Cape Town is the oldest city in South Africa, colloquially named the Mother City. It is primate city of the Western Cape province, it forms part of the City of Cape Town metropolitan municipality. The Parliament of South Africa sits in Cape Town; the other two capitals are located in Bloemfontein. The city is known for its harbour, for its natural setting in the Cape Floristic Region, for landmarks such as Table Mountain and Cape Point. Cape Town is home to 64% of the Western Cape's population, it is one of the most multicultural cities in the world, reflecting its role as a major destination for immigrants and expatriates to South Africa. The city was named the World Design Capital for 2014 by the International Council of Societies of Industrial Design. In 2014, Cape Town was named the best place in the world to visit by both The New York Times and The Daily Telegraph. Located on the shore of Table Bay, Cape Town, as the oldest urban area in South Africa, was developed by the Dutch East India Company as a supply station for Dutch ships sailing to East Africa and the Far East.
Jan van Riebeeck's arrival on 6 April 1652 established Dutch Cape Colony, the first permanent European settlement in South Africa. Cape Town outgrew its original purpose as the first European outpost at the Castle of Good Hope, becoming the economic and cultural hub of the Cape Colony; until the Witwatersrand Gold Rush and the development of Johannesburg, Cape Town was the largest city in South Africa. Cape Town is not just the city centre area, its suburbs and non-urban areas extend from the South Peninsula to beyond Mamre in the north and as far east as Gordon's Bay; the earliest known remnants in the region were found at Peers Cave in Fish Hoek and date to between 15,000 and 12,000 years ago. Little is known of the history of the region's first residents, since there is no written history from the area before it was first mentioned by Portuguese explorer Bartolomeu Dias in 1488, the first European to reach the area and named it "Cape of Storms", it was renamed by John II of Portugal as "Cape of Good Hope" because of the great optimism engendered by the opening of a sea route to India and the East.
Vasco da Gama recorded a sighting of the Cape of Good Hope in 1497. In the late 16th century, French, Danish and English but Portuguese ships stopped over in Table Bay en route to the Indies, they traded tobacco and iron with the Khoikhoi in exchange for fresh meat. In 1652, Jan van Riebeeck and other employees of the Dutch East India Company were sent to the Cape to establish a way-station for ships travelling to the Dutch East Indies, the Fort de Goede Hoop; the settlement grew during this period, as it was hard to find adequate labour. This labour shortage prompted the authorities to import slaves from Madagascar. Many of these became ancestors of the first Cape Coloured communities. Under Van Riebeeck and his successors as VOC commanders and governors at the Cape, an impressive range of useful plants were introduced to the Cape – in the process changing the natural environment forever; some of these, including grapes, ground nuts, potatoes and citrus, had an important and lasting influence on the societies and economies of the region.
The Dutch Republic being transformed in Revolutionary France's vassal Batavian Republic, Great Britain moved to take control of its colonies. Britain captured Cape Town in 1795, but the Cape was returned to the Dutch by treaty in 1803. British forces occupied the Cape again in 1806 following the Battle of Blaauwberg. In the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814, Cape Town was permanently ceded to Britain, it became the capital of the newly formed Cape Colony, whose territory expanded substantially through the 1800s. With expansion came calls for greater independence from Britain, with the Cape attaining its own parliament and a locally accountable Prime Minister. Suffrage was established according to sexist Cape Qualified Franchise; the discovery of diamonds in Griqualand West in 1867, the Witwatersrand Gold Rush in 1886, prompted a flood of immigrants to South Africa. Conflicts between the Boer republics in the interior and the British colonial government resulted in the Second Boer War of 1899–1902, which Britain won.
In 1910, Britain established the Union of South Africa, which unified the Cape Colony with the two defeated Boer Republics and the British colony of Natal. Cape Town became the legislative capital of the Union, of the Republic of South Africa. In the 1948 national elections, the National Party won on a platform of apartheid under the slogan of "swart gevaar"; this led to the erosion and eventual abolition of the Cape's multiracial franchise, as well as to the Group Areas Act, which classified all areas according to race. Multi-racial suburbs of Cape Town were either purged of unlawful residents or demolished; the most infamous example of this in Cape Town was District Six. After it was declared a whites-only region in 1965, all housing there was demolished and over 60,000 residents were forcibly removed. Many of these residents were relocated to the Cape Lavender Hill. Under apartheid, the Cape was considered a "Coloured labour preference area", to the exclusion of "Bantus", i.e. Africans. School students from Langa and Nyanga in Cape Town reacted to the news of
Soundproofing is any means of reducing the sound pressure with respect to a specified sound source and receptor. There are several basic approaches to reducing sound: increasing the distance between source and receiver, using noise barriers to reflect or absorb the energy of the sound waves, using damping structures such as sound baffles, or using active antinoise sound generators. Two distinct soundproofing problems may need to be considered when designing acoustic treatments - to improve the sound within a room, reduce sound leakage to/from adjacent rooms or outdoors. Acoustic quieting and noise control can be used to limit unwanted noise. Soundproofing can suppress unwanted indirect sound waves such as reflections that cause echoes and resonances that cause reverberation. Soundproofing can reduce the transmission of unwanted direct sound waves from the source to an involuntary listener through the use of distance and intervening objects in the sound path; the energy density of sound waves decreases as they spread out, so that increasing the distance between the receiver and source results in a progressively lesser intensity of sound at the receiver.
In a normal three-dimensional setting, with a point source and point receptor, the intensity of sound waves will be attenuated according to the inverse square of the distance from the source. Damping means to reduce resonance by absorption or redirection. Absorption will reduce the overall sound level, whereas redirection makes unwanted sound harmless or beneficial by reducing coherence. Damping can reduce the acoustic resonance in the air, or mechanical resonance in the structure of the room itself or things in the room. Absorbing sound spontaneously converts part of the sound energy to a small amount of heat in the intervening object, rather than sound being transmitted or reflected. There are several ways; the choice of sound absorbing material will be determined by the frequency distribution of noise to be absorbed and the acoustic absorption profile required Porous absorbers open cell rubber foams or melamine sponges, absorb noise by friction within the cell structure. Porous open cell foams are effective noise absorbers across a broad range of medium-high frequencies.
Performance can be less impressive at lower frequencies. The exact absorption profile of a porous open cell foam will be determined by a number of factors including the following: Cell size Tortuosity Porosity Material thickness Material density Resonant panels, Helmholtz resonators and other resonant absorbers work by damping a sound wave as they reflect it. Unlike porous absorbers, resonant absorbers are most effective at low-medium frequencies and the absorption of resonant absorbers is always matched to a narrow frequency range; when sound waves hit a medium, the reflection of that sound is dependent on dissimilarity of the surfaces it comes in contact with. Sound hitting a concrete surface will result in a much different reflection than if sound were to hit a softer medium such as fiberglass. In an outdoor environment such as highway engineering, embankments or panelling are used to reflect sound upwards into the sky. If a specular reflection from a hard flat surface is giving a problematic echo an acoustic diffuser may be applied to the surface.
It will scatter sound in all directions. This is effective to eliminate pockets of noise in a room. A room within a room is one method of isolating sound and preventing it from transmitting to the outside world where it may be undesirable. Most vibration / sound transfer from a room to the outside occurs through mechanical means; the vibration passes directly through the brick and other solid structural elements. When it meets with an element such as a wall, floor or window, which acts as a sounding board, the vibration is amplified and heard in the second space. A mechanical transmission is much faster, more efficient and may be more amplified than an airborne transmission of the same initial strength; the use of acoustic foam and other absorbent means is less effective against this transmitted vibration. The user is advised to break the connection between the room that contains the noise source and the outside world; this is called acoustic decoupling. Ideal decoupling involves eliminating vibration transfer in both solid materials and in the air, so air-flow into the room is controlled.
This has safety implications: inside decoupled space, proper ventilation must be assured, gas heaters cannot be used. Noise cancellation generators for active noise control are a modern innovation. A microphone is used to pick up the sound, analyzed by a computer. Residential soundproofing aims to eliminate the effects of exterior noise; the main focus of residential soundproofing in existing structures is the doors. Solid wood doors are a better sound barrier than hollow doors. Curtains can be used to dampen sound, either through use of heavy materials, or through the use of air chambers known as honeycombs. Single-, double- and triple-honeycomb designs achieve greater degrees of sound damping; the primary soundproofing limit of curtains is the lack of a seal at the edge of the curtain, although this may be alleviated with the use of sealing features, such as hook and loop fastener, magnets, or other materials. Thickness of glass will play a role. Double-pane windows achieve somewhat greater sound damping than si
Luxury trains are designed to offer a comfortable ride and evoke an association with history and heritage. Operating in several countries, they are a premium travel option. Although some luxury trains promote tourism in destinations across a continent, others take passengers on a long, leisurely ride through a single country. Luxury train travel has become popular, its proponents cite several advantages over air travel. Although air travel can be monotonous, passengers on a luxury train can see the local environment and economic conditions, a myriad of colors during their travels. Unlike airplanes, luxury trains are spacious and have restaurants and bars, comfortable sleeping and seating areas and bathrooms. Before sleeping and dining cars, long-distance train travel was an uncomfortable experience. George Pullman's first sleeping car, the Pioneer, was introduced in 1865; the Pioneer was the first railway carriage with dining and sleeping areas, the Pullman Car Company was founded in 1880. Georges Nagelmackers founded the Compagnie Internationale des Wagons-Lits, creator of the Orient Express.
Inspired by Pullman trains in the United States, Nagelmackers returned to Europe and built a fleet of over 30 luxury trains which traveled to several European destinations. He is credited with beginning the age of luxury grand hotels; the best-known luxury train was the Orient Express, the setting of Agatha Christie's Murder on the Orient Express. Europe's first luxury train, it began its maiden journey across Europe on 5 June 1883 from Paris' Gare de l'Est. Although the original Orient Express ceased operations in 2009, private operators and public-private joint ventures provide luxury train travel in several countries. According to Belmond, the company operates the highest number of luxury train tours in the world. With service in Europe and South America, Belmond is the only private luxury tour provider to offer continental or intercontinental service; the Venice-Simplon Orient Express, with service from London to Venice, was voted the number-one luxury train in the world in 2009. The Royal Scotsman offers service across Scotland and the rest of Britain.
The Belmond Grand Hibernian began operations in Ireland on 30 August 2016. The Eastern and Oriental Express has service from Bangkok to Vientiane. Covering over 2,000 kilometres of peninsular Southeast Asia, its two-day journey has frequent stops at scenic locations. British Pullman cars were used on the Brighton Belle out of London Victoria station. Northern Belle is a owned luxury train introduced in 2000, it consists of British Rail Mark 2 coach stock, refurbished internally and painted externally to resemble the Brighton Belle's British Pullman coaches. Buffet cars are British Rail Mark 1 coaches. Although the train operates in Northern England and Scotland, it serves London and Bristol; the train has two British Rail Mark 3 sleeper coaches for its crew. It departs from a number of northern cities, including Liverpool, Edinburgh and Manchester; the Northern Belle has six dining cars named after historic British houses. Spain's state-owned network of luxury trains is operated by Renfe Operadora and runs from March to October on scheduled and charter trips.
The main routes cross Andalusia, with special tours throughout the peninsula. The Al Ándalus' luxury cars were built in France for use by members of the British monarchy when they travelled between Calais and the French Riviera; the main route takes passengers from Seville to Cádiz, Jerez de la Frontera, Granada, Úbeda, Linares, Córdoba and back to Seville. The oldest tourist train in Spain, the El Transcantábrico has original 1923 Pullman coaches. There are two routes: the Gran Lujo between San Sebastián and Santiago de Compostela, the Clasico between León and Santiago de Compostela via Bilbao; the common areas of El Expreso de La Robla are three air-conditioned coaches with bar service. The coaches, designed for conferences, talks and meetings, have all required technological facilities. All interior areas of the train are connected, enabling passengers to move throughout; the Golden Eagle Trans-Siberian Express, begun in April 2007, takes passengers on a 6,000-mile trip across two continents and eight time zones.
The Golden Eagle follows the Trans-Siberian Railway, which connects Moscow and European Russia with the Russian Far East, Mongolia and the Sea of Japan. Rocky Mountaineer is a Canadian company which operates trains touring the Canadian Rockies and the northwestern U. S. Via Rail sold off its Rockies by Daylight scenic train to Rocky Mountaineer Vacations in 1990. Rocky Mountaineer operates four routes; the Royal Canadian Pacific is a luxury overnight passenger train based in Calgary. The train makes charter runs along Canadian Pacific Railway tracks in summer and fall, taking passengers into the Rocky Mountains of Alberta and British Columbia. A typical six-day, five-night round trip runs through Crowsnest Pass; the train halts at night to enable passengers to enjoy all the scenery. It consists of up to ten CPR luxury passenger cars, two restored 1950s locomotives and a booster unit; the CPR owns a modern diesel GP38-2 locomotive, numbered 3084, for backup use. Seven Stars in Kyushu is a deluxe sleeping-car excursion train which has toured the island of Kyushu since October 2013.
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A butler is a domestic worker in a large household. In great houses, the household is sometimes divided into departments with the butler in charge of the dining room, wine cellar, pantry; some have charge of the entire parlour floor, housekeepers caring for the entire house and its appearance. A butler is male, in charge of male servants, while a housekeeper is a woman, in charge of female servants. Traditionally, male servants were of higher status than female servants; the butler, as the senior male servant, has the highest servant status. He can sometimes function as a chauffeur. In older houses where the butler is the most senior worker, titles such as majordomo, butler administrator, house manager, staff manager, chief of staff, staff captain, estate manager and head of household staff are sometimes given; the precise duties of the employee will vary to some extent in line with the title given, but more in line with the requirements of the individual employer. In the grandest homes or when the employer owns more than one residence, there is sometimes an estate manager of higher rank than the butler.
The butler can be served by a head footman or footboy called the under-butler. The word "butler" comes from Anglo-Norman buteler, variant form of Old Norman *butelier, corresponding to Old French botellier "officer in charge of the king's wine bottles", derived of boteille "bottle", Modern French bouteille, itself from Gallo-Romance BUTICULA "bottle"; the role of the butler, for centuries, has been that of the chief steward of a household, the attendant entrusted with the care and serving of wine and other bottled beverages which in ancient times might have represented a considerable portion of the household's assets. In Britain, the butler was a middle-ranking member of the staff of a grand household. In the 17th and 18th centuries, the butler became the senior male, member of a household's staff in the grandest households. However, there was sometimes a steward who ran the outside estate and financial affairs, rather than just the household, and, senior to the butler in social status into the 19th century.
Butlers used always to be attired in a special uniform, distinct from the livery of junior servants, but today a butler is more to wear a business suit or business casual clothing and appear in uniform only on special occasions. A silverman or silver butler has expertise and professional knowledge of the management, secure storage and cleaning of all silverware, associated tableware and other paraphernalia for use at military and other special functions; the modern role of the butler has evolved from earlier roles that were concerned with the care and serving of alcoholic beverages. From ancient through medieval times, alcoholic beverages were chiefly stored first in earthenware vessels later in wooden barrels, rather than in glass bottles; the care of these assets was therefore reserved for trusted slaves, although the job could go to free persons because of heredity-based class lines or the inheritance of trades. The biblical book of Genesis contains a reference to a role precursive to modern butlers.
The early Hebrew Joseph interpreted a dream of Pharaoh's שקה, most translated into English as "chief butler" or "chief cup-bearer". In ancient Greece and Rome, it was nearly always slaves who were charged with the care and service of wine, while during the Medieval Era the pincerna filled the role within the noble court; the English word "butler" itself comes from the Middle English word boteler, from Anglo-Norman buteler, itself from Old Norman butelier, corresponding to Old French botellier, Modern French bouteiller, before that from Medieval Latin butticula. The modern English "butler" thus relates both to casks; the European butler emerged as a middle-ranking member of the servants of a great house, in charge of the buttery. While this is so for household butlers, those with the same title but in service to the Crown enjoyed a position of administrative power and were only minimally involved with various stores; the Steward of the Elizabethan era was more akin to the butler that emerged.
Throughout the 19th century and the Victorian era, as the number of butlers and other domestic servants increased in various countries, the butler became a senior male servant of a household's staff. By this time he was in charge of the more modern wine cellar, the "buttery" or pantry as it came to be called, which supplied bread, butter and other basic provisions, the ewery, which contained napkins and basins for washing and shaving. In the grandest households there was sometimes an Estate Steward or other senior steward who oversaw the butler and his duties. Mrs Beeton's Book of Household Management, a manual published in Britain in 1861, reported: The number of the male domestics in a family varies according to the wealth and position of the master, from the owner of the ducal mansion, with a retinue of attendants, at the head of, the chamberlain and house-steward, to the occupier of the humbler house, where a single footman, or the odd man-of-all-work, is the only male retainer; the majority of gentlemen's establishments comprise a servant out of livery, or butler, a footman, coachman, or coachman and groom, where the horses exceed two or three.
The Karoo is a semi desert natural region of South Africa. No exact definition of what constitutes the Karoo is available, so its extent is not defined; the Karoo is defined by its topography and climate, above all, its low rainfall, arid air, cloudless skies, extremes of heat and cold. The Karoo hosted a well-preserved ecosystem hundreds of million years ago, now represented by many fossils; the Karoo formed an impenetrable barrier to the interior from Cape Town, the early adventurers, explorers and travelers on the way to the Highveld unanimously denounced it as a frightening place of great heat, great frosts, great floods, great droughts. Today, it is still a place of great heat and frosts, an annual rainfall of between 50 and 250 mm, though on some of the mountains it can be 250 to 500 mm higher than on the plains. However, underground water is found throughout the Karoo, which can be tapped by boreholes, making permanent settlements and sheep farming possible; the xerophytic vegetation consists of aloes, mesembryanthemums, euphorbias and desert ephemerals, spaced 50 cm or more apart, becoming sparse going northwards into Bushmanland and, from there, into the Kalahari Desert.
The driest region of the Karoo, however, is its southwestern corner, between the Great Escarpment and the Cederberg-Skurweberg mountain ranges, called the Tankwa Karoo, which receives only 75 mm of rain annually. The eastern and north-eastern Karoo are covered by large patches of grassland; the typical Karoo vegetation used to support large game, sometimes in vast herds. Today, sheep thrive on the xerophytes, though each sheep requires about 4 ha of grazing to sustain itself; the Karoo is distinctively divided into the Great Karoo and the Little Karoo by the Swartberg Mountain Range, which runs east-west, parallel to the southern coastline, but is separated from the sea by another east-west range called the Outeniqua–Langeberg Mountains. The Great Karoo lies to the north of the Swartberg range; the only sharp and definite boundary of the Great Karoo is formed by the most inland ranges of Cape Fold Mountains to the south and south-west. The extent of the Karoo to the north is vague and imperceptibly into the arid Bushmanland towards the north-west.
To the north and north-east, it fades into the savannah and grasslands of Griqualand West and the Highveld. The boundary to the east grades into the grasslands of the Eastern Midlands; the Great Karoo is itself divided by the Great Escarpment into the Upper Karoo and the Lower Karoo on the plains below at 700–800 m. A great many local names, each denoting different subregions of the Great Karoo, some more or more known than others. In the Lower Karoo, going from west to east, they are the Tankwa Karoo, the Moordenaarskaroo, the Koup, the Vlakte, the Camdeboo Plains; the Hantam, Kareeberge and uweveldare the better known subregions of the Upper Karoo, though most of it is known as the Upper Karoo in the north. The Little Karoo’s boundaries are defined by mountain ranges to the west and south; the road between Uniondale and Willowmore is considered, by convention, to form the approximate arbitrary eastern extremity of the Little Karoo. Its extent is much smaller than that of the Great Karoo. Locally, it is called the Klein Karoo, Afrikaans for Little Karoo.
The Great Karoo straddles the 30° S parallel on the west of the continent, in a similar position to other semidesert areas on earth and south of the equator. It is furthermore in the rainfall shadow of the Cape Fold Mountains along the western coastline; the western "Lower Karoo" contain remnants of the Cape Fold Mountains which give it a moderate hilly appearance, but further east, the Lower Karoo becomes a monotonously flat plain. The "Upper Karoo" has been intruded by dolerite sills, creating multiple flat-topped hills, or Karoo Koppies, which are iconic of the Great Karoo; the vegetation of the Upper is similar to the Lower Karoo, so few people make a distinction between the two. The main highway and railway line from Cape Town to the north enter the Lower Karoo from the Hex River Valley just before Touws River and follow a course about 50 km south of the Great Escarpment up to Beaufort West. Thereafter, they ascend the Great Escarpment along a broad valley to Three Sisters on the Central Plateau and the Upper Karoo.
Turning north from the N1 between Touws River and Beaufort West, at Matjiesfontein, the road ascends the Great Escarpment through the Verlatenkloof Pass to reach Sutherland, at 1456 m above sea level, reputedly the coldest town in South Africa with average minimum temperatures of -6.1 °C during winter. Parts of the eastern Mpumalangan Highveld do at times experience lower temperatures than Sutherland, but not as as Sutherland does. Snowfalls are not infrequent during the southern winter months; the South African Astronomical Observatory has an emplacement of telescopes about 20 km east of the town, on a small plateau 1798 m above sea level, is home to the Southern African Large Telescope, the largest optical telescope in the Southern Hemisphere. To the north, still on the Plateau, 75 km north-west of Carnarvon, seven radio dishes form part of the Square Kilometer Array which will, 2500 in total, be scattered in other parts of South Africa and Australia, to survey the southern skies at radio frequencies.
Our galaxy, the Milky Way, one of the main targets of this enterprise, is b
A bathroom is a room in the home or hotel for personal hygiene activities containing a toilet, a sink and either a bathtub, a shower, or both. In some countries, the toilet is included in the bathroom, whereas other cultures consider this insanitary or impractical, give that fixture a room of its own; the toilet may be outside of the home in the case of pit latrines. It may be a question of available space in the house whether the toilet is included in the bathroom or not. Bathing was a collective activity, which took place in public baths. In some countries the shared social aspect of cleansing the body is still important, as for example with sento in Japan and the "Turkish bath" throughout the Islamic world. In North American English the word "bathroom" may be used to mean any room containing a toilet a public toilet; the term for the place used to clean the body varies around the English-speaking world, as does the design of the room itself. A full bathroom is understood to contain a bath or shower, a toilet, a sink.
An ensuite bathroom or ensuite shower room is attached to, only accessible from, a bedroom. A family bathroom, in British estate agent terminology, is a full bathroom not attached to a bedroom, but with its door opening onto a corridor. A Jack and Jill bathroom is situated between and shared by the occupants of two separate bedrooms, it may have two wash basins. A wetroom is a waterproof room equipped with a shower. In the United States, there is a lack of a universal definition. Bathrooms are categorized as "master bathroom", containing a shower and a bathtub, adjoining to the largest bedroom. In some U. S. markets, a toilet and shower are considered a "full bath." In addition, there is the use of the word "bathroom" to describe a room containing a toilet and a basin, nothing else. Bathrooms have one or more towel bars or towel rings for hanging towels Some bathrooms contain a bathroom cabinet for personal hygiene products and medicines, drawers or shelves for storing towels and other items; some bathrooms contain a bidet.
The design of a bathroom must account for the use of both hot and cold water, in significant quantities, for cleaning the body. The water is used for moving solid and liquid human waste to a sewer or septic tank. Water may be splashed on the walls and floor, hot humid air may cause condensation on cold surfaces. From a decorating point of view the bathroom presents a challenge. Ceiling and floor materials and coverings should be impervious to water and and cleaned; the use of ceramic or glass, as well as smooth plastic materials, is common in bathrooms for their ease of cleaning. Such surfaces are cold to the touch, so water-resistant bath mats or bathroom carpets may be used on the floor to make the room more comfortable. Alternatively, the floor may be heated by strategically placing resistive electric mats under floor tile or radiant hot water tubing close to the underside of the floor surface. Electrical appliances, such as lights and heated towel rails need to be installed as fixtures, with permanent connections rather than plugs and sockets.
This minimizes the risk of electric shock. Ground-fault circuit interrupter electrical sockets can reduce the risk of electric shock, are required for bathroom socket installation by electrical and building codes in the United States and Canada. In some countries, such as the United Kingdom, only special sockets suitable for electric shavers and electric toothbrushes are permitted in bathrooms, are labelled as such. UK building regulations define what type of electrical fixtures, such as light fittings may be installed in the areas around and above baths, showers. Contrary to some information provided with bathroom light fittings and basins do not affect bathroom zones, as a bathroom is defined as a room containing a bath or shower, by wiring regulations, it is good practice to avoid installing unsuitable fixtures close to sinks, as damage from water splashes may occur. Bathroom lighting should be uniform and must minimize glare. For all the activities like shaving, grooming etc. one must ensure equitable lighting across the entire bathroom space.
The mirror area should have at least two sources of light at least 1 feet apart to eliminate any shadows on the face. Skin tones and hair color are highlighted with a tinge of yellow light. Ceiling and wall lights must be safe for use in a bathroom and therefore must carry appropriate certification such as IP44. All forms of bathroom lighting should be IP44 rated as safe to use in the bathroom; the first records for the use of baths date back as far as 3000 B. C. At this time water had a strong religious value, being seen as a purifying element for both body and soul, so it was not uncommon for people to be required t