks. Some state parks, like Adirondack Park, are similar to the National parks of England and Wales, about half the area of the park, some 3,000,000 acres, is state-owned and preserved as forever wild by the Forest Preserve of New York. Wood-Tikchik State Park in Alaska claims to be the largest state park by the amount of protected land, it is larger than many U. S. National Parks. Many states operate game and recreation areas. S, State and tribal wilderness areas Various counties, metropolitan authorities, regional parks, soil conservation districts and other units manage a variety of local level parks. Some of these are more than picnic areas or playgrounds, however
Dioramas are often built by hobbyists as part of related hobbies such as military vehicle modeling, miniature figure modeling, or aircraft modeling. The word diorama originated in 1823 as a type of picture-viewing device, the word literally means through that which is seen, from the Greek di- through + orama that which is seen, a sight. The diorama was invented by Louis Daguerre and Charles Marie Bouton, first exhibited in Paris in July 1822, the meaning small-scale replica of a scene, etc. is from 1902. Daguerres diorama consisted of a piece of material painted on both sides, when illuminated from the front, the scene would be shown in one state and by switching to illumination from behind another phase or aspect would be seen. Scenes in daylight changed to moonlight, a train travelling on a track would crash, or an earthquake would be shown in before, one of the first uses of dioramas in a museum was in Stockholm, where the Biological Museum opened in 1893. It had several dioramas, over three floors and they were implemented by the National Museum Grigore Antipa from Bucharest Romania and constituted a source of inspiration for many important museums in the world.
Miniature dioramas are typically smaller, and use scale models. Such a scale model-based diorama is used, for example, in Chicagos Museum of Science and this diorama employs a common model railroading scale of 1,87. Hobbyist dioramas often use such as 1,35 or 1,48. An early, and exceptionally large example was created between 1830 and 1838 by a British Army officer, william Siborne, and represents the Battle of Waterloo at about 7.45 pm, on 18 June,1815. The diorama measures 8.33 by 6 metres and used around 70,000 model soldiers in its construction and it is now part of the collection of the National Army Museum in London. Sheperd Paine, a prominent hobbyist, popularized the modern miniature diorama beginning in the 1970s, modern museum dioramas may be seen in most major natural history museums. Often the distant painted background or sky will be painted upon a continuous curved surface so that the viewer is not distracted by corners, all of these techniques are means of presenting a realistic view of a large scene in a compact space. A photograph or single-eye view of such a diorama can be especially convincing since in case there is no distraction by the binocular perception of depth.
Carl Akeley, a naturalist and taxidermist, is credited with creating the first ever habitat diorama in the year 1889, akeleys diorama featured taxidermied beavers in a three-dimensional habitat with a realistic, painted background. With the support of curator Frank M. Chapman, Akeley designed the popular habitat dioramas featured at the American Museum of Natural History, combining art with science, these exhibitions were intended to educate the public about the growing need for habitat conservation. The modern AMNH Exhibitions Lab is charged with the creation of all dioramas, miniature dioramas may be used to represent scenes from historic events. A typical example of type are the dioramas to be seen at Norways Resistance Museum in Oslo
American Civil War
The American Civil War was an internal conflict fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865. The Union faced secessionists in eleven Southern states grouped together as the Confederate States of America, the Union won the war, which remains the bloodiest in U. S. history. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, War broke out in April 1861 when Confederates attacked the U. S. fortress of Fort Sumter. The Confederacy grew to eleven states, it claimed two more states, the Indian Territory, and the southern portions of the western territories of Arizona. The Confederacy was never recognized by the United States government nor by any foreign country. The states that remained loyal, including border states where slavery was legal, were known as the Union or the North, the war ended with the surrender of all the Confederate armies and the dissolution of the Confederate government in the spring of 1865. The war had its origin in the issue of slavery. The Confederacy collapsed and 4 million slaves were freed, but before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies formed the Confederacy.
The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, the first seven with state legislatures to resolve for secession included split majorities for unionists Douglas and Bell in Georgia with 51% and Louisiana with 55%. Alabama had voted 46% for those unionists, Mississippi with 40%, Florida with 38%, Texas with 25%, of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession, outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincolns March 4,1861 inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war, speaking directly to the Southern States, he reaffirmed, I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists. I believe I have no right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so. After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed, the Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on King Cotton that they would intervene, but none did, and none recognized the new Confederate States of America.
Hostilities began on April 12,1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter, while in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive in 1861–62. The autumn 1862 Confederate campaigns into Maryland and Kentucky failed, dissuading British intervention, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy, much of their western armies, the 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lees Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg, Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grants command of all Union armies in 1864
United States Geological Survey
The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its resources. The organization has four science disciplines, concerning biology, geology. The USGS is a research organization with no regulatory responsibility. The USGS is a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior, the USGS employs approximately 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia. The USGS has major offices near Lakewood, Colorado, at the Denver Federal Center, the current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is science for a changing world. The agencys previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its anniversary, was Earth Science in the Public Service. Prompted by a report from the National Academy of Sciences, the USGS was created, by a last-minute amendment and it was charged with the classification of the public lands, and examination of the geological structure, mineral resources, and products of the national domain.
This task was driven by the need to inventory the vast lands added to the United States by the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, the legislation provided that the Hayden and Wheeler surveys be discontinued as of June 30,1879. Clarence King, the first director of USGS, assembled the new organization from disparate regional survey agencies, after a short tenure, King was succeeded in the directors chair by John Wesley Powell. Administratively, it is divided into a Headquarters unit and six Regional Units, Other specific programs include, Earthquake Hazards Program monitors earthquake activity worldwide. The National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines detects the location, the USGS runs or supports several regional monitoring networks in the United States under the umbrella of the Advanced National Seismic System. The USGS informs authorities, emergency responders, the media, and it maintains long-term archives of earthquake data for scientific and engineering research.
It conducts and supports research on long-term seismic hazards, USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast. The USGS National Geomagnetism Program monitors the magnetic field at magnetic observatories and distributes magnetometer data in real time, the USGS operates the streamgaging network for the United States, with over 7400 streamgages. Real-time streamflow data are available online, since 1962, the Astrogeology Research Program has been involved in global and planetary exploration and mapping. USGS operates a number of related programs, notably the National Streamflow Information Program. USGS Water data is available from their National Water Information System database
Mount Olivet, Kentucky
Mount Olivet is a home rule-class city in and the county seat of Robertson County, United States, located at the junction of U. S. Route 62 and Kentucky Route 165. The population was 299 at the 2010 United States census, the town was founded in 1820 and incorporated in 1851. It became the county seat of Robertson County when that entity was formed in 1867, mount Olivet is located at 38°31′55″N 84°2′14″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 0.4 square miles. As of the census of 2000, there were 289 people,130 households, the population density was 751.8 people per square mile. There were 145 housing units at a density of 377.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97. 92% White,1. 38% from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 1. 38% of the population. 38. 5% of all households were made up of individuals and 21. 5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.22 and the average family size was 2.88.
In the city, the population was out with 26. 0% under the age of 18,8. 3% from 18 to 24,19. 7% from 25 to 44,25. 3% from 45 to 64. The median age was 40 years, for every 100 females there were 74.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 75.4 males, the median income for a household in the city was $18,750, and the median income for a family was $25,625. Males had an income of $21,667 versus $21,250 for females. The per capita income for the city was $12,172. About 38. 4% of families and 37. 5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 56. 1% of those under the age of eighteen and 23. 2% of those sixty five or over
Bryan Station was an early fortified settlement in Lexington, Kentucky. It was located on present-day Bryan Station Road, about three miles north of New Circle Road, on the bank of Elkhorn Creek near Briar Hill Road. The settlement was established circa 1775–76 by brothers Morgan, William, the occupants of this parallelogram of some forty log cabins withstood several American Indian attacks. Bryan Station was located a distance from a spring that the camp used for drinking water. The reason this was done was in order to prevent any change in habit that could signal that the defenders were aware of the presence of the force preparing to besiege them. The suggestion was full of hope, but all the same the savages were known to be creatures of impulse, hard to control. At the time of the siege the militia did not realize just how many Indians were waiting for them outside of the fort or that these Indians had some support from the British and this attack was a surprise attack and the militia in the fort were unprepared for this attack.
The attackers lifted the siege after Indian scouts reported that a force of Kentucky militia was on the way, the militiamen pursued Caldwells force but were defeated three days at the Battle of Blue Licks, about 60 miles northeast. The pioneer women, led by Mary Polly Hawkins Craig, fetched water from the spring to defend against the use of burning arrows by the attackers, if the fort had burned, the attackers could have reached the women and children sheltering there. Located a couple of miles south of the site, Bryan Station High School was named in its honor. The athletic teams compete under the name Defenders, Bryants Station and the Memorial Proceedings. George W. Ranck, The Story of Bryans Station, As Told in the Historical Address Delivered at Bryans Station, Fayette County, August 18th,1896
Cumberland Gap National Historical Park
Established on June 11,1940, Cumberland Gap National Historical Park is a United States National Historical Park located at the border between Kentucky and Virginia. The Cumberland Gap is a natural break in the Appalachian Mountains. The park lies in parts of Bell and Harlan counties in Kentucky, Claiborne County in Tennessee, the park contains the Kentucky-Virginia-Tennessee tri-state area, accessible via a short trail. Cumberland Gap National Historical Park covers 20,508 acres, the Cumberland Gap Visitor Center is located on U. S. Highway 25E just southeast of Middlesboro and just northwest of the Cumberland Gap Tunnel and Cumberland Gap, Tennessee. The visitor center is open day of the year except Christmas Day. The gap was used by Native Americans, as many species of migratory animals passed through it from north to south each year. It was fertile hunting territory and the only cut through the mountains from the southern wintering grounds of wild deer. Starting around 1775, the Gap became the route of transit for American settlers moving west into Kentucky.
Two families by the name of Hensley and Gibbons moved to Brush Mountain to escape the many changes that were taking place in the early 1900s, more family members followed and a community was begun. A church and school was established under the jurisdiction of the Bell County School System of Bell County, settlers continued their pioneer lifestyle until future generations began accepting employment and marriage partners off the mountain. Sherman Hensley, the founder of the settlement, was the last to leave in 1951, the park preserves the natural beauty of the surrounding area while focusing on historic preservation. The former roadbed of U. S. Highway 25E through the park has been restored to an early 19th-century wagon path and this was made possible with the 1996 completion of the Cumberland Gap Tunnel, which rerouted US 25E under the park
Battle of Blue Licks
The Battle of Blue Licks, fought on August 19,1782, was one of the last battles of the American Revolutionary War. The battle occurred ten months after Lord Cornwalliss famous surrender at Yorktown and it was the last victory for the Loyalists and Natives during the frontier war. Although the main British army under Lord Cornwallis had surrendered at Yorktown in October 1781, virtually ending the war in the east, aided by the British garrison at Fort Detroit, Indians north of the Ohio River redoubled their efforts to drive the American settlers out of western Virginia. This was one of the largest forces sent against American settlements during the war, Caldwells army returned to the Mad River to oppose the invasion, but the attack never came. In fact, Clark did have an armed boat patrolling the Ohio River. Most of the Indian warriors returned to their homes and about 50 Loyalists, supported by 300 Indians, crossed the Ohio River into Kentucky. They meant to surprise and destroy the settlement of Bryan Station, caldwell had lost five Indians killed and two wounded during his short siege.
The militia arrived at Bryan Station on August 18, the force included about 47 men from Fayette County and another 135 from Lincoln County. The highest-ranking officer, Colonel John Todd of Fayette County, was in command, assisted by Lieutenant Colonel Daniel Boone. Lieutenant Colonel Stephen Trigg and Major Hugh McGary led the Lincoln County contingent, Benjamin Logan, colonel of the Lincoln militia, was gathering men and had not yet arrived. The militiamen could pursue the raiders immediately, to them from escaping. Daniel Boone advised waiting for Logan, who was only a day away, Boone felt compelled to go along. The Kentuckians set out on horseback over an old buffalo trail before making camp at sunset, on the morning of August 19, the Kentuckians reached the Licking River, near a spring and salt lick known as the Lower Blue Licks. A few Indian scouts were watching them from across the river. Behind the scouts was a hill around which the river looped, Todd called a council and asked Daniel Boone, the most experienced woodsman, what he thought.
Boone said he had been growing increasingly suspicious because of the trail the Indians left. He felt the Indians were trying to lead them into an ambush, Hugh McGary, known as both a fierce Indian fighter and an unstable hothead, urged immediate attack. When no one listened, he mounted his horse and rode across the ford, calling out, Them that aint cowards, the men immediately followed McGary, as did the officers, who hoped to restore order
Mastodons lived in herds and were predominantly forest dwelling animals that fed on a mixed diet obtained by browsing and grazing with a seasonal preference for browsing, similar to living elephants. M. americanum, the American mastodon, is the youngest, the first remnant of Mammut, a tooth some 2.2 kilograms in weight, was discovered in the village of Claverack, New York, in 1705. The mystery animal became known as the incognitum, in 1806 the French anatomist Georges Cuvier named the incognitum mastodon. The name mastodon means breast tooth, and was assigned by the French naturalist Georges Cuvier in 1817, Mastodon as a genus name is obsolete, the valid name is Mammut, a name that preceded Cuviers description, making Mastodon a junior synonym. The change was met with resistance, and authors sometimes applied Mastodon as a name so it became the common term for members of the genus. Species include, M. americanum, the American mastodon, the best known, the American mastodon resembled a woolly mammoth in appearance, with a thick coat of shaggy hair.
It had tusks that sometimes exceeded 5 meters in length, they curved upwards and its main habitat was cold spruce woodlands, and it is believed to have browsed in herds. It became extinct at the end of the Pleistocene approximately 11,000 years ago, M. matthewi—found in the Snake Creek Formation of Nebraska, dating from the late Hemphillian. Some authors consider it practically indistinguishable from M. americanum, M. raki—Its remains were found in the Palomas Formation, near Truth or Consequences, New Mexico, dating from the early-middle Pliocene, between 4.5 and 3.6 Ma. However, like M. matthewi, some authors do not consider it distinct from M. americaum to warrant its own species. M. cosoensis—found in the Coso Formation of California, dating from the late Pliocene, originally a species of Pliomastodon, it was assigned to Mammut. Since a tentative 1977 report of M. matthewi in China, the status of Mammut or Zygolophodon borsoni in the literature appears equivocal. Mammut is a genus of the extinct family Mammutidae, related to the proboscidean family Elephantidae, named from remains found in the Juntura Formation of Oregon, dating from the late Miocene.
However, it is no longer considered valid, leaving only four valid species, a complete mtDNA sequence has been obtained from the tooth of an M. americanum skeleton found in permafrost in northern Alaska. The remains are thought to be 50,000 to 130,000 years old and this sequence has been used as an outgroup to refine divergence dates in the evolution of the Elephantidae. The rate of mtDNA sequence change in proboscideans was found to be lower than in primates. Compared to mammoths, mastodons had shorter legs, a body and were more heavily muscled. The average body size of the species M. americanum was around 2.3 m in height at the shoulders, corresponding to a female or a small male