Philadelphia, sometimes known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U. S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the sixth-most populous U. S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U. S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis; the Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States. William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.
Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia was one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, served as temporary U. S. capital while Washington, D. C. was under construction. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became a railroad hub; the city grew from an influx of European immigrants, most of whom came from Ireland and Germany—the three largest reported ancestry groups in the city as of 2015. In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the Civil War, as well as Puerto Ricans; the city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950. The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia area had a gross domestic product of US$445 billion in 2017, the eighth-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.
Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is expanding, with a market of 81,900 commercial properties in 2016, including several nationally prominent skyscrapers. Philadelphia has more outdoor murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the same watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States; the city is known for its arts, culture and colonial history, attracting 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent US$6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia has emerged as a biotechnology hub. Philadelphia is the birthplace of the United States Marine Corps, is the home of many U. S. firsts, including the first library, medical school, national capital, stock exchange and business school. Philadelphia contains 67 National Historic Landmarks and the World Heritage Site of Independence Hall.
The city became a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities in 2015, as the first World Heritage City in the United States. Although Philadelphia is undergoing gentrification, the city maintains mitigation strategies to minimize displacement of homeowners in gentrifying neighborhoods. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon; the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians, their historical territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island, the Lower Hudson Valley. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases smallpox, violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people fought the Lenape. Surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin; the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them further west.
In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living in Wisconsin, in their traditional homelands. Europeans came to the Delaware Valley in the early 17th century, with the first settlements founded by the Dutch, who in 1623 built Fort Nassau on the Delaware River opposite the Schuylkill River in what is now Brooklawn, New Jersey; the Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony. In 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their military defeat of the English colony of Maryland. In 1648, the Dutch built Fort Beversreede on the west bank of the Delaware, south of the Schuylkill near the present-day Eastwick neighborhood, to reassert their dominion over the area.
The Swedes responded by building Fort Nya Korsholm, or New Korsholm, named after a town in Finland with a Swedish majority. In 1655, a
Broadway theatre known as Broadway, refers to the theatrical performances presented in the 41 professional theatres, each with 500 or more seats located in the Theater District and Lincoln Center along Broadway, in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. Along with London's West End theatre, Broadway theatre is considered to represent the highest level of commercial theatre in the English-speaking world; the Theater District is a popular tourist attraction in New York City. According to The Broadway League, for the 2017–2018 season total attendance was 13,792,614 and Broadway shows had US$1,697,458,795 in grosses, with attendance up 3.9%, grosses up 17.1%, playing weeks up 2.8%. The majority of Broadway shows are musicals. Historian Martin Shefter argues that "'Broadway musicals', culminating in the productions of Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein, became enormously influential forms of American popular culture" and contributed to making New York City the cultural capital of the Western Hemisphere.
New York did not have a significant theatre presence until about 1750, when actor-managers Walter Murray and Thomas Kean established a resident theatre company at the Theatre on Nassau Street, which held about 280 people. They presented Shakespeare ballad operas such as The Beggar's Opera. In 1752, William Hallam sent a company of twelve actors from Britain to the colonies with his brother Lewis as their manager, they established a theatre in Williamsburg and opened with The Merchant of Venice and The Anatomist. The company moved to New York in the summer of 1753, performing ballad operas and ballad-farces like Damon and Phillida; the Revolutionary War suspended theatre in New York, but thereafter theatre resumed in 1798, the year the 2,000-seat Park Theatre was built on Chatham Street. The Bowery Theatre opened followed by others. By the 1840s, P. T. Barnum was operating an entertainment complex in Lower Manhattan. In 1829, at Broadway and Prince Street, Niblo's Garden opened and soon became one of New York's premiere nightspots.
The 3,000-seat theatre presented all sorts of non-musical entertainments. In 1844, Palmo's Opera House opened and presented opera for only four seasons before bankruptcy led to its rebranding as a venue for plays under the name Burton's Theatre; the Astor Opera House opened in 1847. A riot broke out in 1849 when the lower-class patrons of the Bowery objected to what they perceived as snobbery by the upper class audiences at Astor Place: "After the Astor Place Riot of 1849, entertainment in New York City was divided along class lines: opera was chiefly for the upper middle and upper classes, minstrel shows and melodramas for the middle class, variety shows in concert saloons for men of the working class and the slumming middle class."The plays of William Shakespeare were performed on the Broadway stage during the period, most notably by American actor Edwin Booth, internationally known for his performance as Hamlet. Booth played the role for a famous 100 consecutive performances at the Winter Garden Theatre in 1865, would revive the role at his own Booth's Theatre.
Other renowned Shakespeareans who appeared in New York in this era were Henry Irving, Tommaso Salvini, Fanny Davenport, Charles Fechter. Theatre in New York moved from downtown to midtown beginning around 1850, seeking less expensive real estate. In the beginning of the 19th century, the area that now comprises the Theater District was owned by a handful of families and comprised a few farms. In 1836, Mayor Cornelius Lawrence opened 42nd Street and invited Manhattanites to "enjoy the pure clean air." Close to 60 years theatrical entrepreneur Oscar Hammerstein I built the iconic Victoria Theater on West 42nd Street. Broadway's first "long-run" musical was a 50-performance hit called The Elves in 1857. In 1870, the heart of Broadway was in Union Square, by the end of the century, many theatres were near Madison Square. Theatres did not arrive in the Times Square area until the early 1900s, the Broadway theatres did not consolidate there until a large number of theatres were built around the square in the 1920s and 1930s.
New York runs continued to lag far behind those in London, but Laura Keene's "musical burletta" The Seven Sisters shattered previous New York records with a run of 253 performances. It was at a performance by Keene's troupe of Our American Cousin in Washington, D. C. that Abraham Lincoln was shot. The first theatre piece that conforms to the modern conception of a musical, adding dance and original music that helped to tell the story, is considered to be The Black Crook, which premiered in New York on September 12, 1866; the production was five-and-a-half hours long, but despite its length, it ran for a record-breaking 474 performances. The same year, The Black Domino/Between You, Me and the Post was the first show to call itself a "musical comedy". Tony Pastor opened the first vaudeville theatre one block east of Union Square in 1881, where Lillian Russell performed. Comedians Edward Harrigan and Tony Hart produced and starred in musicals on Broadway between 1878 and 1890, with book and lyrics by Harrigan and music by his father-in-law David Braham.
These musical comedies featured characters and situations taken from the everyday life of New York's lower classes and represented a significant step forward from vaudeville and burlesque, towards a more literate form. They starred high quality singers, instead of the women of questionable repute who had starred in earlier m
Husbands and Wives
Husbands and Wives is a 1992 American comedy-drama film written and directed by Woody Allen. The film stars Allen, Mia Farrow, Sydney Pollack, Judy Davis, Juliette Lewis, Liam Neeson and Blythe Danner, it was nominated for Best Supporting Actress and Best Original Screenplay. The film debuted shortly after the end of Allen and Farrow's romantic and professional partnership, was the last of their 13 films together; the movie is filmed by Carlo Di Palma with a handheld camera style and features documentary-like interviews with the characters interspersed with the story. Husbands and Wives, released by TriStar Pictures, was Allen's first film as sole director for a studio other than United Artists or Orion Pictures since Take the Money and Run, it is sometimes listed among Allen's best works. The film is about two couples: Jack and Sally, Gabe and Judy; the film starts when Jack and Sally arrive at Gabe and Judy's apartment and announce their separation. Gabe is shocked, but Judy takes the news and is hurt.
Still confused, they go out for dinner at a Chinese restaurant. A few weeks Sally goes to the apartment of a colleague, they plan to go out together to the opera and to dinner. Sally asks if she can use his phone, calls Jack. Learning from him that he has met someone, she accuses him of having had an affair during their marriage. Judy and Gabe are introduced to Sam, an aerobics trainer. While Judy and Sam shop, Gabe calls Jack's new girlfriend a "cocktail waitress" and tells him that he is crazy for leaving Sally for her. About a week Judy introduces Sally to Michael, Judy's magazine colleague who she is interested in herself. Michael asks Sally out, they begin dating. Meanwhile, Gabe has developed a friendship with a young student of his and has her read the manuscript of his novel, she has several criticisms, to which Gabe reacts defensively. At a party, Jack learns from a friend that Sally is seeing someone, flies into a jealous rage, he and Sam break up after an intense argument, Jack drives back to his house to find Sally in bed with Michael.
He asks Sally to give their marriage another chance. Less than two weeks however and Sally are back together and the couple meet Judy and Gabe for dinner like old times. After dinner and Gabe get into an argument about her not sharing her poetry. After Gabe makes a failed pass at her, Judy tells him. Judy begins seeing Michael. Gabe goes to Rain's 21st birthday party, gives her a music box as a present, she asks him to kiss her, though the two share a romantic moment, Gabe tells her they should not pursue it any further. As he walks home in the rain, he realizes. Michael tells Judy he needs time alone says he can't help still having feelings for Sally. Angry and hurt, Judy walks out into the rain. Highlighting her "passive aggressiveness," Michael begs her to stay with him. A year and a half they marry. At the end, the audience sees a pensive Sally back together. Jack and Sally admit their marital problems still exist, but they find they accept their problems as the price they have to pay to remain together.
Gabe is living alone because he says he is not dating for the time being, as he does not want to hurt anyone. The film ends with an immediate cut to black after Gabe asks the unseen documentary crew, "Can I go? Is this over?" The cast includes: Husbands and Wives opened on September 18, 1992 in 865 theatres, where it earned $3,520,550 in its opening weekend. It went on to gross $10.5 million in North America during its theatrical run. The film was screened at the 1992 Toronto Festival of Festivals. Husbands and Wives opened to acclaim from film critics; the review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes reports that 93% of critics have given the film a positive review based on 40 reviews, with an average score of 8.2/10. Peter Travers of Rolling Stone called it "a defining film for these embattled times. Todd McCarthy of Variety praised the film as "a full meal, as it deals with the things of life with intelligence, truthful drama and rueful humor."Vincent Canby of The New York Times called it a "a fine, sometimes brutal comedy about a small group of contemporary New Yorkers, each an edgy, self-analyzing achiever who goes through life without much joy, but who finds a certain number of cracked satisfactions along the way."
He added, "'Husbands and Wives' -- the entire Allen canon, for that matter -- represents a kind of personal cinema for which there is no precedent in modern American movies. Our best directors are herd animals. Mr. Allen is a rogue: he travels alone." Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times opined, "... What'Husbands and Wives' argues is that many'rational' relationships are not as durable as they seem, because somewhere inside every person is a child crying me! Me! Me! We say. What we mean is, we want them to be happy with us, just as we are, on our terms."In 2016, Time Out contributors ranked Husbands and Wives fifth among Allen's efforts, with Keith Uhlich praising the work's "trenchant examination of long-term relationships on the downswing". The same year, Robbie Collin and Tim Robey of The Daily Telegraph listed Husbands and Wives as his seventh greatest film, calling it "a rapid marvel of four
Back When We Were Grownups
Back When We Were Grownups is a 2001 novel written by Anne Tyler in memory of her husband, who died in 1997. Tyler's 15th novel, like most of her work, is set in Maryland, it opens with the sentence, "Once upon a time, there was a woman who discovered she had turned into the wrong person." The woman in question is Rebecca Davitch, a 53-year-old widow, mother and proprietor of a party and catering business run from her home called Open Arms. Up until age 20 Rebecca's life had been following a predictable straight-line path towards both marriage to her high school sweetheart and a Ph. D. in history. Joe Davitch came along and she was “swept off my feet by a grown man, someone who...was living his life.” Joe was a 33-year-old divorcee with 3 children whom Rebecca met at a friend’s party that happened to be at the Open Arms. One month Rebecca had quit college, had married Joe, and—as she discovered—had married the Davitch family, with Joe’s 3 daughters, his mother, his brother Zeb, his huge old Baltimore house and its business as a venue for celebrations of all sorts—weddings, christenings, etc.
Before too long she discovers that she has become the de facto manager of the Open Arms and the mother of Joe’s 3 girls and their own new baby daughter. When Joe himself dies after only 6 years of marriage and Joe’s uncle Poppy moves in, she finds herself with more responsibility. Having cheerfully and exhaustingly raised four daughters, run the “celebrations business,” and helped her daughters through 6 marriages and 7 grandchildren, Rebecca is now taking a breath to ask, “What happened to the 20-year young woman, a serious scholar, politically-involved idealist, engaged to be engaged….?” At an engagement party for one of her stepdaughters, Rebecca finds herself questioning everything about her life, decides to take steps to resurrect her former self. Her self-improvement project includes a visit to her hometown in Virginia, picking up old hobbies, reading books that she had read in college, renewing her intellectual interests, without abandoning her many matriarchal and professional duties.
She eventually gets reacquainted with her old college/high school sweetheart. Will Allenby is a somewhat stodgy and constricted person and is now a divorced physics professor working at the same nearby college that they had both attended. While Rebecca is touched by certain remembrances and traits of Will, her fantasy of re-kindling their old affections is spoiled by his sad and inflexible demeanor. Rebecca realizes that the path that she chose decades ago may have resulted in her "right person" after all. Beth Kephart: "Back When We Were Grownups is Tyler's fifteenth novel, she is still not scrimping on wackiness and wit, on sentences of shocking originality, on wisdom.... There's not a flat line in this book, not a single simple character, not a moment that isn't tapped for all its glorious possibilities. There is a party on every page, there is the party's aftermath; this is storytelling at its most breathtaking. Tyler, an acknowledged master of the form, is living up to her well-earned reputation.
"With Davitch, Tyler has created a character, brave enough to look back on her life and to imagine herself making different kinds of choices. Brave enough to wonder what honesty looks like, whether there is really a single distillation of self, unshakable and true.... Anne Tyler has a talent for spinning out characters we care about, characters who go on living long after their stories end. Publishers Weekly: "Tyler...has a gift for creating endearing characters, but readers should find Rebecca appealing, for despite the blows she takes, she bravely keeps on trying. Tyler has a gift...for unfurling intricate stories effortlessly, as if by whimsy or accident. The ease of her storytelling here is breathtaking, but unnoticeable because, rather like Rebecca, Tyler never calls attention to what she does. Late in the novel, Rebecca observes that her younger self had wanted to believe "that there were grander motivations in history than mere family and friends, mere domestic happenstance." Tyler makes it plain: nothing could be more grand."
Tom Shone: "But that's the thing about Anne Tyler novels: your certainty about how things are going to turn out in no way interferes with your desire to see them do so. Tyler's plots are the mere stuff of family albums, really—a procession of marriages, deaths, and yet her feel for character is so keen that even…readers who….would fry the whole notion of “character” for breakfast—are reduced to the role of helpless gossips, swapping avid hunches about the possible fates of the characters. You're involved before you notice you were paying attention." “I plotted Back When We Were Grownups just after emerging from a year in which there had been several losses and serious illnesses in my family. I wanted my next novel to be full of joy and celebration, how I ended up with a main character who earned her living throwing parties; that a sense of loss shows through anyway, at a point in the book, is proof that the subconscious always tends to triumph in the end.” “Rebecca is no more astute—or less—than most of us about her reasons for doing things.
If people were conscious of their motives, novelists wouldn’t have anything to write novels about.”“I’m fond of Peter. I like his curiosity and his active mind.
A given name is a part of a person's personal name. It identifies a person, differentiates that person from the other members of a group who have a common surname; the term given name refers to the fact that the name is bestowed upon a person to a child by their parents at or close to the time of birth. A Christian name, a first name, given at baptism, is now typically given by the parents at birth. In informal situations, given names are used in a familiar and friendly manner. In more formal situations, a person's surname is more used—unless a distinction needs to be made between people with the same surname; the idioms "on a first-name basis" and "being on first-name terms" refer to the familiarity inherent in addressing someone by their given name. By contrast, a surname, inherited, is shared with other members of one's immediate family. Regnal names and religious or monastic names are special given names bestowed upon someone receiving a crown or entering a religious order; such a person typically becomes known chiefly by that name.
The order given name – family name known as the Western order, is used throughout most European countries and in countries that have cultures predominantly influenced by European culture, including North and South America. The order family name – given name known as the Eastern order, is used in East Asia, as well as in Southern and North-Eastern parts of India, in Hungary; this order is common in Austria and Bavaria, in France, Belgium and Italy because of the influence of bureaucracy, which puts the family name before the given name. In China and Korea, part of the given name may be shared among all members of a given generation within a family and extended family or families, in order to differentiate those generations from other generations; the order given name – father's family name – mother's family name is used in Spanish-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. Today the order can be changed in Spain and Uruguay using given name – mother's family name – father's family name.
The order given name – mother's family name – father's family name is used in Portuguese-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. In many Western cultures, people have more than one given name. One of those, not the first in succession might be used as the name which that person goes by, such as in the cases of John Edgar Hoover and Mary Barbara Hamilton Cartland. A child's given name or names are chosen by the parents soon after birth. If a name is not assigned at birth, one may be given at a naming ceremony, with family and friends in attendance. In most jurisdictions, a child's name at birth is a matter of public record, inscribed on a birth certificate, or its equivalent. In western cultures, people retain the same given name throughout their lives. However, in some cases these names may be changed by repute. People may change their names when immigrating from one country to another with different naming conventions. In certain jurisdictions, a government-appointed registrar of births may refuse to register a name that may cause a child harm, considered offensive or which are deemed impractical.
In France, the agency can refer the case to a local judge. Some jurisdictions, such as Sweden, restrict the spelling of names. Parents may choose a name because of its meaning; this may be a personal or familial meaning, such as giving a child the name of an admired person, or it may be an example of nominative determinism, in which the parents give the child a name that they believe will be lucky or favourable for the child. Given names most derive from the following categories: Aspirational personal traits. For example, the name Clement means "merciful". English examples include Faith and August. Occupations, for example George means "earth-worker", i.e. "farmer". Circumstances of birth, for example Thomas meaning "twin" or the Latin name Quintus, traditionally given to the fifth male child. Objects, for example Peter means "rock" and Edgar means "rich spear". Physical characteristics, for example Calvin means "bald". Variations on another name to change the sex of the name or to translate from another language.
Surnames, for example Winston and Ross. Such names can honour other branches of a family, where the surname would not otherwise be passed down. Places, for example Brittany and Lorraine. Time of birth, for example day of the week, as in Kofi Annan, whose given name means "born on Friday", or the holiday on which one was born, for example, the name Natalie meaning "born on Christmas day" in Latin. Tuesday, May, or June. Combination of the above, for example the Armenian name Sirvart means "love rose". In many cultures, given names are reused to commemorate ancestors or those who are admired, resulting in a limited repertoire of names that sometimes vary by orthography; the most familiar example of this, to Western readers, is the use of Biblical and saints' names in most of the Christian countries (with Ethiopia, in which names were ideals or abstractions
Columbo is an American television series starring Peter Falk as Columbo, a homicide detective with the Los Angeles Police Department. The character and show, created by Richard Levinson and William Link, popularized the inverted detective story format, which begins by showing the commission of the crime and its perpetrator. Columbo is a shrewd but inelegant blue-collar homicide detective whose trademarks include his rumpled beige raincoat, unassuming demeanor, frequent cigar smoking, his suspects are affluent members of high society who try to cover their tracks. Dismissive of Columbo's circumstantial speech and apparent ineptitude, they become unsettled as his pestering behavior leads him to tease out incriminating evidence, his relentless approach leads to self-incrimination or an outright confession by the suspect. Episodes of Columbo are between 70 and 98 minutes long, have been broadcast in 44 countries; the 1971 episode "Murder by the Book", directed by Steven Spielberg, was ranked No. 16 on TV Guide's 100 Greatest Episodes of All Time and in 1999, the magazine ranked Lt. Columbo No. 7 on its 50 Greatest TV Characters of All Time list.
In 2012, the program was chosen as the third-best cop or legal show on Best in TV: The Greatest TV Shows of Our Time. In 2013, TV Guide included it in its list of The 60 Greatest Dramas of All Time and ranked it at #33 on its list of the 60 Best Series. In 2013, the Writers Guild of America ranked it No. 57 in the list of 101 Best Written TV Series. After two pilot episodes, the show aired on NBC from 1971 to 1978 as one of the rotating programs of The NBC Mystery Movie. Columbo aired less on ABC beginning in 1989 under the umbrella of The ABC Mystery Movie; the last film was broadcast in 2003 as part of ABC Thursday Night at the Movies. In every episode the audience sees the crime unfold at the beginning and knows the identity of the culprit an affluent member of society. Once Columbo enters the story, viewers watch him solve the case by sifting through the contradictions between the truth and the version presented to him by the killer; this style of mystery is sometimes referred to as a "howcatchem", in contrast to the traditional whodunit.
In structural analysis terms, the majority of the narrative is therefore dénouement, a feature reserved for the end of a story. Episodes tend to be driven by their characters, the audience observing the criminal's reactions to Columbo's intrusive presence; the explanation for the crime and its method having played out as part of the narrative, most of the stories end with the criminal's reaction at being found out. In some cases, the killer's arrogance and dismissive attitude allow Columbo to manipulate his suspects into self-incrimination. While the details, the motivation, of the murderers' actions are shown to the viewer, Columbo's true thoughts and intentions are never revealed until close to the end of the episode. Columbo maintains a friendly relationship with the murderer until the end; the point at which the detective first begins to suspect the murderer is not revealed, although it is fairly early on. In some instances, such as Ruth Gordon's avenging elderly mystery writer in "Try and Catch Me", Janet Leigh's terminally ill and deluded actress in "Forgotten Lady", Donald Pleasence's elegant vintner in "Any Old Port in a Storm", Johnny Cash's enserfed singer in "Swan Song", the killer is more sympathetic than the victim.
Each case is concluded in a similar style, with Columbo dropping any pretense of uncertainty and sharing details of his conclusion of the killer's guilt. Following the killer's reaction, the episode ends with the killer confessing or submitting to arrest. There are few attempts to provide a twist in the tale. One convoluted exception is "Last Salute to the Commodore", where Robert Vaughn is seen elaborately disposing of a body, but is proved to have been covering for his alcoholic wife, whom he mistakenly thought to be the murderer; the character of Columbo was created by the writing team of Richard Levinson and William Link, who said that Columbo was inspired by Fyodor Dostoevsky's Crime and Punishment character Porfiry Petrovich as well as G. K. Chesterton's humble cleric-detective Father Brown. Other sources claim Columbo's character is influenced by Inspector Fichet from the French suspense-thriller film Les Diaboliques; the character first appeared in a 1960 episode of the television-anthology series The Chevy Mystery Show, titled "Enough Rope".
This was adapted by Levinson and Link from their short story "May I Come In", published as "Dear Corpus Delicti" in an issue of Alfred Hitchcock's Mystery Magazine. The short story did not include Columbo as a character; the first actor to portray Columbo, character actor Bert Freed, was a stocky character actor with a thatch of grey hair. Freed's Columbo wore a rumpled suit and smoked a cigar, but he otherwise had few of the other now-familiar Columbo mannerisms. However, the character is still recognizably Columbo, uses some of the same methods of misdirecting and distracting his suspects. During the course of the show, the frightened murderer brings pressure from the district attorney's office to have Columbo taken off the case, but the detective fights back with his own contacts. Although Freed received third billing, he wound up with alm
Mr. and Mrs. Bridge
Mr. & Mrs. Bridge is a 1990 American drama film based on the novels by Evan S. Connell of the same name, it is directed by James Ivory, with a screenplay by Ruth Prawer Jhabvala and produced by Ismail Merchant. The film stars real-life couple Paul Joanne Woodward as Mr. and Mrs. Bridge; the character of Mrs. Bridge is based on Ruth Connell; the story of a traditional family living in the Country Club District of Kansas City, during the 1930s and 1940s. The Bridges grapple with changing expectations. Mr. Bridge, is a lawyer who resists his children's rebellion against the conservative values he holds dear. Mrs. Bridge, labors to maintain a Pollyanna view of the world against her husband's emotional distance and her children's eagerness to adopt a world view more modern than her own. Paul Newman as Walter Gene Bridge Joanne Woodward as India Bridge Margaret Welsh as Carolyn Bridge, daughter of India and Walter Kyra Sedgwick as Ruth Bridge, daughter of India and Walter Robert Sean Leonard as Douglas Bridge, son of Walter and India Simon Callow as Dr. Alex Sauer, a psychiatrist Remak Ramsay as Virgil Barron, Grace's husband Blythe Danner as Grace Barron, India's best friend Austin Pendleton as Mr. Gadbury, India's art instructor Gale Garnett as Mabel Ong, India's friend Saundra McClain as Harriet Rogers, the maid for the Bridge family Diane Kagan as Julia, Walter's secretary Robyn Rosenfeld as Genevieve, Dr. Sauer's girlfriend Marcus Giamatti as Gil Davis, Carolyn's husband Sal Licata as Young Child Mr. and Mrs. Bridge was filmed on location in Kansas City, Missouri.
Joanne Woodward received a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Actress. Academy Award Nominated: Best Actress – Joanne WoodwardGolden Globe Award Nominated: Best Actress in a Motion Picture Drama – Joanne WoodwardIndependent Spirit Award Nominated: Best Female Lead – Joanne WoodwardKansas City Film Critics Circle Award Won: Best Actress – Joanne WoodwardNew York Film Critics Circle Awards Won: Best Actress – Joanne Woodward Won: Best Screenplay – Ruth Prawer Jhabvala Mr. & Mrs. Bridge on IMDb Mr. & Mrs. Bridge at Box Office Mojo Mr. & Mrs. Bridge at Rotten Tomatoes