New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai
Princeton Triangle Club
The Princeton Triangle Club is a theater troupe at Princeton University. Founded in 1891, it is the oldest touring collegiate musical-comedy troupe in the United States, the only co-ed collegiate troupe that takes an original student-written musical on a national tour every year; the club is known for its tradition of featuring an all-male kickline in drag. The troupe presents several shows throughout the year. In September at the end of the University's Freshman Week it presents a revue of popular material from previous years. In autumn it puts on an original student-written musical comedy in McCarter Theatre takes this show on tour over the Winter holiday season. In spring it puts on another original show in a smaller venue. During reunions after the end of the spring semester, it relaunches the previous autumn's show at McCarter. Among the club's notable alumni are F. Scott Fitzgerald, Booth Tarkington, Russel Wright, Joshua Logan, Brooks Bowman, Jimmy Stewart, José Ferrer, Wayne Rogers, Clark Gesner, Jeff Moss, David E. Kelley, Nicholas Hammond, Zachary Pincus-Roth, Brooke Shields.
The history of the Princeton Triangle Club reflects many major social, economic, political and theatrical trends in the United States during the late 19th and 20th centuries. It traces the evolution of both undergraduate life and theatrical endeavors at Princeton University. In its century-plus of productions, Triangle has commented upon Princeton-specific topics, from examinations and campus safety to the Honor Code and the eating clubs, in addition to broader movements and events, including war protests, political scandals, women’s rights, affirmative action. Although Triangle recreates itself every year with an new, full-scale musical-comedy, the club remains committed to its longstanding traditions, from the annual national tour to the kickline, perpetuates its unique spirit, blending topical humor with collegiate irreverence and outright playfulness. Triangle’s history is documented in several ways; the Long Kickline: A History of the Princeton Triangle Club, written in 1968 by Donald Marsden'64, provides a detailed chronology of the organization through the production of Sham on Wry in 1966-67.
The senior thesis of Nancy Barnes ’91, One Hundred Years and Still Kicking: A History of the Princeton Triangle Club, updates this written record. Triangle’s extensive archives in Princeton’s Mudd Library include playbills, musical scores, reviews, business correspondence, tour itineraries, scrapbooks and much more; the Triangle Club archives begin in 1883 with a production of the Princeton College Dramatic Association. In keeping with the practice of British and American all-male institutions at the time, women's roles were played by men. Entr'acte music, provided by the Instrumental or Banjo Clubs, consisted of popular dance tunes or operatic excerpts. Student theatricals were performed for the benefit of financially ailing athletic associations, the sporadic activity of the Dramatic Association can be explained by the fluctuating fortunes of the sports teams. In 1891 the Dramatic Association joined forces with the University Glee Club to present Po-ca-hon-tas, the first show in the Triangle tradition of musicals written and produced by students.
According to a New York review, the reworked John Brougham play featured "new topical songs and local hits" and was well received, both on campus and in a Trenton performance. But the faculty vetoed a proposed New York performance, over the years and administrators would be at odds over theatrical activities; the Association visited Trenton once again the following year with Katharine, a Shakespearean spoof marking the first appearance of Booth Tarkington 1893 in the Triangle records. The 1893 production, The Honorable Julius Caesar, was again a reworking of Shakespeare. Tarkington, a senior and president of the Dramatic Association, was prominent as both co-author of the book and as actor in the role of Cassius; the show was so successful that it was repeated the following year, with several significant changes. Most the Princeton University Dramatic Association had been renamed the Triangle Club of Princeton. According to a preview in The New York Times, "several specialties will be introduced, such as tumbling, acrobatic feats, dancing" and "James E. Wilson of Frohman's company… will coach the club four times a week."
If Wilson did indeed coach, the club had its first professional director in its first show under the name "Triangle." Financial problems caused Club members to curtail expenses in 1895. Neither the February production, Who's Who, nor the May offering, were written by students, both had small casts; the following year the Club turned to a recent graduate, Post Wheeler'91, in hopes that his magic touch as co-author of The Honorable Julius Caesar could be repeated, they were pleased with the result. The Mummy was notable as the first production in Triangle's new home, the Casino, located on the lower campus near the present-day McCarter Theatre site, yet another innovation was attempted in 1897. A Tiger Lily, the first Triangle show to be based on Princeton student life, was part of a double bill with Lend Me Five Shillings, a British farce. Since neither show was a great success, the Club returned to the tried and true in 1898 with a revival of Po-ca-hon-tas; the Privateer, presented in 1899, was entitled The Captain's Kidd Sister, but the name was changed because the University of Pennsylvania’s Mask and Wig Club had produced a show about Captain Kidd.
The "Privateer March" was the first commercially published Triangle song. In 1901, wit
William Goldman was an American novelist and screenwriter. He first came to prominence in the 1950s as a novelist before turning to screenwriting, he won Academy Awards for his screenplays Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid and All the President's Men. His other works include his thriller novel Marathon Man and comedy-fantasy novel The Princess Bride, both of which he adapted for the film versions. Author Sean Egan has described Goldman as "one of the late twentieth century's most popular storytellers." Goldman was born in Chicago and grew up in a Jewish family in the Chicago suburb of Highland Park, the son of Marion and Maurice Clarence Goldman. Goldman's father was a successful businessman, working in Chicago and in partnership, but his alcoholism sank his business, he "came home to live and he was in his pajamas for the last five years of his life," according to Goldman. His father killed himself. Goldman received a Bachelor of Arts degree from Oberlin College in 1952, he was drafted into the Army shortly after.
He knew how to type, so he was assigned to the Pentagon where he worked as a clerk. He matriculated at Columbia University, where he earned a Master of Arts degree in 1956. Throughout this period, he struggled to have them published. Goldman began to write when he took a creative-writing course in college, according to his memoir Adventures in the Screen Trade, his grades in the class were "horrible". He was an editor of Oberlin's literary magazine, he would submit short stories to the magazine anonymously, he did not intend to become a screenwriter. His main interests were poetry, short stories, novels. In 1956, he completed an MA thesis at Columbia University on the comedy of manners in America, his brother James Goldman was a playwright and screenwriter, they shared an apartment in New York with their friend John Kander. Kander was working on his PhD in music, the Goldman brothers wrote the libretto for his dissertation. Kander was the composer of more than a dozen musicals, including Cabaret and Chicago, all three of them won Academy Awards.
On 25 June 1956, Goldman began writing his first novel The Temple of Gold, completing it in less than three weeks. He sent the manuscript to agent Joe McCrindle, it sold well enough in paperback to launch Goldman on his career. He wrote his second novel Your Turn to Curtsy, My Turn to Bow in a little more than a week, it was followed by Soldier based on Goldman's time in the military. It sold well in paperback and was turned into a film, though Goldman had no involvement in the screenplay. Goldman and his brother received a grant to do some rewriting on the musical Tenderloin, they both collaborated on their own play Blood and Stanley Poole, on the A Family Affair, written with John Kander. Both plays had short runs. Goldman found that he suffered writer's block, his writer's block continued, but he had an idea for the novel No Way to Treat a Lady based on the Boston Strangler. He wrote it in two weeks, it was published under the pseudonym Harry Longbaugh—a variant spelling of the Sundance Kid's real name, which Goldman had been researching since the late 1950s.
He finished Boys and Girls Together, which became a best seller. Cliff Robertson read an early draft of No Way to Treat a Lady and hired Goldman to adapt the short story Flowers for Algernon for the movies. Before he had finished the script, Robertson recommended him to do some rewriting on the spy spoof Masquerade which Robertson was starring in. Goldman did that finished the Algernon script. However, Robertson hired Stirling Silliphant instead to work on what became Charly. Producer Elliot Kastner had optioned the film rights to Girls Together. Goldman suggested that Kastner make a film of the Lew Archer novels of Ross Macdonald and offered to do an adaptation. Kastner agreed, Goldman chose The Moving Target; the result was a big hit. Goldman returned to novels, writing The Thing of It Is.... He taught at Princeton and wished to write something, but he could not come up with an idea for a novel. Instead, he wrote Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid, his first original screenplay, which he had been researching for eight years.
He sold it for $400,000, the highest price paid for an original screenplay at that time. The movie was released in 1969, a critical and commercial success which earned Goldman an Oscar for Best Original Screenplay; the money enabled Goldman to take some time off and research the non-fiction The Season: A Candid Look at Broadway. Goldman adapted In the Spring the War Ended into a screenplay. Neither were scripts of The Thing of It Is, which came close to being made several times in the early 70s, Papillon, which he worked on for six months and three drafts, he returned to novels with Father's Day, a sequel to The Thing of It Is…. He wrote the screenplay for The Hot Rock. Goldman's next novel was The Princess Bride; that same year, he contracted
Hermione Ferdinanda Gingold was an English actress known for her sharp-tongued, eccentric persona. Her signature drawling, deep voice was a result of nodes on her vocal cords she developed in the 1920s and early 1930s. After a successful career as a child actress, she established herself on the stage as an adult, playing in comedy and experimental theatre, broadcasting on the radio, she found her milieu in revue, which she played from the 1930s to the 1950s, co-starring several times with Hermione Baddeley. She played formidable elderly characters in such films and stage musicals as Gigi, Bell and Candle, The Music Man and A Little Night Music. From the early 1950s Gingold lived and made her career in the U. S, her American stage work ranged from John Murray Anderson's Almanac to Oh Dad, Poor Dad, Mamma's Hung You in the Closet and I'm Feelin' So Sad, the latter of which she played in London. She became well known as a guest on television talk shows, she made further appearances in revue and toured in plays and musicals until an accident ended her performing career in 1977.
Gingold was born in Carlton Hill, Maida Vale, the elder daughter of a prosperous Vienna-born Jewish stockbroker James Gingold and his wife, Kate Frances. Her paternal grandparents were the Ottoman-born British subject, Moritz "Maurice" Gingold, a London stockbroker, his Austrian-born wife, after whom Hermione was named. On her father's side, she was descended from the celebrated Solomon Sulzer, a famous synagogue cantor and Jewish liturgical composer in Vienna, her mother was from a "well-to-do Jewish family". James felt that religion was something children needed to decide on for themselves, Gingold grew up with no particular religious beliefs. Gingold first appeared on stage in a kindergarten staging of Shakespeare's Henry VIII, in the role of Wolsey, her professional début was in 1908. She played the herald in Herbert Beerbohm Tree's production of Pinkie and the Fairies by W. Graham Robertson, in a cast including Ellen Terry, Frederick Volpe, Marie Löhr and Viola Tree, she was promoted to the leading role of Pinkie for a provincial tour.
Tree cast her as Robin, in The Merry Wives of Windsor. She attended Rosina Filippi's stage school in London. In 1911 she was cast in the original production of Where the Rainbow Ends which opened to good reviews on 21 December 1911. Among her colleagues as child-actors in Where the Rainbow Ends were Philip Tonge and Noël Coward. On 10 December 1912, the day after her fifteenth birthday, Gingold played Cassandra in William Poel's production of Troilus and Cressida at the King's Hall, Covent Garden, with Esmé Percy as Troilus and Edith Evans as Cressida; the following year she appeared in a musical production, The Marriage Market, in a small role in a cast that included Tom Walls, W H Berry, Gertie Millar. In 1914 she played Jessica in The Merchant of Venice at the Old Vic. In 1918 Gingold married the publisher Michael Joseph, with whom she had two sons, the younger of whom, became a pioneer of theatre in the round in Britain. Gingold's adult stage career was slow to take off, she played Liza in If at the Ambassador's in May 1921, the Old Woman in Ben Travers's farcical comedy The Dippers produced by Sir Charles Hawtrey at the Criterion in August 1922.
In 1926 Gingold divorced from Joseph. In the same year she married the writer and lyricist Eric Maschwitz, whom she divorced in 1945, she underwent a vocal crisis in the late 1920s and early 1930s: she had hitherto described herself as "Shakespearian and soprano", but nodules on her vocal cords brought a drastic drop in pitch, about which she commented, "One morning it was Mozart and the next'Old Man River'". The critic J. C. Trewin described her voice as "powdered glass in deep syrup". During this period she broadcast for the BBC and established herself at the experimental theatre-club the Gate Theatre Studio in London, first as a serious actress and in the genre for which she became famous, revue. According to The Times it was in Spread It Abroad a revue at another theatre, the Saville, with material by Herbert Farjeon that she found her milieu. In the ten years from 1938 Gingold concentrated on revue, appearing in nine different productions in the West End; the first four were The Gate Revue, Swinging the Gate, Rise Above Sky High.
During this period she and Hermione Baddeley established a stage partnership of what The Times called "briskly sustained mock-rivalry". In June 1943 she opened in a revue at the Ambassadors and Low, continually revised and refreshed over a run of six years, first as Sweeter and Lower and Sweetest and Lowest. In her sketches she tended, as the writer of the shows, Alan Melville, recalled, to portray "grotesque and unfortunate ladies of dubious age and morals. In a biographical sketch, Ned Sherrin writes, "Gingold became a special attraction for American soldiers and'Thanks, Yanks' was one of her most appropriate numbers. During the astringent, name-dropping'Sweet' series, she played 1,676 performances, before 800,000 people, negotiating 17,010 costume changes." Gingold's first new revue after the war was Slings and Arrows at the
The Dalton School the Children's University School, is a private, coeducational college preparatory school on New York City's Upper East Side and a member of both the Ivy Preparatory School League and the New York Interschool. The school is located in three buildings within Manhattan; the Dalton School called the Children's University School, was founded by Helen Parkhurst in 1919. It was a time marked by educational reform. Philosophers and child psychologists identified as "progressives" began to question the conventional wisdom of the day, which held that education was a process of drill and memorization and that the only way to teach was to regiment children in classrooms, their natural instincts to play, to move, to talk, to inquire were suppressed. This view on teaching was seen in Parkhurst's "Dalton Plan", to which the school still adheres today; the name "Dalton" refers to Dalton in Massachusetts, where Parkhurst visited. Progressive educators believed. After experimentation in her own one-room school with Maria Montessori, Helen Parkhurst visited other progressive schools in Europe including Bedales School and its founder and headmaster John Haden Badley in England.
She developed what she termed the Dalton Plan, which called for teachers and students to work together toward individualized goals. The Laboratory Plan was first put into effect as an experiment in the high school of Dalton, Massachusetts, in 1916; the estate of her benefactor Josephine Porter Boardman, was near the town of Dalton and from this beginning the Laboratory Plan and school took their names. In 1919, Helen Parkhurst relocated to New York City, where she opened her first school on West 74th Street. Larger facilities soon became necessary. Eleanor Roosevelt admired the work of Helen Parkhurst and played an important role in expanding the population and resources of the school by promoting a merger between the Todhunter School for girls and Dalton in 1939. Enlarged and modified through the years, Dalton still celebrates many of the school-wide traditions begun by Helen Parkhurst, including the Candlelighting Ceremony, Greek Festival, Arch Day. Inspired by the intellectual fervor around the start of the 20th century, educational thinkers such as John Dewey, began to envision a new, American approach to education.
Helen Parkhurst created the Dalton Plan. Aiming to achieve a balance between each child's talents and the needs of the growing American community, Parkhurst created an educational model that captured the progressive spirit of the age, she had these objectives: to tailor each student's program to his or her needs and abilities. Parkhurst developed a three-part plan that continues to be the structural foundation of a Dalton education: House and Lab. Over the years, the Dalton Plan has been adopted by schools around the world, including schools in Australia, Belgium, the Czech Republic, England and the Netherlands. There are three schools founded on the Dalton Plan in Japan. Dalton is ranked among the top private schools in the United States. In regards to elite college admissions, Dalton ranked 5th in a 2003 Worth survey and 8th in a 2003 Wall Street Journal survey. Forbes ranked Dalton as the 13th best private school in the country in 2010, while Business Insider ranked Dalton 10th among private high schools in 2014.
The Daltonian is Dalton's official student newspaper and is published every 2–3 weeks by the High School students. Middle and High School students produce other publications, including the political journal Realpolitik, literary magazine Blue Flag, visual art magazine Fine Arts, photography magazine Shutterbug, a middle school blog, the Dalton Paw." The Dalton School is a part of the Ivy Preparatory School League in athletics. Some teams, such as varsity football, participate in different athletic conferences. Dalton offers nine junior varsity teams in the high school athletics program; the school colors were gold and blue, although they have been changed to blue and white. The school's mascot is a tiger. Dalton offers many programs in the arts the visual arts and music and theater, students are encouraged to pursue their interests in addition to their academic curriculum. Carmino Ravosa has been Dalton's composer in residence for 21 years. At least two full-year arts credits are required for graduation, but many students take art for all four years.
Author and illustrator David Macaulay was Original Mind Scholar and Artist-In-Residence in the 2009–2010 school year, which has since been dubbed "The Year of the Sketchbook". Admission to the Dalton School for kindergarten to third grade is based on school records, ERB testing, interview. For grades 4–12 admission is based on school records, writing samples, an interview, standardized testing. Can
It Happened One Night
It Happened One Night is a 1934 pre-Code American romantic comedy film with elements of screwball comedy directed and co-produced by Frank Capra, in collaboration with Harry Cohn, in which a pampered socialite tries to get out from under her father's thumb and falls in love with a roguish reporter. The plot is based on the August 1933 short story "Night Bus" by Samuel Hopkins Adams, which provided the shooting title. Classified as a "pre-Code" production, the film is among the last romantic comedies created before the MPAA began rigidly enforcing the 1930 Motion Picture Production Code in July 1934, it Happened. It Happened One Night is the first of only three films to win all five major Academy Awards: Best Picture, Best Director, Best Actor, Best Actress, Best Adapted Screenplay. In 1993, It Happened One Night was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress, being deemed "culturally or aesthetically significant." In 2013, the film underwent an extensive restoration.
Spoiled heiress Ellen "Ellie" Andrews has eloped with pilot and fortune-hunter King Westley against the wishes of her wealthy father, Alexander Andrews. Andrews wants to have the marriage annulled because he knows Westley is only interested in her money. Jumping ship in Florida, she runs away and boards a Greyhound bus to New York City to reunite with her husband, she meets a freshly out-of-work newspaper reporter. Soon Peter recognizes her and gives her a choice: If she will give him an exclusive on her story, he will help her reunite with Westley. If not, he will tell her father. Ellie agrees to the first choice; as they go through several adventures together, Ellie loses her initial disdain for him and begins to fall in love. When they have to hitchhike, they fail to secure a ride until Ellie displays a shapely leg to Danker, the next driver; when they stop en route, Danker tries to steal their luggage but Peter chases him down and seizes his Model T. Nearing the end of their journey, Ellie confesses her love to Peter.
When the owners of the motel in which they are staying notice that Peter's car is gone, they expel Ellie. Believing Peter has deserted her, Ellie telephones her father, who agrees to let her marry Westley. Meanwhile, Peter has obtained money from his editor to marry Ellie. Although Ellie has no desire to be with Westley, she believes Peter has betrayed her for the reward money and agrees to have a second, formal wedding. On the wedding day, she reveals the whole story to her father; when Peter comes to Ellie's home, Andrews offers him the reward money, but Peter insists on being paid only his expenses: a paltry $39.60 for items he had had to sell to buy gasoline. When Ellie's father presses him for an explanation of his odd behavior and demands to know if he loves her, Peter first tries to dodge the questions, but admits he loves Ellie and storms out. Westley arrives for his wedding via autogyro. Ellie dumps Westley at the altar and bolts for her car, driving away as the newsreel cameras crank.
A few days Andrews is working at his desk when Westley calls to tell him he is taking the financial settlement he was offered and won't contest the annulment. His executive assistant brings him a telegram from Peter, which says, "What's holding up the annulment, you slowpoke? The walls of Jericho are toppling!", referring to a makeshift wall made of a blanket over a wire tied across the rooms they slept in between them to give them privacy. With the annulment in hand, Andrews sends the reply, "Let'em topple." In the last scene, we see Peter's battered Model T parked in a motor court in Michigan. The mom and pop owners of the motor court talk, wondering why on such a warm night the newlyweds – he had seen the marriage license – wanted a clothesline, an extra blanket, the little tin trumpet he had gotten for them; as they look at the cabin, the toy trumpet sounds a fanfare, the blanket falls to the floor, the lights in the cabin go out. Neither Gable nor Colbert was the first choice to play the lead roles.
Miriam Hopkins first rejected the part of Ellie. Robert Montgomery and Myrna Loy were offered the roles, but each turned down the script, though Loy noted that the final story as filmed bore little resemblance to the script that she and Montgomery had been given for their perusal. Margaret Sullavan rejected the part. Constance Bennett was willing to accept the role. Bette Davis wanted the role, but she was under contract with Warner Brothers and Jack L. Warner refused to lend her. Carole Lombard was unable to accept, because Columbia’s proposed filming schedule would conflict with her work on Bolero at Paramount. Loretta Young turned it down. Harry Cohn suggested Colbert, she turned the role down. Colbert's first film, For the Love of Mike, had been directed by Capra, it was such a disaster that she vowed to never make another with him. On, she agreed to appear in It Happened One Night only if her salary was doubled to $50,000, on the condition that the filming of her role be completed in four weeks so that she could take her well-planned vacation.
According to Hollywood legend, Gable was lent to Columbia Pictures considered a minor studio, as some kind of "punish
An atoll, sometimes called a coral atoll, is a ring-shaped coral reef including a coral rim that encircles a lagoon or completely. There may be coral cays on the rim; the coral of the atoll sits atop the rim of an extinct seamount or volcano which has eroded or subsided beneath the water. The lagoon forms over the volcanic crater or caldera while the higher rim remains above water or at shallow depths that permit the coral to grow and form the reefs. For the atoll to persist, continued erosion or subsidence must be at a rate slow enough to permit reef growth upward and outward to replace the lost height; the word atoll comes from the Dhivehi word atholhu. OED Its first recorded use in English was in 1625 as atollon. Charles Darwin recognized its indigenous origin and coined, in his The Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs, the definition of atolls as "circular groups of coral islets", synonymous with "lagoon-island". More modern definitions of atoll describe them as "annular reefs enclosing a lagoon in which there are no promontories other than reefs and islets composed of reef detritus" or "in an morphological sense, a ring-shaped ribbon reef enclosing a lagoon".
Most of the world's atolls are in the Indian Ocean. The Atlantic Ocean has no large groups of atolls, other than eight atolls east of Nicaragua that belong to the Colombian department of San Andres and Providencia in the Caribbean. Reef-building corals will thrive only in warm tropical and subtropical waters of oceans and seas, therefore atolls are only found in the tropics and subtropics; the northernmost atoll of the world is Kure Atoll at 28°24′ N, along with other atolls of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. The southernmost atolls of the world are Elizabeth Reef at 29°58′ S, nearby Middleton Reef at 29°29′ S, in the Tasman Sea, both of which are part of the Coral Sea Islands Territory; the next southerly atoll is Ducie Island in the Pitcairn Islands Group, at 24°40′ S. Bermuda is sometimes claimed as the "northernmost atoll" at a latitude of 32°24′ N. At this latitude coral reefs would not develop without the warming waters of the Gulf Stream. However, Bermuda is termed a pseudo-atoll because its general form, while resembling that of an atoll, has a different mode of formation.
While there is no atoll directly on the equator, the closest atoll to the Equator is Aranuka of Kiribati, with its southern tip just 12 km north of the equator. In most cases, the land area of an atoll is small in comparison to the total area. Atoll islands are low lying, with their elevations less than 5 meters. Measured by total area, Lifou is the largest raised coral atoll of the world, followed by Rennell Island. More sources however list as the largest atoll in the world in terms of land area Kiritimati, a raised coral atoll, 160 km² main lagoon, 168 km² other lagoons; the remains of an ancient atoll as a hill in a limestone area is called a reef knoll. The second largest atoll by dry land area is Aldabra with 155 km²; the largest atoll in terms of island numbers is Huvadhu Atoll in the south of the Maldives with 255 islands. In 1842, Charles Darwin explained the creation of coral atolls in the southern Pacific Ocean based upon observations made during a five-year voyage aboard HMS Beagle from 1831 to 1836.
Accepted as correct, his explanation involved considering that several tropical island types—from high volcanic island, through barrier reef island, to atoll—represented a sequence of gradual subsidence of what started as an oceanic volcano. He reasoned that a fringing coral reef surrounding a volcanic island in the tropical sea will grow upward as the island subsides, becoming an "almost atoll", or barrier reef island, as typified by an island such as Aitutaki in the Cook Islands, Bora Bora and others in the Society Islands; the fringing reef becomes a barrier reef for the reason that the outer part of the reef maintains itself near sea level through biotic growth, while the inner part of the reef falls behind, becoming a lagoon because conditions are less favorable for the coral and calcareous algae responsible for most reef growth. In time, subsidence carries the old volcano below the ocean surface and the barrier reef remains. At this point, the island has become an atoll. Atolls are the product of the growth of tropical marine organisms, so these islands are only found in warm tropical waters.
Volcanic islands located beyond the warm water temperature requirements of hermatypic organisms become seamounts as they subside and are eroded away at the surface. An island, located where the ocean water temperatures are just sufficiently warm for upward reef growth to keep pace with the rate of subsidence is said to be at the Darwin Point. Islands in colder, more polar regions evolve toward guyots. Reginald Aldworth Daly offered a somewhat different explanation for atoll formation: islands worn away by erosion, by ocean waves and streams, during the last glacial stand of the sea of some 900 feet below present sea level developed as coral islands, or barrier reefs on a platform surrounding a volcanic island not worn away, a