SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Blueprint

A blueprint is a reproduction of a technical drawing using a contact print process on light-sensitive sheets. Introduced by Sir John Herschel in 1842, the process allowed rapid and accurate production of an unlimited number of copies, it was used for over a century for the reproduction of specification drawings used in construction and industry. The blueprint process was characterized by white lines on a blue background, a negative of the original; the process was not able to reproduce color or shades of grey. The process is now obsolete, it was first displaced by the diazo whiteprint process, by large-format xerographic photocopiers. The term blueprint continues to be used less formally to refer to any floor plan. Practicing engineers and drafters just call them "drawings" or "prints"; the blueprint process is based on a photosensitive ferric compound. The best known is a process using potassium ferricyanide; the paper dried. When the paper is illuminated, a photoreaction turns the trivalent ferric iron into divalent ferrous iron.

The image is developed using a solution of potassium ferricyanide forming insoluble ferroferricyanide with the divalent iron. Excess ammonium ferric citrate and potassium ferricyanide are washed away; the process is known as cyanotype. This is a simple process for the reproduction of any light transmitting document. Engineers and architects drew their designs on cartridge paper; the tracing paper drawing is placed on top of the sensitized paper, both are clamped under glass, in a daylight exposure frame, similar to a picture frame. The frame is put out into daylight, requiring a minute or two under a bright sun, or about ten minutes under an overcast sky to complete the exposure. Where ultra-violet light is transmitted through the tracing paper, the light sensitive coating converts to a stable blue or black dye. Where the India ink blocks the ultra-violet light the coating remains soluble; the image can be seen forming. When a strong image is seen the frame is brought indoors to stop the process.

The unconverted coating is washed away, the paper is dried. The result is a copy of the original image with the clear background area rendered dark blue and the image reproduced as a white line; this process has several features: Introduction of the blueprint process eliminated the expense of photolithographic reproduction or of hand-tracing of original drawings. By the 1890s in American architectural offices, a blueprint was one-tenth the cost of a hand-traced reproduction; the blueprint process is still used for special artistic and photographic effects, on paper and fabrics. Various base materials have been used for blueprints. Paper was a common choice. To combat this problem, printing on imitation vellum and polyester film was implemented. Traditional blueprints became obsolete when less expensive printing methods and digital displays became available. In the early 1940s, cyanotype blueprint began to be supplanted by diazo prints known as whiteprints, which have blue lines on a white background.

Other comparable dye-based prints were known as blacklines. Diazo prints remained in use. Xerography is standard copy machine technology using toner on bond paper; when large size xerography machines became available, c. 1975, they replaced the older printing methods. As computer-aided design techniques came into use, the designs were printed directly using a computer printer or plotter. In most computer-aided design of parts to be machined, paper is avoided altogether, the finished design is an image on the computer display; the computer-aided design program generates a computer numerical control sequence from the approved design. The sequence is a computer file which will control the operation of the machine tools used to make the part. In the case of construction plans, such as road work or erecting a building, the supervising workers may view the "blueprints" directly on displays, rather than using printed paper sheets; these displays include mobile devices, such as tablets. Software allows users to annotate electronic drawing files.

Many of the original paper blueprints are archived. In many situations their conversion to digital form is prohibitively expensive. Most buildings and roads constructed; these originals have significant importance to the repair and alteration of constructions still in use, e.g. bridges, sewer systems, railroads, etc. and sometimes in legal matters concerning the determination of, for example, property boundaries, or who owns a boundary wall. Architectural reprography Floor plan Technical drawing Heliographic copier Whiteprint Cyanotype

Eek, Alaska

Eek is a city in Bethel Census Area, United States. At the 2010 census the population was 296. Eek is derived from an Eskimo word meaning "two eyes", it has been noted on lists of unusual place names. Eek is located at 60°13′7″N 162°1′33″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.0-square-mile, of which 0.9-square-mile is land and 0.1-square-mile is water. Eek is serviced by due southwest of the village. A second airport east of the village is the current site of a cellular transmission tower, but the runway remains in marginally usable condition and is used by private aircraft. A town dock provides access to the Eek River, which feeds into the Kuskokwim providing access to most surrounding villages by boat. During winter months many residents utilize travel by snow machine and trails are laid out between the villages in the area. Trails from Eek run to Quinhagak to the south, Tuntutuliak to the west and the Bethel area to the north. Lower Kuskokwim School District operates a bilingual PreK-12 school.

As of 2018 it has 120 students. Eek Village was located on the Apokak River and moved to its present location in the late 1920s, after flooding and erosion caused the people to relocate. In 1900 Census, the village had 118 residents. By 1910, the number of residents declined to 68. Eek appeared on the 1920 U. S. Census as an unincorporated village. In the 1930 Census, the village was enumerated in the Alaska Territory Fourth Judicial District, Bethel District, 0015. With 100 Residents in 18 households, it was formally incorporated in 1970. As of the census of 2000, there were 280 people, 76 households, 57 families residing in the city; the population density was 307.2 people per square mile. There were 83 housing units at an average density of 91.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 3.21% White, 95.71% Alaska Native/Yupik, 1.07% from two or more races. 0.36% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 76 households out of which 43.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.0% were married couples living together, 19.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.0% were non-families.

25.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.68 and the average family size was 4.54. In the city, the age distribution of the population shows 41.1% under the age of 18, 10.4% from 18 to 24, 27.9% from 25 to 44, 14.3% from 45 to 64, 6.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 24 years. For every 100 females, there were 120.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 117.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $17,500, the median income for a family was $27,500; the per capita income for the city was $8,957. About 32.7% of families and 28.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 30.5% of those under the age of 18 and 10.0% of those 65 or over. A development has occurred. Community access points, in conjunction with the USDA Telecommunications Grant to provider UUI, are in place in 11 villages across the Yukon Kuskokwim Delta

Julenatt

Julenatt is a Christmas album by Elisabeth Andreassen and Rein Alexander, released in Norway on 16 November 2009, followed up by a church tour. The album peaked at 11th position at the Norwegian; the album was recorded inside the Kongshavn Studio i Kristiansand between September–October 2009. Bjørn Ole Rasch produced the album, the songs are based on the 2008 and 2009 Elisabeth Andreassen and Rein Alexander church tours; the first tour, "Julekonsert med Rein Alexander & Elisabeth Andreassen", was carried out in November–December 2009 and becoming a major success, it was followed up by the "Julenatt" tour before Christmas 2009. While most songs originate from the 2009 tour songs from the 2008 tour appear on the album; the album contains older and newer songs sung in Swedish, Norwegian and Latin. Among the songs are Glade jul, O helga natt, Deilig er jorden, Little Drummer Boy "Det lyser i stille grender", John Lennon's "Happy Xmas" and Carola Häggkvist's "Himlen i min famn". Glade jul Peace on Earth/Little Drummer Boy Himlen i min famn Det lyser i stille grender Julenatt Vitae Lux Juletid, juletid Sigma Breath of Heaven Happy Xmas Coventry Carol O helga natt Deilig er jorden