A blue plaque is a permanent sign installed in a public place in the United Kingdom and elsewhere to commemorate a link between that location and a famous person, event, or former building on the site, serving as a historical marker. The term is used in the United Kingdom in two different senses, it may be used narrowly and to refer to the "official" scheme administered by English Heritage, restricted to sites within Greater London. The "official" scheme traces its origins to that launched in 1866 in London, on the initiative of the politician William Ewart, to mark the homes and workplaces of famous people, it has been administered successively by the Society of Arts, the London County Council, the Greater London Council and English Heritage. It remains focused on London, although between 1998 and 2005, under a trial programme since discontinued, 34 plaques were erected elsewhere in England; the first such scheme in the world, it has directly or indirectly provided the inspiration and model for many others.
Many other plaque schemes have since been initiated in the United Kingdom. Some are restricted to a specific geographical area, others to a particular theme of historical commemoration, they are administered by a range of bodies including local authorities, civic societies, residents' associations and other organisations such as the Transport Trust, the Royal Society of Chemistry, the Music Hall Guild of Great Britain and America and the British Comic Society. The plaques erected are made in a variety of designs, shapes and colours: some are blue, others are not. However, the term "blue plaque" is used informally to encompass all such schemes. There are commemorative plaque schemes throughout the world such as those in Paris, Oslo, Dublin; these take various forms, they are more to be known as commemorative plaques or historical markers. The original blue plaque scheme was established by the Society of Arts in 1867, since 1986 has been run by English Heritage, it is the oldest such scheme in the world.
Since 1984 English Heritage have commissioned Frank Ashworth to make the plaques which have been inscribed by his wife, Sue, at their home in Cornwall. English Heritage plans to erect an average of twelve new blue plaques each year in London. Many are unveiled by prominent public people: for example, in 2010 a plaque dedicated to John Lennon was unveiled in Montagu Square by Yoko Ono, at the house where the couple shot the cover of the album Two Virgins. After being conceived by politician William Ewart in 1863, the scheme was initiated in 1866 by Ewart, Henry Cole and the Society of Arts, which erected plaques in a variety of shapes and colours; the first plaque was unveiled in 1867 to commemorate Lord Byron at his birthplace, 24 Holles Street, Cavendish Square. This house was demolished in 1889; the earliest blue plaque to survive put up in 1867, commemorates Napoleon III in King Street, St James's. Byron’s plaque was blue, but the colour was changed by the manufacturer Minton, Hollins & Co to chocolate brown to save money.
In total the Society of Arts put up 35 plaques. The Society only erected one plaque within the square-mile of the City of London, that to Samuel Johnson on his house in Gough Square, in 1876. In 1879, it was agreed that the City of London Corporation would be responsible for erecting plaques within the City to recognise its jurisdictional independence; this demarcation has remained since. In 1901, the Society of Arts scheme was taken over by the London County Council, which gave much thought to the future design of the plaques, it was decided to keep the basic shape and design of the Society's plaques, but to make them uniformly blue, with a laurel wreath and the LCC's title. Though this design was used from 1903 to 1938, some experimentation occurred in the 1920s, plaques were made in bronze and lead. Shape and colour varied. In 1921, the most common plaque design was revised, as it was discovered that glazed Royal Doulton stoneware was cheaper than the encaustic used. In 1938, a new plaque design was prepared by an unnamed student at the LCC's Central School of Arts and Crafts and was approved by the committee.
It omitted the decorative elements of earlier plaque designs, allowed for lettering to be better spaced and enlarged. A white border was added to the design shortly after, this has remained the standard since. No plaques were erected between 1915 and 1919, or between 1940 and 1947, owing to the two world wars; the LCC formalised the selection criteria for the scheme in 1954. When the LCC was abolished in 1965, the scheme was taken over by the Greater London Council; the principles of the scheme changed little, but now applied to the entire, much larger, administrative county of Greater London. The GLC was keen to broaden the range of people commemorated; the GLC erected 252 plaques, the subjects including Sylvia Pankhurst, Samuel Coleridge-Taylor, Mary Seacole. In 1986, the GLC was disbanded and the blue plaques scheme passed to English Heritage. English Heritage erected more than 300 plaques in London. In January 2013 English Heritage suspended proposals for plaques owing to funding cuts; the National Trust's chairman stated.
In the event the scheme was relaunched by English Heritage in June 2014 with private funding (including support from a new donors' club, the Blue Plaqu
A parliamentary election to both the Senate and the Sejm was held in Poland on 9 October 2011. The previous election, in 2007, resulted in a Civic Platform–Polish People's Party government. All seats of both Houses were up for re-election. Prime Minister Donald Tusk's Civic Platform won a plurality of seats and Tusk became the first Polish prime minister to be appointed for a second consecutive term since the fall of communism. Both the Civic Platform and its junior partner, the Polish People's Party, agreed to continue their governing coalition after the election; the election was for all 100 seats of the Senate. Candidates for Deputies are nominated either by the electoral committees of the various political parties and or by individual voter committees; the process of election for the Sejm is through party-list proportional representation via the D'hondt method in multi-seat constituencies, with a 5% threshold for single parties and 8% threshold for coalitions. The election was the first one to take place under a new Election Code which altered the electoral system in the Senate election from a plurality block voting to the first-past-the-post voting, with one member to be returned in each of the 100 single member constituencies.
There were 25,993 precincts for 30,512,850 voters. The date of the election, October 9, was set by the President of Poland, Bronisław Komorowski, announced on 4 July; the latest possible date for the election to be held was 30 October 2011, four years after the previous election. Prior to the announcement of the election date, the most dates were thought to be 16 October or 23 October. Although the governing coalition had a strong majority, it was suggested that the elections be brought forward to the spring, to avoid the campaign interrupting Poland's Presidency of the Council of the European Union in the second half of the year; the idea was supported by the Democratic Left Alliance and Poland Comes First, but opposed by Law and Justice. The Civic Platform favoured an election date of 23 October. Since the State Electoral Commission decided that 30 October falls too close to the national holiday of All Saints' Day, elections are always held on Sundays, 23 October was the latest possible date to hold the election.
In the end, Komorowski decided on 9 October. The idea of holding the election over two days instead of the usual one, to increase turnout, was raised. An election over two days would have cost 130–140 million złoty, compared to 90 million for a one-day election; the single day election option prevailed. Civic Platform, the largest governing party under prime minister Donald Tusk, was seeking reelection. Opinion polls over the past four years had consistently shown the PO to have the largest level of popular support among Poland's political parties. PO was seeking either to win majority government in its own right, or to continue its coalition with the smaller Polish People's Party. During the election campaign, prime minister Donald Tusk ruled out the possibility of a coalition with either Law and Justice or Palikot's Movement. Law and Justice Law and Justice, is Poland's second largest party as of 2007, was the leading party of government from 2005–2007. PiS's greatest difficulty this election, was not only that it trailed PO in popular support, but that if it were to outpoll the PO, it might have had difficulty in finding other parties willing to enter into a coalition with it.
Jarosław Kaczyński had publicly denied the possibility of allying his party with the post-communist SLD and relations with the PSL were tense. This tension was exacerbated following PiS's spokesperson Adam Hofman's statement during the election campaign, in which he attacked PSL members in an abusive manner following the airing of the People's Party newest electoral TV ad. Democratic Left Alliance Poland's strongest left-wing party, the Democratic Left Alliance had struggled since 2005 to regain its position as one of the countries two largest parties; the SLD indicated its potential interest in being a coalition partner with PO following the election. Polish People's Party The Polish People's Party is an agrarian-rooted party, it was the minority partner in a coalition government with PO. Although some opinion polls showed popular support for PSL to be dangerously close to the 5% electoral threshold, in the past PSL performed a little better than opinion polls indicated, it is seen as a coalition partner for every party that happens to need such.
Palikot's Movement Palikot's Movement the Movement of Support, is a breakaway faction of the PO that followed MP Janusz Palikot after he had been expelled from the party for his "scandalous" remarks on late President Lech Kaczyński. The RP is distinctive on Poland's political scene in that it is the first party in the country's history that puts strong emphasis on its program's anticlerical features along with appeals for putting an end to the anti-abortion policy and introducing civil unions for same-sex couples. In terms of economy, the RP blends leftist and rightist ideas. Poland Comes First A new party on the Polish political scene, Poland Comes First, emerged as a splinter group from PiS, following the 2010 Polish presidential election. PJN's future parliamentary representation was uncertain, given that most opinion polls showed support levels for PJN to be below the 5% electoral threshold; the party had suffered an constan
Gareth Sager is a British guitarist, musician and songwriter, is a founding member of The Pop Group, Rip Rig + Panic, Float Up CP and Head. In his early years Sager became acquainted with the works of Erik Satie, Frédéric Chopin and Claude Debussy, an influential starting point revisited and expanded upon with 2017's solo piano album 88 Tuned Dreams. After The Pop Group first disbanded in 1980, Sager formed the conceptual collective Rip Rig + Panic, headed by a young Neneh Cherry, they released three albums and a run of singles. During these years Sager played saxophone on'A-Train', a track featured on The Flying Lizards Fourth Wall. In 1985 Rip Rig + Panic changed their name to Float Up CP releasing one final album and single before amicably disbanding. Soon after, Sager helped initiate Head, transforming his work once again and pursuing a soused, anthemic pop under the influence of The Pogues, Captain Beefheart and the traditional sea shanties and folk tunes of Sager's base for many years, Bristol.
In a solo capacity, as CC Sager, Pregnant and as Gareth Sager Sager's work has been championed and comprehensively collated by Glasgow institution and John Peel favourite Creeping Bent. He was engaged in manifold collaborations with the late Scottish punk poet and'tragedian' Jock Scot, including regular live performances at Edinburgh Festival Fringe, as well as a record,'Caledonian Blues', released by Geoff Barrow's Invada Records. Https://web.archive.org/web/20180313131302/http://www.freaksrus.net/management/garethsager/ Review of Head's A Snog on the Rocks album