Interstate 69 in Michigan
Interstate 69 is a part of the Interstate Highway System that will run from the Mexican border in Texas to the Canadian border at Port Huron, Michigan. In Michigan, it is a state trunkline highway that enters the state south of Coldwater and passes the cities of Lansing and Flint in the Lower Peninsula. A north–south freeway from the Indiana–Michigan border to the Lansing area, it changes direction to east–west after running concurrently with I-96; the freeway continues to Port Huron before terminating in the middle of the twin-span Blue Water Bridge while running concurrently with I-94 at the border. There are four related business loops for I-69 in the state, connecting the freeway to adjacent cities. Predecessors to I-69 include the first M-29, US Highway 27, M-78 and M-21; the freeway was not included on the original Interstate Highway System planning maps in the mid-1950s, but it was added in 1958 along a shorter route. Michigan built segments of freeway for the future Interstate in the 1960s, the state was granted additional Interstate mileage in 1968 to extend I-69 north and east to Flint.
Extensions in 1973 and 1987 resulted in the modern highway. The first freeway segment designated as I-69 in Michigan opened in 1967, the last was completed in 1992, finishing Michigan's Interstate System. US 27 ran concurrently with I-69 from the Indiana–Michigan state line north to the Lansing area, but this designation was removed in 2002; the entirety of I-69 is listed on the National Highway System, a network of roadways important to the country's economy and mobility. The freeway carries 91,100 vehicles on average each day between I-475 and M-54 in Flint and 14,085 vehicles between M-53 and Capac Road near the Lapeer–St. Clair county line, the highest and lowest traffic counts in 2012, respectively. I-69 carries the Lake Huron Circle Tour in the Port Huron area and the I-69 Recreational Heritage Route from the Indiana state line north to the Calhoun–Eaton county line. I-69 is a four-lane freeway in the state of Michigan, with exceptions in the Lansing and Flint metro areas where it is six lanes and in Port Huron where it is three lanes westbound and three lanes eastbound until eastbound traffic splits into six lanes of local traffic to Port Huron and two lanes to the Blue Water Bridge.
I-69 in Michigan begins at the Indiana state line southeast of Kinderhook and just north of an interchange with the Indiana Toll Road, which carries I-80 and I-90. From there, I-69 runs northward through a mixture of Southern Michigan farmland and woodland in Branch County. A few miles north of the state line, the freeway passes Coldwater Lake State Park and its namesake body of water. I-69 curves around the east side of Coldwater, connecting to the city's business loop on the south of town. East of downtown, the freeway intersects the northern end of the business loop at an interchange that features US 12. Farther north, the freeway turns to the northwest, crosses into Calhoun County and over the St. Joseph River. I-69 turns back northward and bypasses Tekonsha to the town's west, intersecting M-60 in the process. Curving around Nottawa Lake, I-69 continues northward through southern Calhoun County, it passes through an interchange that marks the southern terminus of M-227, a highway that connects northward into Marshall.
The freeway crosses the Kalamazoo River and passes through an interchange with M-96 west of downtown Marshall. From that interchange northward, the BL I-94 designation is overlaid on I-69. North of I-94, I-69 has one more interchange at N Drive North before crossing into Eaton County. In southern Eaton County, the freeway parallels the Battle Creek River north of the junction with M-78. Near Olivet, I-69 begins to turn in a northeasterly direction and curves around the north side of town. On the south side of Charlotte, I-69 turns northward, traversing an area to the east of downtown and crossing the former routing of US 27, now part of the business loop for the city. Farther north, the freeway has a junction with M-50, a bridge over the Battle Creek River, an interchange with the northern end of the business loop next to Fitch H. Beach Airport. North of the airport, I-69 turns northeasterly again and parallels Lansing Road, the former route of US 27/M-78; the freeway meets the southern end of M-100 near Potterville and continues into the Lansing–East Lansing metropolitan area.
Southwest of the state's capital city, I-69 crosses over Lansing Road near Lansing Delta Township Assembly, a factory for General Motors. The combined I-96/I-69 runs northward through the suburban edges of the Lansing area, intersecting the western ends of I-496 and the BL I-69 for Lansing; the freeway enters Clinton County, just north of a crossing of the Grand River, I-69 turns eastward to separate from I-96. As a part of the larger interchange with I-96, I-69 crosses BL I-96 without any connections. After leaving the I-96 concurrency, I-69 changes cardinal orientation and is signed as east–west from that point on; the freeway continues parallel to the Looking Glass River through suburban areas north of Capital Region International Airport. North of East Lansing, I-69 meets US 127 at a cloverleaf interchange. East of that junction, I-69 turns southeasterly passing the Hawk Hollow Golf Course and Park Lake on the way to meet the eastern end of BL I-69 just north of Lake Lansing. I-69 turns northeasterly parallel to Lansing Road to enter Shiawassee County.
The freeway continues through Centra
A truss bridge is a bridge whose load-bearing superstructure is composed of a truss, a structure of connected elements forming triangular units. The connected elements may be stressed from tension, compression, or sometimes both in response to dynamic loads. Truss bridges are one of the oldest types of modern bridges; the basic types of truss bridges shown in this article have simple designs which could be analyzed by 19th and early 20th-century engineers. A truss bridge is economical to construct; the nature of a truss allows the analysis of its structure using a few assumptions and the application of Newton's laws of motion according to the branch of physics known as statics. For purposes of analysis, trusses are assumed to be pin jointed; this assumption means that members of the truss will act only in compression. A more complex analysis is required where rigid joints impose significant bending loads upon the elements, as in a Vierendeel truss. In the bridge illustrated in the infobox at the top, vertical members are in tension, lower horizontal members in tension and bending, outer diagonal and top members are in compression, while the inner diagonals are in tension.
The central vertical member stabilizes the upper compression member. If the top member is sufficiently stiff this vertical element may be eliminated. If the lower chord is sufficiently resistant to bending and shear, the outer vertical elements may be eliminated, but with additional strength added to other members in compensation; the ability to distribute the forces in various ways has led to a large variety of truss bridge types. Some types may be more advantageous when wood is employed for compression elements while other types may be easier to erect in particular site conditions, or when the balance between labor and material costs have certain favorable proportions; the inclusion of the elements shown is an engineering decision based upon economics, being a balance between the costs of raw materials, off-site fabrication, component transportation, on-site erection, the availability of machinery and the cost of labor. In other cases the appearance of the structure may take on greater importance and so influence the design decisions beyond mere matters of economics.
Modern materials such as prestressed concrete and fabrication methods, such as automated welding, the changing price of steel relative to that of labor have influenced the design of modern bridges. A pure truss can be represented as a pin-jointed structure, one where the only forces on the truss members are tension or compression, not bending; this is used by the building of model bridges from spaghetti. Spaghetti is brittle and although it can carry a modest tension force, it breaks if bent. A model spaghetti bridge thus demonstrates the use of a truss structure to produce a usefully strong complete structure from individually weak elements; because wood was in abundance, early truss bridges would use fitted timbers for members taking compression and iron rods for tension members constructed as a covered bridge to protect the structure. In 1820 a simple form of truss, Town's lattice truss, was patented, had the advantage of requiring neither high labor skills nor much metal. Few iron truss bridges were built in the United States before 1850.
Truss bridges became a common type of bridge built from the 1870s through the 1930s. Examples of these bridges still remain across the US, but their numbers are dropping as they are demolished and replaced with new structures; as metal started to replace timber, wrought iron bridges in the US started being built on a large scale in the 1870s. Bowstring truss bridges were a common truss design during this time, with their arched top chords. Companies like the Massillon Bridge Company of Massillon and the King Bridge Company of Cleveland, Ohio became well-known, as they marketed their designs to cities and townships; the bowstring truss design fell out of favor due to a lack of durability, gave way to the Pratt truss design, stronger. Again, the bridge companies marketed their designs, with the Wrought Iron Bridge Company in the lead; as the 1880s and 1890s progressed, steel began to replace wrought iron as the preferred material. Other truss designs were used during this time, including the camel-back.
By the 1910s, many states developed standard plan truss bridges, including steel Warren pony truss bridges. As the 1920s and 1930s progressed, some states, such as Pennsylvania, continued to build steel truss bridges, including massive steel through-truss bridges for long spans. Other states, such as Michigan, used standard plan concrete girder and beam bridges, only a limited number of truss bridges were built; the truss may carry its roadbed in the middle, or at the bottom of the truss. Bridges with the roadbed at the top or the bottom are the most common as this allows both the top and bottom to be stiffened, forming a box truss; when the roadbed is atop the truss it is called a deck truss. When the truss members are both above and below the roadbed it is called a through truss, where the sides extend above the roadbed but are not connected, a pony truss or half-through truss. Sometimes both the upper and lower chords support roadbeds; this can be used to separate rail from road traffic or to separate the two directions of automobile traffic and so avoiding the likelihood of head-on c
United States dollar
The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its territories per the United States Constitution since 1792. In practice, the dollar is divided into 100 smaller cent units, but is divided into 1000 mills for accounting; the circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars. Since the suspension in 1971 of convertibility of paper U. S. currency into any precious metal, the U. S. dollar is, de facto, fiat money. As it is the most used in international transactions, the U. S. dollar is the world's primary reserve currency. Several countries use it as their official currency, in many others it is the de facto currency. Besides the United States, it is used as the sole currency in two British Overseas Territories in the Caribbean: the British Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands. A few countries use the Federal Reserve Notes for paper money, while still minting their own coins, or accept U. S. dollar coins. As of June 27, 2018, there are $1.67 trillion in circulation, of which $1.62 trillion is in Federal Reserve notes.
Article I, Section 8 of the U. S. Constitution provides that the Congress has the power "To coin money". Laws implementing this power are codified at 31 U. S. C. § 5112. Section 5112 prescribes the forms; these coins are both designated in Section 5112 as "legal tender" in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper alloy dollar; the pure silver dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle. Section 5112 provides for the minting and issuance of other coins, which have values ranging from one cent to 100 dollars; these other coins are more described in Coins of the United States dollar. The Constitution provides that "a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time"; that provision of the Constitution is made specific by Section 331 of Title 31 of the United States Code. The sums of money reported in the "Statements" are being expressed in U. S. dollars. The U. S. dollar may therefore be described as the unit of account of the United States.
The word "dollar" is one of the words in the first paragraph of Section 9 of Article I of the Constitution. There, "dollars" is a reference to the Spanish milled dollar, a coin that had a monetary value of 8 Spanish units of currency, or reales. In 1792 the U. S. Congress passed a Coinage Act. Section 9 of that act authorized the production of various coins, including "DOLLARS OR UNITS—each to be of the value of a Spanish milled dollar as the same is now current, to contain three hundred and seventy-one grains and four sixteenth parts of a grain of pure, or four hundred and sixteen grains of standard silver". Section 20 of the act provided, "That the money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars, or units... and that all accounts in the public offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States shall be kept and had in conformity to this regulation". In other words, this act designated the United States dollar as the unit of currency of the United States. Unlike the Spanish milled dollar, the U.
S. dollar is based upon a decimal system of values. In addition to the dollar the coinage act established monetary units of mill or one-thousandth of a dollar, cent or one-hundredth of a dollar, dime or one-tenth of a dollar, eagle or ten dollars, with prescribed weights and composition of gold, silver, or copper for each, it was proposed in the mid-1800s that one hundred dollars be known as a union, but no union coins were struck and only patterns for the $50 half union exist. However, only cents are in everyday use as divisions of the dollar. XX9 per gallon, e.g. $3.599, more written as $3.599⁄10. When issued in circulating form, denominations equal to or less than a dollar are emitted as U. S. coins while denominations equal to or greater than a dollar are emitted as Federal Reserve notes. Both one-dollar coins and notes are produced today, although the note form is more common. In the past, "paper money" was issued in denominations less than a dollar and gold coins were issued for circulation up to the value of $20.
The term eagle was used in the Coinage Act of 1792 for the denomination of ten dollars, subsequently was used in naming gold coins. Paper currency less than one dollar in denomination, known as "fractional currency", was sometimes pejoratively referred to as "shinplasters". In 1854, James Guthrie Secretary of the Treasury, proposed creating $100, $50 and $25 gold coins, which were referred to as a "Union", "Half Union", "Quarter Union", thus implying a denomination of 1 Union = $100. Today, USD notes are made from cotton fiber paper, unlike most common paper, made of wood fiber. U. S. coins are produced by the United States Mint. U. S. dollar banknotes are printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing and, since 1914, have been issued by t
Interstate 94 in Michigan
Interstate 94 is a part of the Interstate Highway System that runs from Billings, Montana, to the Lower Peninsula of the US state of Michigan. In Michigan, it is a state trunkline highway that enters the state south of New Buffalo and runs eastward through several metropolitan areas in the southern section of the state; the highway serves Benton Harbor–St. Joseph near Lake Michigan before turning inland toward Kalamazoo and Battle Creek on the west side of the peninsula. Heading farther east, I-94 passes through rural areas in the middle of the southern Lower Peninsula, crossing I-69 in the process. I-94 runs through Jackson, Ann Arbor, portions of Metro Detroit, connecting Michigan's largest city to its main airport. Past the east side of Detroit, the Interstate angles northeasterly through farmlands in The Thumb to Port Huron, where the designation terminates on the Blue Water Bridge at the Canadian border; the first segment of what became I-94 within the state, the Willow Run Expressway, was built near Ypsilanti and Belleville in 1941, with an easterly extension to Detroit in 1945.
This expressway was numbered M-112. In the mid-1950s, state and federal officials planned an Interstate to replace the original route of U. S. Highway 12. By 1960, the length of I-94 was completed from Detroit to New Buffalo. Two years the US 12 designation was dropped from the freeway. Subsequent extensions in the 1960s completed most of the rest of the route, including the remaining sections between Detroit and Port Huron which superseded the routing of US 25; the last segment opened to the public in 1972 when Indiana completed its connection across the state line. Since completion, I-94 has remained unchanged; the routing of I-94 is notable for containing the first full freeway-to-freeway interchange in the United States, connecting to the Lodge Freeway, for comprising the first complete border-to-border toll-free freeway in a state in the United States. The highway has one auxiliary route, I-194, which serves downtown Battle Creek, eight business routes. Various segments have been dedicated to multiple places.
The entire length of I-94 is listed on the National Highway System, a network of roadways important to the country's economy and mobility. The freeway carried 168,200 vehicles on average between I-75 and Chene Street in Detroit, the peak traffic count in 2015, it carried 12,554 vehicles west of the Blue Water Bridge in Port Huron, the lowest traffic count in 2015; as the state trunkline highway closest to the lake shore in these areas, I-94 carries the Lake Michigan Circle Tour south of Benton Harbor–St. Joseph and the Lake Huron Circle Tour in the Port Huron area. Sections through the Detroit area are named the Detroit Edsel Ford freeways. I-94 in the state is either a four- or six-lane freeway for most of its length. I-94 enters Michigan from Indiana south of New Buffalo; the freeway runs northeasterly through rural Michiana farmland in the southwestern corner of the Lower Peninsula and parallels the Lake Michigan shoreline about three miles inland. I-94 traverses an area just east of the Warren Dunes State Park as the freeway runs parallel to the Red Arrow Highway, a former routing of US Highway 12 named after the 32nd Infantry Division.
The freeway crosses its companion highway south of St. Joseph; the Interstate curves further inland to bridge the St. Joseph River near Riverview Park. East of Benton Harbor, I-94 meets the Napier Avenue interchange, where US 31 merges onto the freeway. East of the Southwest Michigan Regional Airport, I-94/US 31 meets the southern end of I-196. South of Coloma, the trunkline turns eastward and follows the Paw Paw River on a course that takes it south of Watervliet and Hartford. Between the latter two cities, the freeway transitions from northeastern Berrien County into western Van Buren County, it curves around and between Lake Cora and Threemile Lake near the junction with the northern end of M-51. About four miles further east, I-94 crosses M-40 south of Paw Paw. Continuing eastward, the Interstate runs south of Mattawan before entering western Kalamazoo County. In Texas Township, the freeway enters the western edges of the Kalamazoo suburbs. South of the campus for Western Michigan University's College of Engineering & Applied Sciences in Portage, I-94 intersects US 131.
That other freeway carries Kalamazoo's business loop northward. Near the Kalamazoo/Battle Creek International Airport, the Interstate passes into the southeastern corner of Kalamazoo before entering Comstock Township; the freeway intersects the eastern end of the business loop at a partial interchange near Morrow Lake in the township. I-94 continues out of the eastern Kalamazoo suburbs, paralleling the Kalamazoo River through the Galesburg area. Before crossing into Calhoun County on the west side of Battle Creek, I-94 has the only driveway on any of Michigan's Interstate Highways for a gate providing access for military vehicles into the Fort Custer Training Center; the Interstate enters Calhoun County southwest of the W. K. Kellogg enters the city of Battle Creek. East of the county line, the freeway has an interchange with the western end of Battle Creek's business loop. Next to the Lakeview Square Mall, I-
Michigan is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States. The state's name, originates from the Ojibwe word mishigamaa, meaning "large water" or "large lake". With a population of about 10 million, Michigan is the tenth most populous of the 50 United States, with the 11th most extensive total area, is the largest state by total area east of the Mississippi River, its capital is Lansing, its largest city is Detroit. Metro Detroit is among the nation's largest metropolitan economies. Michigan is the only state to consist of two peninsulas; the Lower Peninsula is noted as shaped like a mitten. The Upper Peninsula is separated from the Lower Peninsula by the Straits of Mackinac, a five-mile channel that joins Lake Huron to Lake Michigan; the Mackinac Bridge connects the peninsulas. The state has the longest freshwater coastline of any political subdivision in the world, being bounded by four of the five Great Lakes, plus Lake Saint Clair; as a result, it is one of the leading U.
S. states for recreational boating. Michigan has 64,980 inland lakes and ponds. A person in the state is never more than six miles from a natural water source or more than 85 miles from a Great Lakes shoreline; the area was first occupied by a succession of Native American tribes over thousands of years. Inhabited by Natives, Métis, French explorers in the 17th century, it was claimed as part of New France colony. After France's defeat in the French and Indian War in 1762, the region came under British rule. Britain ceded this territory to the newly independent United States after Britain's defeat in the American Revolutionary War; the area was part of the larger Northwest Territory until 1800, when western Michigan became part of the Indiana Territory. Michigan Territory was formed in 1805, but some of the northern border with Canada was not agreed upon until after the War of 1812. Michigan was admitted into the Union in 1837 as a free one, it soon became an important center of industry and trade in the Great Lakes region and a popular immigrant destination in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Although Michigan developed a diverse economy, it is known as the center of the U. S. automotive industry, which developed as a major economic force in the early 20th century. It is home to the country's three major automobile companies. While sparsely populated, the Upper Peninsula is important for tourism thanks to its abundance of natural resources, while the Lower Peninsula is a center of manufacturing, agriculture and high-tech industry; when the first European explorers arrived, the most populous tribes were Algonquian peoples, which include the Anishinaabe groups of Ojibwe, Odaawaa/Odawa, the Boodewaadamii/Bodéwadmi. The three nations co-existed peacefully as part of a loose confederation called the Council of Three Fires; the Ojibwe, whose numbers are estimated to have been between 25,000 and 35,000, were the largest. The Ojibwe were established in Michigan's Upper Peninsula and northern and central Michigan, inhabited Ontario and southern Manitoba, Canada; the Ottawa lived south of the Straits of Mackinac in northern and southern Michigan, but in southern Ontario, northern Ohio and eastern Wisconsin.
The Potawatomi were in southern and western Michigan, in addition to northern and central Indiana, northern Illinois, southern Wisconsin, southern Ontario. Other Algonquian tribes in Michigan, in the south and east, were the Mascouten, the Menominee, the Miami, the Sac, the Fox; the Wyandot were an Iroquoian-speaking people in this area. French voyageurs and coureurs des bois settled in Michigan in the 17th century; the first Europeans to reach what became Michigan were those of Étienne Brûlé's expedition in 1622. The first permanent European settlement was founded in 1668 on the site where Père Jacques Marquette established Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan as a base for Catholic missions. Missionaries in 1671–75 founded outlying stations at Saint Ignace and Marquette. Jesuit missionaries were well received by the area's Indian populations, with few difficulties or hostilities. In 1679, Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle built Fort Miami at present-day St. Joseph. In 1691, the French established a trading post and Fort St. Joseph along the St. Joseph River at the present-day city of Niles.
In 1701, French explorer and army officer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit or "Fort Pontchartrain on-the-Strait" on the strait, known as the Detroit River, between lakes Saint Clair and Erie. Cadillac had convinced King Louis XIV's chief minister, Louis Phélypeaux, Comte de Pontchartrain, that a permanent community there would strengthen French control over the upper Great Lakes and discourage British aspirations; the hundred soldiers and workers who accompanied Cadillac built a fort enclosing one arpent and named it Fort Pontchartrain. Cadillac's wife, Marie Thérèse Guyon, soon moved to Detroit, becoming one of the first European women to settle in what was considered the wilderness of Michigan; the town became a major fur-trading and shipping post. The Église de Saint-Anne was founded the same year. While the original building does not survive, the congregation remains active. Cadillac departed to serve as the French governor of Louisiana from 1710 to 1716.
French attempts to consol
Sarnia is a city in Southwestern Ontario and had a 2016 population of 71,594. It is the largest city in Lambton County. Sarnia is located on the eastern bank of the junction between the Upper and Lower Great Lakes where Lake Huron flows into the St. Clair River, which forms the Canada–United States border, directly across from Port Huron, Michigan; the city's natural harbour first attracted the French explorer La Salle, who named the site "The Rapids" when he had horses and men pull his 45-ton barque Le Griffon up the four-knot current of the St. Clair River on 23 August 1679; this was the first time anything other than a canoe or other oar-powered vessel had sailed into Lake Huron, La Salle's voyage was thus germinal in the development of commercial shipping on the Great Lakes. Located in the natural harbour, the Sarnia port remains an important centre for lake freighters and oceangoing ships carrying cargoes of grain and petroleum products; the natural port and the salt caverns that exist in the surrounding areas, together with the oil discovered in nearby Oil Springs in 1858 led to the massive growth of the petroleum industry in this area.
Because Oil Springs was the first place in Canada and North America to drill commercially for oil, the knowledge, acquired there led to oil drillers from Sarnia travelling the world teaching other nations how to drill for oil. The complex of refining and chemical companies is called Chemical Valley and located south of downtown Sarnia. While in 2011 the city had the highest level of particulates air pollution of any Canadian city, it has since dropped down to 30th. About 60 percent of the particulate matter, comes from the neighboring United States. Lake Huron is cooler than warmer than the air in winter. In the winter, Sarnia experiences lake-effect snow from Arctic air blowing across the warmer waters of Lake Huron and condensing to form snow squalls once over land. Culturally, Sarnia is a large part of the artistic presence in Southern Ontario; the city's International Symphony Orchestra is renowned in the area and has won the Outstanding Community Orchestra Award given by the Detroit Music Awards in 2011.
Michael Learned graced the stage of the Imperial Theatre for a 2010 production of Driving Miss Daisy. The name "Sarnia" is Latin for Guernsey, a British Channel Island. In 1829 Sir John Colborne, a former governor of Guernsey, was appointed Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada. In this capacity, he visited two small settlements in 1835, laid out on the shores of Lake Huron. One of these, named "The Rapids," consisted of 44 taxpayers, nine frame houses, four log houses, two brick dwellings, two taverns and three stores; the villagers were unable to agree on an alternative. The English settlers favoured the name "Buenos Aires" and the Scottish "New Glasgow". Sir John Colborne suggested Port Sarnia. On 4 January 1836, the name was formally adopted by a vote of 26 to 16, Colborne named the nearby village Moore after British military hero Sir John Moore. Sarnia adopted the nickname "The Imperial City" on 7 May 1914 because of the visit of Canada's Governor General, H. R. H; the Duke of Connaught, his daughter Princess Patricia.
First Nations peoples have lived and travelled across the area for at least 10,000 years, as shown by archaeological evidence on Walpole Island. About A. D. 796, these peoples emerged from an amalgamation of Ojibwa and Potowatami clans, formed the Three Fires Confederacy called the Council of Three Fires. They were all speakers of Algonquian languages and had connections through common elements of cultures, they developed a self-sufficient society where tasks and responsibilities were shared among all members. By the time of the 1600s and 1700s, The Three Fires Confederacy controlled much of the area known as the hub of the Great Lakes, which included the Canadian shore where Sarnia is now located. During this time, it maintained relations with many of the First Nations, including Huron and Iroquois, as well as the countries of Great Britain and France. Both of the latter nations had colonists and missionaries in North America closer to the Atlantic coasts and related waterways; the Confederacy's trading partners, the Huron, welcomed La Salle and the Griffon in 1679 after he sailed into Lake Huron.
The Ontario Heritage Trust erected a historical plaque under the Blue Water Bridge in commemoration of the voyage, as shown in the photo. Because of this beginning of the incursion of Europeans into the area, the members of the Confederacy helped shape the development of North America throughout the 18th century, becoming a centre of trade and culture. Britain tried to strengthen relations with the tribes in the area as a set of allies against the French and the Iroquois, based east and south of lakes Ontario and Erie; the people of the Three Fires Confederacy, sided with the French during the Seven Years' War and made peace with Great Britain only after the Treaty of Fort Niagara in 1764. The Confederacy fought on the side of the British during the War of 1812, hoping the expel the Americans from the Great Lakes hub; the Three Fires Confederacy broke several treaties with the United States prior to 1815, but signed the Treaty of Springwells in September of that year and ceased all hostilities directed at the US.
The Grand Council survived intact until the middle to late 19th century, when more modern political systems began to develop. Before the War of 1812, the first Europeans in the area were French-Canadian settlers loyal to the British Crown; some had been in the
Ontario Highway 402
King's Highway 402 referred to as Highway 402 and as the Blue Water Bridge Approach, is a freeway in the Canadian province of Ontario that connects the Blue Water Bridge international crossing near Sarnia to Highway 401 in London. It is one of multiple trade links between the Midwestern United States, its 400-series number denotes a King's Highway with controlled access. It is four lanes for much of its length. Although Highway 402 was one of the original 400-series highways when it was designated in 1953, the freeway merged into Highway 7 near the present Highway 40 interchange in what was, at the time, Sarnia Township. In 1972, construction began to extend Highway 402 from Sarnia to Highway 401 near London thus creating a bypass to Highway 7; the final section of the extension, between Highway 81 and Highway 2, opened to traffic in 1982. The removal of an intersection at Front Street in Sarnia made the entire route a controlled-access highway. Motorists crossing into Michigan at the western end have direct access to Interstate 69 and Interstate 94 into Port Huron.
The only town along Highway 402 between Sarnia and London is Strathroy. Highway 402 begins on the Canadian side of the Blue Water Bridge, descending over the village of Point Edward. Across the St. Clair River, Highway 402 continues in Michigan as I-69 and I-94; the twin bridge crossing has six lanes of non-stop freeway access. This provides a quicker route than the busier Ambassador Bridge crossing in Windsor, which features over ten traffic lights leading to the four-lane bridge, although that situation is expected to be rectified after the planned Gordie Howe International Bridge is constructed. After passing through a customs plaza, it enters Sarnia and travels parallel to and north of Exmouth Street through the city. Although Highway 402 passes through Sarnia, it is not intended to operate as a commuter highway. S. A." without reference to Highway 402, though these have been replaced in the early 2000s with signs saying "402 West Bridge To U. S. A.". East of the Murphy Road underpass, the freeway curves to the northeast to bypass its original alignment.
It crosses the Howard Watson Nature Trail, a mixed-use recreational trail, converted from a Canadian National Railway line in 1988. The highway curves back to its east–west orientation at an interchange with Highway 40, it passes south of Sarnia Chris Hadfield Airport before exiting the city limits at Mandaumin Road. Now parallel and north of London Line, the former route of Highway 7, the freeway jogs north to travel along the back lot line of farmland fronting London Line and the concession road north of Highway 402. In this manner, the freeway did not divide any farms when it was constructed, instead running between them, it meets Lambton County Road 21, the northern terminus of the Oil Heritage Route, north of the town of Wyoming. The county road is a former southern extension of Highway 21, which itself begins as Forest Road 9.3 kilometres to the east. Highway 21 is known as the Bluewater Route, as most of its length is parallel to the shore of Lake Huron. After passing an interchange with Forest Road, the freeway is crossed by London Line and momentarily diverges from its straight alignment to dip south of Warwick.
It continues 25 kilometres east through large patches of farmland meets with Middlesex County Road 81 at an interchange as it passes north of Strathroy. Shortly thereafter it curves to the southeast and zig-zags towards London, bisecting farms and dividing woodlands; the freeway curves east. It enters London and meets interchanges with Colonel Talbot Road south of Lambeth, as well as with Wonderland Road before merging into Highway 401. Access to westbound and from eastbound Highway 401 is provided via Colonel Talbot Road or Highway 4; the freeway uses Parclo A2 and Parclo B2 designs for interchanges. Exceptions include the Front Street interchange in Sarnia, a hybrid of a diamond and Parclo B2 interchange, the Highway 40 interchange, a Parclo B-4. There is presently no interchange using the full six ramp Parclo A4 layout on the entirety of Highway 402. Planning for the route that would become Highway 402 began following the completion of the Blue Water Bridge in 1938. A divided highway was constructed through Sarnia following World War II.
The Department of Highways announced its intent to extend the route to Highway 401 in 1957. However, while some preliminary work began in the early 1960s, it would take until 1968 for a preferred route to be announced, until 1972 for construction to begin. Work was carried out through the remainder of the 1970s, the freeway was completed and ceremonially opened in late 1982. Since completion as a four-lane route, expansion work has been concentrated on the portion of the freeway in Sarnia approaching the border crossing. Highway 402 is one of the original 400-ser