SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Blues

Blues is a music genre and musical form, originated in the Deep South of the United States around the 1870s by African-Americans from roots in African musical traditions, African-American work songs, spirituals. Blues incorporated spirituals, work songs, field hollers, shouts and rhymed simple narrative ballads; the blues form, ubiquitous in jazz and blues and rock and roll, is characterized by the call-and-response pattern, the blues scale and specific chord progressions, of which the twelve-bar blues is the most common. Blue notes thirds, fifths or sevenths flattened in pitch are an essential part of the sound. Blues shuffles or walking bass reinforce the trance-like rhythm and form a repetitive effect known as the groove. Blues as a genre is characterized by its lyrics, bass lines, instrumentation. Early traditional blues verses consisted of a single line repeated four times, it was only in the first decades of the 20th century that the most common current structure became standard: the AAB pattern, consisting of a line sung over the four first bars, its repetition over the next four, a longer concluding line over the last bars.

Early blues took the form of a loose narrative relating the racial discrimination and other challenges experienced by African-Americans. Many elements, such as the call-and-response format and the use of blue notes, can be traced back to the music of Africa; the origins of the blues are closely related to the religious music of the Afro-American community, the spirituals. The first appearance of the blues is dated to after the ending of slavery and the development of juke joints, it is associated with the newly acquired freedom of the former slaves. Chroniclers began to report about blues music at the dawn of the 20th century; the first publication of blues sheet music was in 1908. Blues has since evolved from unaccompanied vocal music and oral traditions of slaves into a wide variety of styles and subgenres. Blues subgenres include country blues, such as Delta blues and Piedmont blues, as well as urban blues styles such as Chicago blues and West Coast blues. World War II marked the transition from acoustic to electric blues and the progressive opening of blues music to a wider audience white listeners.

In the 1960s and 1970s, a hybrid form called blues rock developed, which blended blues styles with rock music. The term Blues may have come from "blue devils", meaning sadness; the phrase blue devils may have been derived from Britain in the 1600s, when the term referred to the "intense visual hallucinations that can accompany severe alcohol withdrawal". As time went on, the phrase lost the reference to devils, "it came to mean a state of agitation or depression." By the 1800s in the United States, the term blues was associated with drinking alcohol, a meaning which survives in the phrase blue law, which prohibits the sale of alcohol on Sunday. Though the use of the phrase in African-American music may be older, it has been attested to in print since 1912, when Hart Wand's "Dallas Blues" became the first copyrighted blues composition. In lyrics the phrase is used to describe a depressed mood, it is in this sense of a sad state of mind that one of the earliest recorded references to "the blues" was written by Charlotte Forten aged 25, in her diary on December 14, 1862.

She was a free-born black from Pennsylvania, working as a schoolteacher in South Carolina, instructing both slaves and freedmen, wrote that she "came home with the blues" because she felt lonesome and pitied herself. She overcame her depression and noted a number of songs, such as Poor Rosy, that were popular among the slaves. Although she admitted being unable to describe the manner of singing she heard, Forten wrote that the songs "can't be sung without a full heart and a troubled spirit", conditions that have inspired countless blues songs; the lyrics of early traditional blues verses often consisted of a single line repeated four times. It was only in the first decades of the 20th century that the most common current structure became standard: the so-called "AAB" pattern, consisting of a line sung over the four first bars, its repetition over the next four, a longer concluding line over the last bars. Two of the first published blues songs, "Dallas Blues" and "Saint Louis Blues", were 12-bar blues with the AAB lyric structure.

W. C. Handy wrote; the lines are sung following a pattern closer to rhythmic talk than to a melody. Early blues took the form of a loose narrative. African-American singers voiced his or her "personal woes in a world of harsh reality: a lost love, the cruelty of police officers, oppression at the hands of white folk, hard times"; this melancholy has led to the suggestion of an Igbo origin for blues because of the reputation the Igbo had throughout plantations in the Americas for their melancholic music and outlook on life when they were enslaved. The lyrics relate troubles experienced within African American society. For instance Blind Lemon Jefferson's "Rising High Water Blues" tells of the Great Mississippi Flood of 1927: "Backwater rising, Southern peoples can't make no time I said, backwater rising, Southern peoples can't make no time And I can't get no hearing from that Memphis girl of mine."Although the blues gained an association with misery and oppression, the lyrics could be humorous and raunchy: "Rebecca, get your big legs off of me, Rebecca, get your big legs off of me, It may be sending you baby, but it's worrying

Ladislaus Kórógyi

Ladislaus Kórógyi was bishop of Pécs in the Kingdom of Hungary from 1314 to his death in 1345. He assisted King Charles I of Hungary by force against his opponents, but he lost royal favor because he energically protected the interests of the Church and his diocese in the Kingdom of Hungary, he developed his bishopric's properties, for instance, by inviting colonists to Mohács and Pécs. Ladislaus Kórógyi was the fourth son of a wealthy nobleman by his second wife, his family's properties were located in the counties of Baranya, Pozsega and Valkó. He was first mentioned as a cleric in 1296, as a canon at the cathedral chapter of Pécs in 1300. Bishop Peter I of Pécs appointed Ladislaus provost of the cathedral chapter at his see. However, both the bishop and his provost were prevented from entering their seat by Nicholas, cantor of the chapter who disputed the validity of Bishop Peter's appointment to bishopric. Ladislaus Kórógyi could only enter his office in June 1310, when the first document under his name was issued by the cathedral chapter.

The canons of the cathedral chapter elected Ladislaus bishop of Pécs after the death of Bishop Peter who died in the first half of 1314. The earliest mention of his bishopric is dated to January 17, 1315, he assisted King Charles I against the rebelling Kőszegi family in the counties of Baranya and Tolna from April to July 1316, against the powerful Matthew III Csák in the siege of Komárom in October 1317. However, the peace concluded between the monarch and Matthew Csák scandalized the prelates, because it failed to dispose over the damages caused by the oligarch to them, they held an assembly in Kalocsa in February 1318. Here the archbishop of Esztergom and his suffragan bishops appointed Ladislaus Kórógyi to express all their grievances, including the taxation of Church properties, to the monarch. Ladislaus Kórógyi was often appointed by the popes to proceed on behalf of the Holy See with King Charles I who took advantage of vacancies in Church offices in order to seize their income for himself.

For instance, Pope John XXII appointed Bishop Ladislaus one of the administrators of the Archdiocese of Esztergom. No doubt, Bishop Ladislaus was one of the authors of an anonymous letter sent in 1338 by Hungarian prelates to the pope which listed their complaints against King Charles I; the monarch in his turn wrote a letter to the pope in order to prevent the appointment of Ladislaus Kórógyi to the archbishopric of Kalocsa. His relationship with the monarch deteriorated to such an extent, that there is no reference to his presence at the royal court after 1330. King Charles I confiscated the fortresses of Kórógy and Mecseknádasd and the properties attached to them from the bishop's family. Although Bishop Ladislaus and one of his nephews received some compensation from the monarch, he transferred half of his lands to his relatives. Bishop Ladislaus granted autonomy to them, he brought an action against the convent at Somlóvásárhely on the possession of a land near Mohács. He settled German colonists in Pécs.

Although Bishop Ladislaus confirmed the exemption from the tithes of the monastery of Saint James Hill at Pécs, he disputed the same status of the Paulines and the Knights Hospitaller in his diocese. However, he succeeded in strengthening his position against the collegiate chapter of Požega whose canons tried to dispute his supervisory right. Three years before his death, Bishop Ladislaus convinced King Charles I's son and successor, King Louis I of Hungary to return the properties confiscated in the reign of the king's father to his family

Migori

Migori known as Suna-Migori is a multi-ethnic municipal town which acts as the capital of Migori County, Kenya. The town is located 63 kilometers south of 22 km north of the Tanzanian border; the Migori Metropolitan area consists of the adjacent smaller towns. The area has three constituencies namely Suna East, Suna West and Uriri with a total population of 393,012 according to the Kenya National Bureau of Statistics sponsored national census of 2019; the neighboring town/constituency of Awendo has 96,872 and Kuria East has 117, 290. In 2010, The Star newspaper reported that the town had a population of 100,000 people. Migori is the second most viable urban center in Luo Nyanza after Kisumu city. However, it is the third largest town in former Nyanza province after Kisii; as compared to most Nyanza towns, Migori is unique because of its multi-ethnic makeup consisting of Dholuo speaking people, Abasuba community, Abaluhya, Indians and Somali people. There are westerners living in the town engaged in mission activities as well as gold mining at Macalder Mines.

Migori holds a special place geographically because of its close proximity to Uganda via Lake Victoria, through Migingo Island and its land and lake border with Tanzania at Isebania, Suba West at Kopanga and Kogaja Villages and Muhuru Bay. There are no records for the population of the municipality arising from the 2009 Kenya National Census, it is possible that the population of the town has increased due to the growth of the size of the urban sprawl and the 2010 Constitution which made Migori town the capital of Migori County bringing workers and an assortment in investments. Once a small administrative center inhabited only by the native Suna people and adjudicated from the South Nyanza District headquarters of Kisii and on Homabay Town, the town has changed to become the second most vibrant and bustling economic hub in the entire Luo Nyanza after Kisumu City and third after Kisii Town in the entire Nyanza province. Today, the Migori county headquarters is cosmopolitan with the influx of population from across the country due to the emerging employment and business opportunities.

With the neighbouring Kisii county's lack of adequate land for expansion, Migori town is experiencing spillover development and growth as a result of its expansive and vast swathe of land, still available for commercial and farming purposes at low prices. The near border town is boasting of remarkable developments in terms of infrastructure, social amenities, as well as physical development; the town's infrastructure has improved, with some roads being paved and others tarmacked, opening up the interior areas for growth and expansion. The construction of Kiringi bridge and the proposed Nyikendo-Nyamanga bridge is set to open up the town for more commercial space; the nearly Concluded tarmacking of Migori-Transmara road is expected to shorten the turnaround time of doing business with the capital city of Nairobi as its expected to reduce the current road distance by about 3 hours. The Mara road is set to open up our town and our lake Victoria beaches to the Masai Mara game park hence spurring growth of tourism and hospitality industries.

In the last five years alone, we have seen rapid transformation, with the construction of numerous commercial buildings, mid level hotels and restaurants, emerging shopping malls, unprecedented number of supermarkets and residential flats. Underway are plans by the county government for a modern bus terminus at Namba junction and a modern market to rid the town of roadside hawkers and stalls; the increasing number of financial institutions that now stands at over 10 besides numerous Sacco and micro finances crowns it all. More residential and commercial buildings are still coming up as every strategic investor seeks to lay their stake in this emerging economy; the town faces a serious problem of urban planning because it started out not as a town but as shopping center besides the Kenya-Tanzania A-1 international road. As such, town has buildings on each side of the main highway, paved; the subsequent streets after the main highway are poorly managed. There has not been effective response from the government to re-plan the town to accommodate aesthetics and necessities.

In 2013, the County Government of Migori paved a second second bridge over River Migori to ease congestion at the urban center. Most of the residents in this city live in unmarked or non-addressed buildings and the streets have no names; the city is crossed by a permanent river dividing the town right in the middle but the riverside has no proper development such as a waterfront or a side-walk. The river itself is excessively polluted by companies. Jesse Sikali's article in The Standard reported that Migori was experiencing a high demand for highrise buildings as a result of increased demand for office and residential spaces; the demand for new houses has started a process of gentrification of the city as older buildings are being taken down and replaced by newer modern looking buildings. Besides buying out poorer owners, the new builders foreign or corrupt county officials put buildings that are over-priced for the town. In the past four to five years, a piece of 50 by 100 ft land went for $2500, the same piece of land goes for $3500.

The price for an acre is $12000. The rents have increased as a one-bedroom house that used to be for $35 per month is now $50, while two bedroom house used be $50 but is now $80. Three bedroom houses are now $100 from $80 three years back; some of the houses are furnished to accommodate transient lifestyles. The elevation is