click links in text for more info

Bluefield, West Virginia

Bluefield is a city in Mercer County, West Virginia, United States. The population was 10,447 at the 2010 census, it is the core city of the Bluefield WV-VA micropolitan area, which has a population of 107,342. Bluefield is located at 37°15′44″N 81°13′7″W in the Appalachian Mountains of West Virginia across the state border from Bluefield, Virginia. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 8.86 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2010, there were 10,447 people, 4,643 households, 2,772 families living in the city; the population density was 1,179.1 inhabitants per square mile. There were 5,457 housing units at an average density of 615.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 73.7% White, 23.0% African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 0.2% from other races, 2.3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.9% of the population. There were 4,643 households of which 26.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.6% were married couples living together, 16.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.6% had a male householder with no wife present, 40.3% were non-families.

35.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.21 and the average family size was 2.83. The median age in the city was 43.1 years. 20.8% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 46.8% male and 53.2% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 11,451 people, 5,038 households, 3,078 families living in the city; the population density was 1,311.3 people per square mile. There were 5,966 housing units at an average density of 683.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 75.84% White, 22.14% African American, 0.12% Native American, 0.56% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.21% from other races, 1.13% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.52% of the population. There were 5,038 households out of which 24.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.5% were married couples living together, 13.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.9% were non-families.

34.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.23 and the average family size was 2.87. The age distribution was 21.5% under the age of 18, 9.0% from 18 to 24, 23.5% from 25 to 44, 24.5% from 45 to 64, 21.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 84.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 79.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $27,672, the median income for a family was $36,508. Males had a median income of $31,396 versus $21,051 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,751. About 13.0% of families and 19.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.2% of those under age 18 and 10.9% of those age 65 or over. The European-American history of Bluefield began in the 18th century, when two families settled in a rugged and remote part of what is now southern West Virginia.

Others joined them and they built a small village with a mill, a church, a one-room schoolhouse, a fort for defending the settlement against invasions by the Shawnee Indian tribe, which had a village on the banks of the Bluestone River. In 1882, the descendants of the Davidson and Bailey family sold a portion of their land, when Captain John Fields of the Norfolk and Western Railway pioneered the area and began building a new railroad through the hills of Bluefield; the city is traditionally thought to be named after the chicory flowers in the area, which give the fields a purplish blue hue during the summer. Research has shown that this settlement known as Higginbotham's Summit in the 1880s, was named for the coal fields that were developed in the area of the Bluestone River. Beneath the land of the Davidsons and Baileys lay the largest and richest deposit of bituminous coal in the world; the first seam was discovered in nearby Pocahontas, Virginia in the backyard of Jordan Nelson. President Frederick Kimball of the Norfolk and Western Railway described this as the "most spectacular find on the continent and indeed of the entire planet."

The coal seam had been mentioned much earlier in Thomas Jefferson's Notes on the State of Virginia, but it was not mined until 1890. Around that time, coal mines were developed in the area around Harman, Bluefield and Pocahontas, which together were known as the Pocahontas Coal Fields, they helped support the Industrial Revolution in the United States. The development of the coal industry in this area created a boom in the local and national economy, attracted immigrant European workers and migrant African Americans from the Deep South to the mountains in search of industrial work. During the Great War and World War II, coal from this area supplied the navies of the United States and United Kingdom. In the late 19th century, the Norfolk and Western Company selected Bluefield as the site for its headquarters and repair center, which stimulated the town's growth. In the one-year period from 1887 to 1888, passenger travel along the railroad increased 317%; as with the accelerated growth of San Francisco during the gold rush, Bluefield became a city that seemed to spring up "overnight."

Growth far outpaced the existing infrastructure. Urban sprawl and blight were common complaints in the early days, as workers crowded into aging housing; the growth and

Central Narcotics Bureau

The Central Narcotics Bureau is the primary drug enforcement agency in Singapore. CNB is responsible for coordinating all matters pertaining to drug eradication, its current director is Mr. Ng Ser Song. On 19 October 1971, the Government of Singapore announced that a new and dedicated Central Narcotics Bureau, would be set up within the Ministry of Home Affairs. Then-Minister for Home Affairs Wong Lin Ken said, "Such activities will be coordinated in the Central Narcotics Bureau. CNB plans to build a capacity to educate the public in the dangers of drug abuse". In 1973, Singapore's government introduced the Misuse of Drugs Act 15 to deal with drug traffickers and addicts; the enactment of the MDA was intended to consolidate the provisions of the Dangerous Drugs Ordinance 1951 and Drugs Act 1969, secondly to more deal with the worsening drug situation. New legislation was deemed to be necessary by then-Minister for Health and Home Affairs Chua Sian Chin in Parliament in 1973. "The Dangerous Drugs Act was enacted about 21 years ago and the controls provided therein are grossly inadequate for the 70's, with the introduction of a host of new drugs of medical value if properly used."

The need was exacerbated by Singapore's geographical development into a trading hub. The proximity to the Golden Triangle is another oft-cited justification for tough anti-drug laws. In November 1993, the "Committee to Improve the Drug Situation in Singapore" was set up to look into the drug situation and it recommended a total and integrated approach to deal with the drug problem; the four main anti-drug strategies are Preventive Drug Education, Rigorous Enforcement and Rehabilitation for addicts, Aftercare and Continued Rehabilitation for ex-addicts to reintegrate them into society. CNB was to be in charge of Preventive Drug Education. All Narcotics Officers are defined as an "officer of the Bureau" under the Misuse of Drugs Act; this empowers them to enter and search any place reasonably believed to contain controlled drugs without a warrant. They may search a person or subject persons to urine or hair tests. CNB conducts regular nationwide operations to conduct checks against drug abusers and ex-drug abusers who may have relapsed.

Other than island-wide operations, CNB conducts operations targeted at specific areas where intelligence sources indicate that drug activity is taking place. CNB officers work in with officers from other Home Team agencies such as the Singapore Police Force and Immigration and Checkpoints Authority. Drug trafficking is known in the republic as a criminal offence punishable by hanging, enforced under Schedule 2 of the Misuse of Drugs Act, any person importing, exporting, or found in possession of more than the threshold quantities of illegal drugs can a mandatory death sentence. Examples of high-profile cases such as the capital punishment of drug traffickers Van Tuong Nguyen and Shanmugam Murugesu. CNB's Preventive Education Unit was formed in 1992 to focus on the formation and implementation of preventive drug education programmes in Singapore; such PDE programmes include the Anti-Drug Abuse Carnival 2015. Movie star Jackie Chan was named in May 2015 as the first celebrity anti-drug ambassador of the country.

CNB officers are part of the Singapore Civil Service. The Director of CNB reports to the Minister of Home Affairs. All new Narcotics Officers must under go a period of residential training in the Home Team Academy and pass all required tests. Potential recruits can enter either as a Direct-Entry Sergeant. Male recruits must be physically fit, they must have completed National Service with a Physical Employment Status of A or B1, which implies that they are the most medically fit within the male population. For male CNB officers, their National Service liabilities will be paused as long as they are in the Bureau, making them the equivalent of Regular officers in the Armed, Civil Defence or Police forces. Potential Inspectors undergo nine months of basic training to learn various skills such as applying knowledge of criminal laws, investigation techniques, self-defence tactics and weapons handling; the nine-month training phase includes an overseas component. There is a two-year bond. After graduation, Direct-Entry Inspectors enter a foundation 1.5-year posting at the Enforcement Division or Investigation Division.

Direct-Entry Sergeants must minimally be a Higher NITEC, GCE "A" level or Polytechnic Diploma holder. They undergo six months of basic training before being posted out to various work units for on-the-job training. Like other Home Team agencies, CNB officers are issued and trained in the use of 5-shot Taurus Model 85 revolvers as a standard issue sidearm. Officers are trained and issued with expandable batons for less than lethal self-defense options, bulletproof vests and handcuffs for restrains. CNB maintains a small and covert unit called the Special Task Force which carry out high risk operations, forced entry and performing round-the-clock surveillance of syndicate activities since 1997. Officers must have at least two years of experience in CNB to join the STF. Members have access to battering rams and electric cutters for forced entry with Heckler & Koch USP Compact pistols issued as their primary firearm; the Bureau is commanded by the Director, assisted by the Deputy Director. Supporting the Director and Deputy Director are the operational line and staff divisions, namely Intelligence Division

Explained sum of squares

In statistics, the explained sum of squares, alternatively known as the model sum of squares or sum of squares due to regression, is a quantity used in describing how well a model a regression model, represents the data being modelled. In particular, the explained sum of squares measures how much variation there is in the modelled values and this is compared to the total sum of squares, which measures how much variation there is in the observed data, to the residual sum of squares, which measures the variation in the modelling errors; the explained sum of squares is the sum of the squares of the deviations of the predicted values from the mean value of a response variable, in a standard regression model — for example, yi = a + b1x1i + b2x2i +... + εi, where yi is the i th observation of the response variable, xji is the i th observation of the j th explanatory variable, a and bj are coefficients, i indexes the observations from 1 to n, εi is the i th value of the error term. In general, the greater the ESS, the better the estimated model performs.

If a ^ and b ^ i are the estimated coefficients y ^ i = a ^ + b ^ 1 x 1 i + b ^ 2 x 2 i + ⋯ is the i th predicted value of the response variable. The ESS is then: ESS = ∑ i = 1 n 2. In some cases: total sum of squares = explained sum of squares + residual sum of squares; the following equality, stating that the total sum of squares equals the residual sum of squares plus the explained sum of squares, is true in simple linear regression: ∑ i = 1 n 2 = ∑ i = 1 n 2 + ∑ i = 1 n 2. = +. Square both sides and sum over all i: ∑ i = 1 n 2 = ∑ i = 1 n 2 + ∑ i = 1 n 2 + ∑ i = 1 n 2. Here is how the last term above is zero from simple linear regression y i ^ = a ^ + b ^ x i y ¯ = a ^ + b ^ x ¯ b ^ = ∑ i = 1 n

Julien Rassam

Julien Rassam was a French actor. Born Julien Langmann, Rassam was the son of French film director Claude Berri and brother of film producer Thomas Langmann, his father Claude Berri is Jewish, his mother Anne-Marie Rassam, born in Lebanon, is Lebanese Christian. On his mother's side, he was the nephew of producer Jean-Pierre Paul Rassam, his mother, Anne-Marie Rassam, committed suicide in 1997, jumping from the apartment of Isabelle Adjani's mother. Rassam's film work included Albert Souffre, Queen Margot, The Accompanist, for which he was nominated for the César Award for Most Promising Newcomer in 1993. In 1992 he directed the short film Jour de colère. Rassam was in a relationship with actress Marion Cotillard in the late 1990s, he became a paraplegic in 2000 after an accidental fall from the fourth floor of the Hôtel Raphael in Paris, just three years after his mother committed suicide by jumping from a building. Rassam committed suicide in 2002. 1972 Sex-Shop 1975 Le Mâle du siècle 1991 Maigret 1992 Albert Souffre 1992 The Accompanist 1992 Jour de colère 1993 Nulle part 1993 Portrait d’une jeune fille de la fin des années 60 á Bruxelles 1994 Yalla yaana 1994 Queen Margot 1997 Le Poulpe 1997 Le Secret de Polichinelle 1999 Furia Julien Rassam on IMDb

Sonny Jurgensen

Christian Adolph Jurgensen III, known better as Sonny Jurgensen, is a former American football quarterback in the National Football League for the Philadelphia Eagles and Washington Redskins. He was inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 1983. Jurgensen was born in Wilmington, North Carolina, he became interested in sports as early as elementary school, when he led his school to the city grammar school titles in baseball and basketball. He captured the boys tennis championship of Wilmington and pitched for his local Civitan club, who won the city baseball title. Jurgensen played high school football at New Hanover High School, he played a number of positions for the team and as a junior was a backup quarterback on the state championship team. After a senior year where he scored three touchdowns and kicked nine extra points, he was chosen to start at quarterback for the North Carolina team in the annual North Carolina vs. South Carolina Shrine Bowl in Charlotte, North Carolina. Jurgensen played basketball and baseball during high school.

As a senior on the basketball team, he averaged twelve points per game as a guard and the team was the state title runner-up. That same year in baseball, he batted.339 and played as a pitcher and catcher. He became a switch-hitter. Jurgensen played college football at Duke University, he joined the varsity team in 1954 as a backup quarterback behind Jerry Barger and he completed 12 of 28 passes for 212 yards, with one touchdown and three interceptions. But Jurgensen made the biggest impact that season as a defensive back, when he tied a team record with interceptions in four consecutive games, and ended the season with five interceptions. Duke finished the campaign with a 7–2–1 regular season record and an Atlantic Coast Conference title. On New Year's Day, Duke beat the Nebraska Cornhuskers 34–7 in the 1955 Orange Bowl. Jurgensen took over as starting quarterback in 1955, he retained a starting position in the defensive secondary. Duke ended the season with a 7–2–1 record along with an ACC co-championship, but did not go to a bowl because Maryland received the league's automatic bid to the Orange Bowl.

That season Jurgensen completed 37 of 69 passes for 536 yards, three touchdowns and seven interceptions. He scored two touchdowns, he punted four times for a 33.7 average and intercepted four passes for 17 yards. Jurgensen's senior season in 1956 did not start well, when Duke lost to South Carolina, 7–0, in the season opener; this game marked Duke's first ACC loss. Duke finished the season with a 5–4–1 mark and Jurgensen ended up 28–59 for 371 yards, he threw six interceptions and two touchdown passes and rushed 25 times for 51 yards with three touchdowns. Jurgensen's final career stats included 77–156 passes for 1,119 yards, 16 career interceptions and six touchdowns, he rushed for 109 yards and intercepted 10 passes. Jurgensen played baseball at Duke, but turned down an invitation to try out for the basketball team. Before being drafted by the NFL, Jurgensen worked as a Sunday school bus driver in Herndon, Virginia. Jurgensen was drafted in the fourth round of the 1957 NFL Draft by the Philadelphia Eagles.

He was Philadelphia's backup quarterback, behind Bobby Thomason in 1957 and Norm Van Brocklin, from 1958 through 1960. It was during this time as a backup that Jurgensen was a part of a championship team for the only time in his professional career, when the Eagles won the 1960 NFL Championship, although Jurgensen did not appear in any postseason games. After Van Brocklin retired in 1961, Jurgensen took over as Philadelphia's starter and had a successful year, passing for an NFL record 3,723 yards, tying the NFL record with 32 touchdown passes, was named All-Pro. Following an injury-plagued 1963 season, Jurgensen was traded to the Washington Redskins on April 1, 1964, in exchange for quarterback Norm Snead and cornerback Claude Crabb. Jurgensen took over play-calling for the Redskins during the 1964 season, he was selected to play in the Pro Bowl following the season and was named second Team All-Pro. One of Jurgensen's most memorable games was during the 1965 season, when the Cowboys took a 21–0 lead at DC Stadium.

Jurgensen threw for 411 yards, leading the team back to win 34–31. He rushed for a touchdown on a quarterback sneak and threw a game-winning 35-yard pass to Bobby Mitchell. In 1967, Jurgensen broke his own record by passing for 3,747 yards and set NFL single-season records for attempts and completions, he missed much of the 1968 season because of elbow surgery. He did, tie an NFL record early in the 1968 season for the longest pass play in NFL history; the 99-yard pass play to Jerry Allen occurred September 15, 1968 during the Redskins' game against the Chicago Bears. Coincidentally, Redskins' quarterbacks had three of the first four occurrences of a 99-yard pass play. Since Jurgensen's feat, no other Redskins' quarterback has completed a 99-yard pass. In 1969, Vince Lombardi took over as the Redskins' head coach; that season, Jurgensen led the NFL in attempts, completion percentage, passing yards. The Redskins went 7–5–2 and had their best season since 1955. Sadly, Lombardi died of cancer shortly before the start of the 1970 season.

Jurgensen would say that, of the nine head coaches he played for during his NFL career, Lombardi was his favorite. The Redskins enjoyed a resurgence in the early 1970s under coach George Al

Albula Alps

The Albula Alps are a mountain range in the Alps of eastern Switzerland. They are considered to be part of the Central Eastern Alps, more the Western Rhaetian Alps, they are named after the river Albula. The Albula Alps are separated from the Oberhalbstein Alps in the west by the Septimer Pass and the valley of the Sursés; the Albula Alps are drained by the rivers Albula, Gelgia and Inn. The main peaks of the Albula Alps are: The Albula Alps are crossed by one railway tunnel, under the Albula Pass; the main mountain passes of the Albula Alps are: Swiss Alps List of mountains in Switzerland Swisstopo maps