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Blue Sky Studios

Blue Sky Studios, Inc. is an American computer animation film studio based in Greenwich, Connecticut. It is a subsidiary of a division of The Walt Disney Studios; the studio was founded in 1987 by Chris Wedge, Michael Ferraro, Carl Ludwig, Alison Brown, David Brown, Eugene Troubetzkoy after their employer MAGI, one of the visual effects studios behind Tron, shut down. Using its in-house rendering software, the studio had worked on visual effects for commercials and films before dedicating itself to animated film production; the studio's first feature, Ice Age, was released on March 2002 by 20th Century Fox. In March 2019, the studio was acquired upon their acquisition of 21st Century Fox assets. Blue Sky has produced 13 feature films, with its latest release being Spies in Disguise on December 25, 2019, their next release being Nimona on January 14, 2022. Ice Age and Rio are the studio's most successful franchises, while Horton Hears a Who! and The Peanuts Movie are its most critically praised films.

As of 2013, Scrat, a character from the Ice Age films, is the studio's mascot. In the late 1970s, Chris Wedge an undergraduate at Purchase College studying film, was employed by Mathematical Applications Group, Inc.. MAGI was an early computer technology company which produced SynthaVision, a software application that could replicate the laws of physics to measure nuclear radiation rays for U. S. government contracts. At MAGI, Wedge met Eugene Troubetzkoy, who held a Ph. D in theoretical physics and was one of the first computer animators. Using his background in character animation, Wedge helped MAGI produce animation for television commercials, which led to an offer from Walt Disney Productions to produce animation for the film Tron. After Tron, MAGI hired Carl Ludwig, an electrical engineer, Mike Ferraro transferred to the film division from the Cad Cam division of MAGI; as MAGI's success began to decline, the company employed David Brown from CBS/Fox Video to be a marketing executive and Alison Brown to be a managing producer.

After MAGI was sold to Vidmax, the six individuals—Wedge, Ferraro, David Brown, Alison Brown—founded Blue Sky Studios in February 1987 to continue the software design and produce computer animation. At Blue Sky and Ludwig expanded on CGI Studio, the studio programming language they started at MAGI and began using it for animation production. At the time, scanline renderers were prevalent in the computer graphics industry, they required computer animators and digital artists to add lighting effects in manually. To accomplish this, Ludwig examined how light passes through water and crystal, programmed those properties into the software. Following the stock market crash of 1987, Blue Sky Studios did not find their first client until about two years later: a company "that wanted their logo animated so it would be seen flying over the ocean in front of a sunset." In order to receive the commission, Blue Sky spent two days rendering a single frame and submitted it to the prospective client. However, once the client accepted their offer, Blue Sky found that they could not produce the entire animation in time without help from a local graphics studio, which provided them with extra computer processors.

Throughout the late 1980s and 1990s, Blue Sky Studios concentrated on the production of television commercials and visual effects for film. The studio began by animating commercials that depicted the mechanisms of time-release capsules for pharmaceutical corporations; the studio produced a Chock Full O' Nuts commercial with a talking coffee bean and developed the first computer-animated M&M's. Using CGI Studio, the studio produced over 200 other commercials for clients such as Chrysler, General Foods and the United States Marines. In 1996, MTV collaborated with Blue Sky Studios on the film Joe's Apartment, for which Blue Sky animated the insect characters. Other clients included Bell Atlantic, Rayovac and Braun; the Braun commercial was awarded a CLIO Award for Advertising. Recalling the award, Carl Ludwig stated that the judges had mistaken the commercial as a live action submission as a result of the photorealism of the computer-animated razor. In August 1997, 20th Century Fox's Los Angeles-based visual effects company, VIFX, acquired majority interest in Blue Sky Studios to form a new visual effects and animation company, temporarily renamed "Blue Sky/VIFX".

Following the studio's expansion, Blue Sky produced character animation for the films Alien Resurrection, A Simple Wish, Mouse Hunt, Star Trek: Insurrection and Fight Club. Meanwhile, starting in 1990, Chris Wedge had been working on a short film named Bunny, intended to demonstrate CGI Studio; the film revolves around a rabbit widow, irritated by a moth. The moth subsequently leads the rabbit into "a heavenly glow, reuniting her with her husband." At the time, Wedge had been the thesis advisor for Carlos Saldanha while Saldanha was a graduate student at the School of Visual Arts. After Saldanha's graduation, Blue Sky Studios hired him as an animator, he directed a few commercials, it was not until 1996 when Nina Rappaport, a producer at Blue Sky Studios, assigned Wedge to complete the Bunny project, which required CGI Studio to render fur and metal from multiple light sources, such as a swinging light bulb and an "ethereal cloudscape". In the initial stages of the Bunny project, Carl Ludwig modified CGI Studio to simulate radiosity, which tracks lig

Panhard rod

A Panhard rod is a suspension link that provides lateral location of the axle. Invented by the Panhard automobile company of France in the early twentieth century, this device has been used since; the purpose of automobile suspension is to let the wheels move vertically with respect to the body. It is thus undesirable to allow them to side to side; the Panhard rod prevents lateral movement. The Panhard bar is a simple device, consisting of a rigid bar running sideways in the same plane as the axle, connecting one end of the axle to the car body or chassis on the opposite side of the vehicle; the bar attaches on either end with pivots that let it swivel upwards and downwards only, so that the axle can move in the vertical plane only. This does not locate the axle longitudinally, therefore it is used in conjunction with trailing arms that stabilize the axle in the longitudinal direction; this arrangement is not used with a leaf spring suspension, where the springs themselves supply enough lateral rigidity, but only with coil spring suspensions.

However, Ford used a similar connected rear axle damper on some Explorers and light trucks with rear leaf springs. Jaguar used a Panhard rod to locate the rear axle on it's unusual cantilever leaf sprung Mk2; the advantage of the Panhard rod is its simplicity. Its major disadvantage is that the axle must move in an arc relative to the body, with the radius equal to the length of the Panhard rod. If the rod is too short, it allows excessive sideways movement between the axle and the body at the ends of the spring travel. Therefore, the Panhard rod is less desirable on smaller cars than larger ones. A suspension design, similar but reduces the sideways component of the axle's vertical travel is Watt's linkage; some vehicles with live-axle suspensions, where Watt's linkage is not an option, e.g. a number of Land Rover models use a Panhard rod as a component of the front suspension. The Mercedes G-class was redesigned in 2018 to include a Panhard rod on the rear axle to improve its on-road handling characteristics.

Scott Russell linkage

Harry Franklin Vickers

Harry Franklin Vickers was an American inventor and industrialist. He grew up in southern California, he was called the "Father of Industrial Hydraulics" by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, who gave him the Society's highest award, the ASME Medal, in 1956. Vickers was a self-taught master machinist, he served in World War I in France with the US Army Signal Corps, where he learned about the first generations of electronics and radio. Returning to southern California after the war, he founded Vickers Manufacturing Co. to be called Vickers Inc. His company was principally engaged in general mechanical and machining work; the famous author and sportsman Zane Grey once came to his shop to have a large salt water fishing reel repaired. Grey decided that the young Harry Vickers was a man with a future, offered to arrange for him to be tutored in calculus and other engineering disciplines at night by professors from the University of Southern California. Vickers mechanical ability in combination with his electronic and engineering training formed the basis for his ability to invent and manufacture his early hydraulic innovations, which included the first hydraulic power steering system.

He went on to invent numerous key components fundamental to the rapid growth of the fluid power industry, including his most famous innovation, the balanced vane pump. Vickers Inc. grew eventually moving its headquarters to Detroit to be closer to its major automotive and industrial customers. With the advent of the depression, Vickers approached Frederick J. Fisher to invest in his company to help it survive, they agreed that Vickers, Inc. would merge with the Sperry Corporation, operate as a subsidiary called Sperry Vickers, with Harry Vickers as President. As the start of World War II approached, both Sperry Corp and Sperry Vickers became vital suppliers to the builders of every type of weapon and support system, from aircraft and ships to tanks and transport equipment. At the end of World War II, Admiral Harold Rainsford Stark, Chief of Naval Operations at the start of the war, wrote that, in his view, Harry Vickers had done more than any other civilian to win the war. Vickers many contributions to his country and global industry placed him in the company of many of the greatest individuals of his era.

He was a close friend of Douglas MacArthur, the Chairman of the Board of Remington Rand Corporation when Sperry and Remington merged in the early 1950s, forming Sperry Rand. MacArthur continued in that role in the merged company. Vickers assumed the Chairman's role subsequent to MacArthur's retirement, he served as the last president of Sperry Corporation between 1952 and 1955. He served, in the successory title, as the first president of Sperry Rand Corporation from 1955 to 1965, he during this time, served as the first CEO of Sperry Rand Corporation between 1955 and 1967. He served as chairman of Sperry Rand Corporation between 1965 and 1967; when he retired in 1967, he was Chairman, President and CEO of the 56th largest company in the United States. Vickers was an amateur radio operator, an active pilot, an avid golfer and hunter, he was married to the former Nell Wilhite, they had two children: James and Dawn. "Modern Marvels: Hydraulics," The History Channel, released on DVD on May 12, 2004

King's African Rifles

The King's African Rifles was a multi-battalion British colonial regiment raised from Britain's various possessions in East Africa from 1902 until independence in the 1960s. It performed both military and internal security functions within the colonial territories, served outside these territories during the World Wars; the rank and file were drawn from native inhabitants, while most of the officers were seconded from the British Army. When the KAR was first raised there were some Sudanese officers in the battalions raised in Uganda, native officers were commissioned towards the end of British colonial rule; the Kings African Rifles were infamous for their widespread use of torture and killing of civilians during the Mau Mau Uprising. The most well documented of these cases being the Chuka Massacre; until independence, the parade uniform of the KAR comprised khaki drill, with tall fezzes and cummerbunds. Both of the latter items were red, although there were some battalion distinctions with Nyasaland units, for example, wearing black fezzes.

Prior to 1914, the regiment's field service uniforms consisted of a dark blue jersey and puttees, khaki shorts and a khaki fez cover with integral foldable cloth peak and neck flap. Askaris wore sandals or were barefoot, on the rationale that the heavy military boots of the period were unsuitable for African recruits who had not worn footwear. Fezzes bore an Arabic or Roman number with the wartime-raised battalions wearing theirs on geometric-shaped patches of cloth. During the Great War, all the dark blue items were replaced with khaki equivalents, a short pillbox hat with a khaki cover was worn on campaign. After the war, the khaki shirt was replaced by a collarless blue-grey angora shirt called a "greyback". Officers and senior NCOs wore slouch hats with coloured hackles. Six battalions were formed in 1902 by the amalgamation of the Central Africa Regiment, East Africa Rifles and Uganda Rifles, with one or two battalions located in each of Nyasaland, Kenya and British Somaliland: 1st Battalion with eight companies 2nd Battalion with six companies The 1st and 2nd Battalions were known as the 1st and 2nd Central African Battalions.

3rd Battalion with seven companies and a camel company 4th Battalion with nine companies 5th Battalion with four companies — the senior battalion as it was the first to be raised. 6th Battalion formed from three infantry companies, the camel corps and mounted infantry of the local forces in British Somaliland. On formation, there was no regular staff system in connection with these six battalions beyond the usual regimental staff and an Inspector-General who made two annual tours and reported to the Foreign Office; the 5th and 6th battalions were disbanded by 1910 as a cost-saving measure by the Colonial Office and out of white-settler concern over the existence of a large indigenous armed force. During the early 1900s the King's African Rifles took part in the Somaliland campaign against Mohammed Abdullah Hassan. Lt-Col. Alexander Cobbe of 1st Battalion KAR, was awarded the Victoria Cross for his action at Erego, on 6 October 1902; the KAR were part of the British air and ground force that defeated Hassan's Dervish movement in 1920.

The KAR began the First World War with 21 small companies in three battalions: the 1st Nyasaland, 3rd East Africa and the 4th Uganda, both of the latter included a 4th platoon of Sudanese with the 4th platoon of 4th battalion being led by Sudanese officers. Additionally the companies were scattered over British East Africa. Full strength of the KAR in 1914 was 70 British officers, three British NCOs, 2,325 Africans. There were no organic heavy weapons, including artillery or organised reserves and the companies were in reality large platoons of 70 to 80 men. In 1915 the KAR was expanded by having the three battalions reorganised into standard four-company battalions, which were brought up to full strength at 1,045 men each, it was not until early 1916 that the 2nd Nyasaland and 5th Kenya battalions were re-raised, this being due to do with white sensitivities in Kenya about arming and training large numbers of black African troops. In 1916 the 2nd, 3rd and 4th battalions were expanded into two battalions each through recruiting in their home areas.

It was not until General Hoskins was appointed to command British East African forces in 1917 that genuine expansion began. The 1st Battalion was doubled and the 6th Battalion was raised from Schutztruppe of the former German East Africa and it too was doubled; the 7th was formed from the Mafia Constabulary. In 1917 many other duplicate battalions were created as the first four battalions each raised a 3rd battalion and a 4th or Training Battalion; the 4th Regiment raised the 5th and 6th through recruiting in Uganda. The KAR Mounted Infantry Unit part of the 3rd regiment and the KAR Signals Company were raised, thus in late 1918 the KAR consisted of 22 battalions as follows: Western Force: 1st KAR Regiment with 1st, 2nd, 3rd Battalions.


Ohto Co. Ltd. is a Japanese manufacturing company of writing implements. The company was established in 1919 as a manufacturer of dyes and ink. In 1949, the company became a pen manufacturer after they manufactured the world's first ball point pen with a chrome ball; this was Japan's first ballpoint pen. Current products manufactured by Ohto are fountain and gel pens and mechanical pencils; the story of Ohto started when Nakata Touzaburo, an employee of the Ministry of Finance, invented a special ink, which he thought would be perfect for use in banknotes. After his idea was rejected by the Ministry, Touzaburo decide to establish a company by himself, establishing "Nakata-Ohka-do" in 1919 as a manufacturer of ink, setting up in Tokyo; when the United States Army brought ballpoint pens with them, Japanese people were amazed by them and their long-lasting ink system, due to ballpoints did not need to be filled as as fountain pens did. Nakata took note of this, in 1949 Nakata-Ohka-do released the first ballpoint made in Japan, named "Auto pencil".

It became the world's first pencil-shaped ballpoint pen with chrome ball. To match its own invention, the company renamed to "Auto". In the 1960s, Ohto released the first water-based ballpoint pen. In 1974, the company realised that the word "Auto" was too associated with cars, changed its name again to "Ohto". Official website

2013 Malaysia Super League

The 2013 Liga Super known as the Astro Liga Super for sponsorship reasons is the 10th season of the Liga Super, the top-tier professional football league in Malaysia. The season was held from 8 January and concluded in 6 July 2013; the Liga Super champions for 2013 was LionsXII. A total of twelve teams will compete in the 2013 season which includes the top 10 teams that participated in the 2012 season, champion of the 2012 Liga Premier, the winner of the play-off round between teams finishing 11th to 13th in the Liga Super as well as the team finishing 2nd in the Liga Premier. Kuala Lumpur was relegated at the end of the 2012 Liga Super season after finishing in the bottom place of the league table. Sarawak and Kedah were relegated after losing the playoffs. 2012 Liga Premier champions Angkatan Tentera Malaysia secured direct promotion to the Liga Super. Meanwhile, 2012 Liga Premier runner-up Pahang clinched the promotion after winning the playoff rounds. Kelantan LionsXII Selangor Perak Terengganu Negeri Sembilan PKNS T-Team Johor Darul Takzim Felda United ATM1 Pahang2Note:1Promoted from 2012 Liga Premier2Winners of 2013 Liga Super/Liga Premier Play-off round Matches may not be played at night at stadiums marked with an asterisk because the floodlights do not meet FAM regulations.

Johor FC was renamed as Johor Darul Takzim Football Club. Johor Darul Takzim moved to the Tan Sri Dato Hj Hassan Yunos Stadium and will host their home matches there after occupying the previous stadium, Pasir Gudang Corporation Stadium. ATM moved to the Selayang Stadium and will host their home matches there after occupying the previous stadium, Petaling Jaya Stadium. Felda United moved to the Petaling Jaya Stadium and will host their home matches there after occupying the previous stadium, Hang Jebat Stadium. Note: Teams participating in the 2013 AFC Cup can employ two extra foreign players, as the AFC allows four foreign players, of which one of them must be an Asian player, but the third and fourth foreign players are only allowed to play in the AFC Cup 2013 Tournament. LionsXII will not be permitted to have any foreign players as it is intended to remain as a development team for Singaporean players. FAM allow three foreign players quota starts season 2014. Fixtures and Results of the Liga Super 2013 season.

As of 6 July 2013 4 Player scored 4 goals First goal of the season: Mohammed Ghaddar for Felda United against Terengganu Fastest goal of the season: 2 Minutes – Abdul Hadi Yahya for Perak against Kelantan Largest winning margin: 5 goals PKNS 5–0 Felda United Highest scoring game: 9 goals PKNS 4–5 Pahang Most goals scored in a match by a single team: 5 goals PKNS 5–0 Felda United PKNS 4–5 Pahang Most goals scored in a match by a losing team: 4 goals PKNS 4–5 Pahang List of Liga Super seasons 2013 Liga Premier 2013 Liga FAM 2013 Piala FA 2013 Piala Malaysia Liga Super Astro Arena