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2015 Arizona Diamondbacks season

The Arizona Diamondbacks' 2015 season was the franchise's 18th season in Major League Baseball and their 18th season at Chase Field. November 4: Signed Walter Ibarra to a minor league contract. November 6: Signed Matt Pagnozzi to a minor league contract. Week of November 13: Signed 3 players to a minor league contract and received Jeremy Hellickson from the Tampa Bay Rays for Andrew Velazquez and Justin Williams. Week of November 20: Signed 8 players to a minor league contract, promoted 5 from the minors, sent 2 to the minors, sent Charles Brewer and Mike Bolsinger to the Cleveland Indians and the Los Angeles Dodgers for cash. December 1: Signed J. C. Ramirez to a minor league contract. December 5: Sent Didi Gregorius to the New York Yankees and received Domingo Leyba and Robbie Ray from the Detroit Tigers in a three-team deal. December 8: Signed Yasmany Tomas and sent Zeke Spruill to the minors. December 9: Received Jeferson Mejia and Zack Godley from the Chicago Cubs for Miguel Montero. December 11: Drafted Oscar Hernández.

Week of December 12: Signed 4 players to a minor league contract and conducted the following trades: Sent Eury De La Rosa to the Oakland Athletics for cash. Received Myles Smith, Rubby De La Rosa, Allen Webster, Raymel Flores to the Boston Red Sox for Zeke Spruill and Wade Miley. December 23: Signed Scott Kalamar to a minor league contract. December 28: Signed Jordan Pacheco to a minor league contract. Month of January 2015: Signed 8 players to a minor league contract. February 2: Signed Gerald Laird to a minor league contract. February 10: Signed 3 players to a minor league contract. Through August 27, 2015 Note: G = Games played.

Perestroika

Perestroika was a political movement for reformation within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during the 1980s and is associated with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and his glasnost policy reform. The literal meaning of perestroika is "restructuring", referring to the restructuring of the Soviet political and economic system. Perestroika is sometimes argued to be a significant cause of the revolutions of 1989 and the dissolution of the Soviet Union, which marked the end of the Cold War. Mikhail Gorbachev first time used the term'Perestroika' in his speech during a visit to the City of Tolyatti in 1986; the timing of Perestroika lasted from 1985 until 1991. Perestroika allowed more independent actions from various ministries and introduced many market-like reforms; the alleged goal of perestroika, was not to end the command economy but rather to make socialism work more efficiently to better meet the needs of Soviet citizens by adopting elements of liberal economics. The process of implementing perestroika created shortages, political and economic tensions within the Soviet Union and is blamed for the political ascent of nationalism and nationalist political parties in the constituent republics.

Perestroika and its associated structural ailments have been cited as major catalysts leading to the dissolution of the Soviet Union. In May 1985, Gorbachev gave a speech in Leningrad in which he admitted the slowing of economic development, inadequate living standards; the program was furthered at the 27th Congress of the Communist Party in Gorbachev's report to the congress, in which he spoke about "perestroika", "uskoreniye", "human factor", "glasnost", "expansion of the khozraschyot". During the initial period of Mikhail Gorbachev's time in power, he talked about modifying central planning but did not make any fundamental changes. Gorbachev and his team of economic advisors introduced more fundamental reforms, which became known as perestroika. At the June 1987 plenary session of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Gorbachev presented his "basic theses", which laid the political foundation of economic reform for the remainder of the existence of the Soviet Union.

In July 1987, the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union passed the Law on State Enterprise. The law stipulated that state enterprises were free to determine output levels based on demand from consumers and other enterprises. Enterprises had to fulfill state orders, but they could dispose of the remaining output as they saw fit. However, at the same time the state still held control over the means of production for these enterprises, thus limiting their ability to enact full-cost accountability. Enterprises bought input from suppliers at negotiated contract prices. Under the law, enterprises became self-financing. No longer was the government to rescue unprofitable enterprises; the law shifted control over the enterprise operations from ministries to elected workers' collectives. Gosplan's responsibilities were to supply general guidelines and national investment priorities, not to formulate detailed production plans; the Law on Cooperatives, enacted in May 1988, was the most radical of the economic reforms during the early part of the Gorbachev era.

For the first time since Vladimir Lenin's New Economic Policy was abolished in 1928, the law permitted private ownership of businesses in the services and foreign-trade sectors. The law imposed high taxes and employment restrictions, but it revised these to avoid discouraging private-sector activity. Under this provision, cooperative restaurants and manufacturers became part of the Soviet scene. Gorbachev brought perestroika to the Soviet Union's foreign economic sector with measures that Soviet economists considered bold at that time, his programme eliminated the monopoly that the Ministry of Foreign Trade had once held on most trade operations. It permitted the ministries of the various industrial and agricultural branches to conduct foreign trade in sectors under their responsibility, rather than having to operate indirectly through the bureaucracy of trade ministry organizations. In addition and local organizations and individual state enterprises were permitted to conduct foreign trade.

This change was an attempt to redress a major imperfection in the Soviet foreign trade regime: the lack of contact between Soviet end users and suppliers and their foreign partners. The most significant of Gorbachev's reforms in the foreign economic sector allowed foreigners to invest in the Soviet Union in the form of joint ventures with Soviet ministries, state enterprises, cooperatives; the original version of the Soviet Joint Venture Law, which went into effect in June 1987, limited foreign shares of a Soviet venture to 49 percent and required that Soviet citizens occupy the positions of chairman and general manager. After potential Western partners complained, the government revised the regulations to allow majority foreign ownership and control. Under the terms of the Joint Venture Law, the Soviet partner supplied labor, a large domestic market; the foreign partner supplied capital, entrepreneurial expertise, in many cases and services of world competitive quality. Gorbachev's economic chang