Sveriges Radio AB is Sweden's national publicly funded radio broadcaster. Sveriges Radio is a public limited company, owned by an independent foundation funded through a licensing fee, the level of, decided by the Swedish Riksdag; as of January 1st 2019, the funds stem from standard taxation. No advertising is permitted, its legal status could be described as that of a quasi-autonomous non-governmental organization. The company –, founded as AB Radiotjänst by a consortium of newspaper companies, the TT news agency, radio manufacturing interests on 21 March 1924 – made its first broadcast on 1 January 1925: a relay of High Mass from St James's Church in Stockholm, it was renamed Sveriges Radio in 1957. Sveriges Radio was responsible for all broadcasting in Sweden, both radio and television, hosted the 1975 Eurovision Song Contest. A reorganization in 1979 saw it become the parent company of four subsidiaries: Sveriges Riksradio, Swedish National Radio; this structure was dissolved in 1993 with the national and local radio companies merging under the name of the old parent company: Sveriges Radio AB.
Four radio channels are available nationwide via the internet. P1: news, debate, documentaries, etc. No music is played, except in the daily summertime programme Sommar, in which guest presenters introduce their own choice of music. P2: classical music, folk and world music. P3: popular music and comedy targeted at a younger audience. P4: popular music and sport, chiefly targeted at an older audience. A large part of P4's programming is regional with 25 regions each broadcasting their own local programmes during most of the day. P4 Blekinge, for Blekinge County P4 Dalarna P4 Gotland P4 Gävleborg P4 Göteborg P4 Halland, for Halland County P4 Jämtland P4 Jönköping P4 Kalmar, for Kalmar County P4 Kristianstad, for the former Kristianstad County, now north and eastern Skåne County P4 Kronoberg P4 Malmöhus, for the former Malmöhus County, now south-western Skåne County P4 Norrbotten P4 Sjuhärad, for Sjuhärad, the south-eastern part of Västra Götaland County P4 Skaraborg, for the former Skaraborg County, now north-eastern Västra Götaland County P4 Stockholm P4 Sörmland P4 Uppland P4 Värmland P4 Väst, for western Västergötland and northern Bohuslän, north-western Västra Götaland County P4 Västerbotten P4 Västernorrland P4 Västmanland, for Västmanland P4 Örebro, for Örebro County P4 Östergötland, for Östergötland CountyAdditional radio stations available locally on FM include: Din gata 100,6: playing hiphop and R&B Metropol 93,8: multicultural youth station for Stockholm SR P2 Musik: relays most of the output of P2, but replaces programming in minority and foreign languages with additional music output – Schedule SR P6 89,6: broadcasts in minority and foreign languages as well as relaying programmes from the web-based P2 Världen channel and the BBC World Service – Schedule Sveriges Radio provides a number of channels through Digital audio broadcasting, using the DAB standard, via the internet.
SR International - Radio Sweden SR P7 Sisuradio, in Finnish and Meänkieli Radioapans knattekanal, children's radio SR c, experimental arts radio SR P2 Världen, world music radio SR Klassiskt, classical music SR Minnen, programmes from the SR archive SR P3 Star, hit music for teenagers SR Sápmi, for the Sami languages Alltid nyheter, news SR International is the international channel of Sveriges Radio and offers programming in the following languages: Arabic – website English – website German – website Kurdish – website Persian – website Romani – website Russian – website Somali – websiteSR International is not responsible for programming in the domestic minority languages, Finnish and Sámi, which have their own dedicated channels. See Other channels above. On 16 March 2010, Radio Sweden announced the end of broadcasts on shortwave and medium wave as from 31 October 2010. External service programmes would continue on the internet only. Language services for immigrants to Sweden in Albanian, Serbian and Croat would be discontinued, while programmes in English, Russian, Persian and Kurdish would remain.
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Music of Sweden
The Music of Sweden shares the tradition of Nordic folk dance music with its neighboring countries in northern Europe, including polka, waltz and mazurka. The accordion, clarinet and nyckelharpa are among the most common Swedish folk instruments; the instrumental genre is the biggest one in Swedish traditional music. In the 1960s, Swedish youth sparked a roots revival in Swedish folk culture. Many joined Spelmanslag and performed on mainstream radio and TV, they focused on instrumental polska music, with vocals and influences from other traditional genres becoming more prominent since the 1990s. By 1970, the "dansband" culture began. Swedish music has included more modern and pop influences. On a per capita basis, Sweden is one of the world's most successful exporters of popular music, its most famous export is ABBA, a worldwide musical phenomenon. Sweden has historically dominated the Scandinavian music scene, with Danes and Norwegians listening to music in Swedish rather than the other way around.
In the late 1980s and early 1990s, Scandinavian death metal bands became popular with the international heavy metal community. Sweden's most famous classic troubadour was Carl Michael Bellman. Examples include Evert Taube, Cornelis Vreeswijk, Fred Åkerström, Povel Ramel. Swedish folk songs are dominated by ballads and kulning. Ballad stories descend from skillingtryck printed songs from the 19th century. Modern bands like Folk och Rackare and Garmarna incorporated folk songs into their repertoire; the fiddle is the most characteristic and original instrument of the Swedish folk tradition. It had arrived by the 17th century, became widespread until 19th century religious fundamentalism preached that most forms of music were sinful and ungodly. Despite the oppression, several fiddlers achieved a reputation for their virtuosity, including Jämtland's Lapp-Nils, Bingsjö's Pekkos Per and Malung's Lejsme-Per Larsson. None of these musicians were recorded. Other early fiddlers of the 20th century included Päkkos Gustaf.
There is an extensive traditional repertoire of fiddle tunes, in forms such as the 3/4 polska and the 4/4 gånglåt. One type fiddle peculiar to Sweden is the låtfiol, a fiddle with two sympathetic strings, similar to the Norwegian Hardanger fiddle The nyckelharpa is similar to both a fiddle and a hurdy-gurdy, is known from Sweden since at least 1350, when it was carved on a gate in a church in Gotland. During the 15th and 16th centuries, the nyckelharpa was known throughout Sweden, Denmark and in the province of Uppland; the latter has long been a stronghold for nyckelharpa music, including through the 60s revival, which drew on musicians like Byss-Calle from Älvkarleby. The instrument played at this time was not the same as that used today. In spite of these innovations, the nyckelharpa's popularity declined until the 1960s roots revival; the nyckelharpa was a prominent part of several revival groups in the century Väsen and Hedningarna. The Swedish bagpipes has been part of a long-running folk tradition, passed down orally until the death of Gudmunds Nils Larsson in 1949.
Revivalists such as Per Gudmundson added a tuning slide and revitalized the instrument. Accordions and harmonicas were an integral part of Swedish folk music from the beginning of the 20th century, when they contributed to the gammeldans genre; the most famous Swedish accordionist is undoubtedly Kalle Jularbo, famous throughout the early 20th century. The accordion fell out of favour within the roots revival, did not return until the end of the 1970s. In the 1960s, Swedish jazz musicians like Jan Johansson used folk influences in their work, resulting in an early 1970s series of music festivals in Stockholm; the Swedish Music Movement reflected a popular trend towards jazz- and rock-oriented folk music, featuring many performers who brought a new vitality to Swedish folk. The father of Swedish classical music is claimed to be Johan Helmich Roman, his most famous work is the Drottningholm Music. Another influential composer is Carl Michael Bellman, whose patron was the king Gustav III of Sweden.
Bellmans' songs are about drinking and every-day love troubles. He was a virtuoso improviser, his songs, of which "Fredmans sånger" are the best-known, are performed in Europe in different translations. Joseph Martin Kraus had a life span similar to that of Mozart, who lived between 1756 and 1792. Kraus was an innovative composer, with a music filled with bold contrasts, his harmonic language was personal, although his ability to develop motives never reached the level of the viennese composers such as Mozart or Haydn. In the early romantic era, Franz Berwald was the most prominent of the Swedish composers, his music was ignored during his lifetime, he made his living as an orthopedic surgeon. He has gained most of his recognition after his death, composers such as Atterberg and Wilhelm Stenhammar worked hard to raise the interest in Berwalds' music. Wilhelm Stenhammar was one of the national romantic composers, he owned a reputation as one of the finest pianist of his time. He studied some years in Berlin, where he came in contact with the German high romanticism, such as Bruckner and Wagner, which influenced him a lot when he wrote his two symphonies.
He wrote six string qua
The Hammond organ is an electric organ, invented by Laurens Hammond and John M. Hanert and first manufactured in 1935. Various models have been produced, most of which use sliding drawbars to specify a variety of sounds; until 1975, Hammond organs generated sound by creating an electric current from rotating a metal tonewheel near an electromagnetic pickup, strengthening the signal with an amplifier so it can drive a speaker cabinet. Around two million Hammond organs have been manufactured; the organ is used with, associated with, the Leslie speaker. The organ was marketed and sold by the Hammond Organ Company to churches as a lower-cost alternative to the wind-driven pipe organ, or instead of a piano, it became popular with professional jazz musicians in organ trios, small groups centered on the Hammond organ. Organ trios were hired by jazz club owners, who found that organ trios were a much cheaper alternative to hiring a big band. Jimmy Smith's use of the Hammond B-3, with its additional harmonic percussion feature, inspired a generation of organ players, its use became more widespread in the 1960s and 1970s in rhythm and blues and reggae, as well as being an important instrument in progressive rock.
The Hammond Organ Company struggled financially during the 1970s, as they abandoned tonewheel organs and switched to manufacturing instruments using integrated circuits. These instruments were not as popular with musicians as the tonewheels had been, the company went out of business in 1985; the Hammond name was purchased by the Suzuki Musical Instrument Corporation, which proceeded to manufacture digital simulations of the most popular tonewheel organs. This culminated in the production of the "New B-3" in 2002, which provided an accurate recreation of the original B-3 organ using modern digital technology. Hammond-Suzuki continues to manufacture a variety of organs for both professional players and churches. Other companies, such as Korg and Clavia, have achieved success in providing more lightweight and portable emulations of the original tonewheel organs; the sound of a tonewheel Hammond can be emulated using modern software such as Native Instruments B4. A number of distinctive Hammond organ features are not found on other keyboards like the piano or synthesizer.
Some are similar to a pipe organ. Most Hammond organs have two 61-note keyboards called manuals; as with pipe organ keyboards, the two manuals are arrayed on two levels close to each other. Each is laid out in a similar manner to a piano keyboard, except that pressing a key on a Hammond results in the sound continuously playing until it is released, whereas with a piano, the note's volume decays. No difference in volume occurs regardless of how or the key is pressed, so overall volume is controlled by a pedal; the keys on each manual have a lightweight action, which allows players to perform rapid passages more than on a piano. In contrast to piano and pipe organ keys, Hammond keys have a flat-front profile referred to as "waterfall" style. Early Hammond console models had sharp edges, but starting with the B-2, these were rounded, as they were cheaper to manufacture; the M series of spinets had waterfall keys, but spinet models had "diving board" style keys which resembled those found on a church organ.
Modern Hammond-Suzuki models use waterfall keys. Hammond console organs come with a wooden pedalboard played for bass notes. Most console Hammond pedalboards have 25 notes, with the bottom note a low C and the top note a middle C two octaves higher. Hammond used a 25-note pedalboard because he found that on traditional 32-note pedalboards used in church pipe organs, the top seven notes were used; the Hammond Concert models E, RT, RT-2, RT-3 and D-100 had 32-note American Guild of Organists pedalboards going up to the G above middle C as the top note. The RT-2, RT-3 and D-100 contained a separate solo pedal system that had its own volume control and various other features. Spinet models have 12- or 13-note miniature pedalboards; the sound on a tonewheel Hammond organ is varied through the manipulation of drawbars. A drawbar is a metal slider that controls the volume of a particular sound component, in a similar way to a fader on an audio mixing board; as a drawbar is incrementally pulled out, it increases the volume of its sound.
When pushed all the way in, the volume is decreased to zero. The labeling of the drawbar derives from the stop system in pipe organs, in which the physical length of the pipe corresponds to the pitch produced. Most Hammonds contain nine drawbars per manual; the drawbar marked "8′" generates the fundamental of the note being played, the drawbar marked "16′" is an octave below, the drawbars marked "4′", "2′" and "1′" are one and three octaves above, respectively. The other drawbars generate various other subharmonics of the note. While each individual drawbar generates a pure sound similar to a flute or electronic oscillator, more complex sounds can be created by mixing the drawbars in varying amounts; some drawbar settings have associated with certain musicians. A popular setting is 888000000, has been identified as the "classic" Jimmy Smith sound. In addition to drawbars, many Hammond tonewheel organ models include presets, which make predefined drawbar combinations available at the press of a button.
Console organs have one octave of reverse colored keys to the
Session musicians, studio musicians, or backing musicians are musicians hired to perform in recording sessions or live performances. Session musicians are not permanent members of a musical ensemble or band, they work behind the scenes and achieve individual fame in their own right as soloists or bandleaders. However, top session musicians are well known within the music industry, some have become publicly recognized, such as the Wrecking Crew and Motown's The Funk Brothers. Many session musicians specialize in playing common instruments such as guitar, bass, or drums. Others are specialists, play brass and strings. Many session musicians play multiple instruments, which lets them play in a wider range of musical situations and styles. Examples of "doubling" include electric bass. Session musicians are used. Session musicians are used by recording studios to provide backing tracks for other musicians for recording sessions and live performances. In the 2000s, the terms "session musician" and "studio musician" are synonymous, though in past decades, "studio musician" meant a musician associated with a single record company, recording studio or entertainment agency.
During the 1950s and 1960s, session players were active in local recording scenes concentrated in places such as Los Angeles, New York City, Memphis and Muscle Shoals. Each local scene had its circle of "A-list" session musicians, such as The Nashville A-Team that played on numerous country and rock hits of the era, the two groups of musicians in Memphis, both the Memphis Boys and the musicians who backed Stax/Volt recordings, the Funk Brothers in Detroit, who played on many Motown recordings. At the time, multi-tracking equipment, though common, was less elaborate, instrumental backing tracks were recorded "hot" with an ensemble playing live in the studio. Musicians had to be available "on call" when producers needed a part to fill a last-minute time slot. In the 1960s, Los Angeles was considered the top recording destination in the United States — studios were booked around the clock, session time was sought after and expensive. Songs had to be recorded in the fewest possible takes. In this environment, Los Angeles producers and record executives had little patience for needless expense or wasted time and depended on the service of reliable standby musicians who could be counted on to record in a variety of styles with minimal practice or takes, deliver hits on short order.
A studio band is a musical ensemble, in the employ of a recording studio for the purpose of accompanying recording artists who are customers of the studio. The Nashville A-Team Studio musicians, their contributions began in the 1950s with artists such as Elvis Presley. The original A-Team includes bassist Bob Moore. Cramer, McCoy and Randolph, along with A-Teamer and producer Chet Atkins, would emerge as part of Hee Haw's Million Dollar Band in the 1980s. Booker T. & the M. G.'s The house band at Stax records in Memphis during the 1960s and 1970s, playing behind Otis Redding, Eddie Floyd and Dave, Isaac Hayes, The Staple Singers, others. MGs guitarist Steve Cropper co-wrote many of Redding's hits and the MGs produced albums and hit singles such as "Green Onions" in their own right while being the house band at Stax; the Wrecking Crew Prolific, established studio musicians based in Los Angeles. They have recorded many albums since the 1960s; the Ron Hicklin Singers was a vocal session group associated with the Wrecking Crew and appeared as backing vocalists on many of the Crew's recordings.
The Funk Brothers Session musicians who backed many Motown Records recordings from the late 1950s to the early 1970s, as well as a few non-Motown recordings, notably on Jackie Wilson's " Higher and Higher."The Andantes The Memphis Boys The Section A Los Angeles singer/songwriter scene associated with the Troubadour nightclub and Laurel Canyon in the late 1960s to mid-1970s was supported by musicians Russ Kunkel, Danny Kortchmar, Leland Sklar and Craig Doerge. This session combo, nicknamed "the Section" or "the Mafia", backed many musicians, among others: Carole King, James Taylor, Jackson Browne, Warren Zevon, Kris Kristofferson and David Crosby; the Muscle Shoals Rhythm Section A group comprising Barry Beckett, Roger Hawkins, David Hood, Jimmy Johnson known as the Swampers, became known for the "Muscle Shoals Sound." Many of the recordings done in the Memphis area, which included Muscle Shoals, used The Memphis Horns in their arrangements. MFSB MFSB was a group of soul music studio musicians based in Philadelphia at the Sigma Sound Studios.
The Hillside Singers A vocal group commissioned to provide vocals for Mayoham Music, formed by husband and wife Al Ham and M
Attic Thoughts is an instrumental progressive rock album by Swedish musician Bo Hansson. The album was recorded during 1974 and 1975 at Studio Decibel in Stockholm, at Hansson's home, which had become a studio by this point in his career; the album featured contributions from many of the same session musicians and friends that had played on Hansson's previous album, Magician's Hat. In Hansson's native Sweden, Attic Thoughts was released with the Swedish title of Mellanväsen, it was released with its English title in April 1975 by Charisma Records, but was less commercially successful than Hansson's preceding solo albums and failed to reach the charts in the UK or the United States. In addition to featuring Hansson's usual blend of other-worldly progressive rock and fairy tale-like ambiance, Attic Thoughts includes a suite named "Rabbit Music", inspired by Richard Adams' novel Watership Down, a subject that Hansson would explore further on his 1977 album Music Inspired by Watership Down. All tracks composed by Bo Hansson except.
"Attic Thoughts: a) March b) Repose c) Wandering" – 5:33 "Time and Space" – 1:39 "Waiting..." – 7:34 "Waltz for Interbeings" – 3:26 "Time for Great Achievements" – 3:11 "The Hybrills" – 1:24 "Rabbit Music: a) General Woundwort b) Fiver" – 6:30 "Day and Night" – 4:33 "A Happy Prank" – 3:17 "The Crystal Suite: a) Crystals b) Memories of Darkness c) Light Again" – 6:21 Bo Hansson – organs, bass guitar, mellotron, special effects Rune Carlsson – drums Kenny Håkansson – electric guitar Jöran Lagerberg – bass guitar, acoustic guitar Gunnar Bergsten – saxophone Rolf Scherrer – acoustic guitar Tomas Netzler – bass guitar Mats Glenngård – violin Anders Oredsson – mixing on "Waiting..." Jan Ternald – cover painting Barry Lester and Company – artwork CD Attic Thoughts One Way Records 1996 CD Attic Thoughts EMI Music Distribution 2004 CD Attic Thoughts Virgin 2004 CD Attic Thoughts EMI Music Distribution 2005
Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, developed from roots in blues and ragtime. Jazz is seen by many as "America's classical music". Since the 1920s Jazz Age, jazz has become recognized as a major form of musical expression, it emerged in the form of independent traditional and popular musical styles, all linked by the common bonds of African-American and European-American musical parentage with a performance orientation. Jazz is characterized by swing and blue notes and response vocals and improvisation. Jazz has roots in West African cultural and musical expression, in African-American music traditions including blues and ragtime, as well as European military band music. Intellectuals around the world have hailed jazz as "one of America's original art forms"; as jazz spread around the world, it drew on national and local musical cultures, which gave rise to different styles. New Orleans jazz began in the early 1910s, combining earlier brass-band marches, French quadrilles, biguine and blues with collective polyphonic improvisation.
In the 1930s arranged dance-oriented swing big bands, Kansas City jazz, a hard-swinging, improvisational style and Gypsy jazz were the prominent styles. Bebop emerged in the 1940s, shifting jazz from danceable popular music toward a more challenging "musician's music", played at faster tempos and used more chord-based improvisation. Cool jazz developed near the end of the 1940s, introducing calmer, smoother sounds and long, linear melodic lines; the 1950s saw the emergence of free jazz, which explored playing without regular meter and formal structures, in the mid-1950s, hard bop emerged, which introduced influences from rhythm and blues and blues in the saxophone and piano playing. Modal jazz developed in the late 1950s, using the mode, or musical scale, as the basis of musical structure and improvisation. Jazz-rock fusion appeared in the late 1960s and early 1970s, combining jazz improvisation with rock music's rhythms, electric instruments, amplified stage sound. In the early 1980s, a commercial form of jazz fusion called smooth jazz became successful, garnering significant radio airplay.
Other styles and genres abound in the 2000s, such as Afro-Cuban jazz. The origin of the word "jazz" has resulted in considerable research, its history is well documented, it is believed to be related to "jasm", a slang term dating back to 1860 meaning "pep, energy". The earliest written record of the word is in a 1912 article in the Los Angeles Times in which a minor league baseball pitcher described a pitch which he called a "jazz ball" "because it wobbles and you can't do anything with it"; the use of the word in a musical context was documented as early as 1915 in the Chicago Daily Tribune. Its first documented use in a musical context in New Orleans was in a November 14, 1916 Times-Picayune article about "jas bands". In an interview with NPR, musician Eubie Blake offered his recollections of the slang connotations of the term, saying, "When Broadway picked it up, they called it'J-A-Z-Z', it wasn't called that. It was spelled'J-A-S-S'; that was dirty, if you knew what it was, you wouldn't say it in front of ladies."
The American Dialect Society named it the Word of the Twentieth Century. Jazz is difficult to define because it encompasses a wide range of music spanning a period of over 100 years, from ragtime to the rock-infused fusion. Attempts have been made to define jazz from the perspective of other musical traditions, such as European music history or African music, but critic Joachim-Ernst Berendt argues that its terms of reference and its definition should be broader, defining jazz as a "form of art music which originated in the United States through the confrontation of the Negro with European music" and arguing that it differs from European music in that jazz has a "special relationship to time defined as'swing'". Jazz involves "a spontaneity and vitality of musical production in which improvisation plays a role" and contains a "sonority and manner of phrasing which mirror the individuality of the performing jazz musician". In the opinion of Robert Christgau, "most of us would say that inventing meaning while letting loose is the essence and promise of jazz".
A broader definition that encompasses different eras of jazz has been proposed by Travis Jackson: "it is music that includes qualities such as swing, group interaction, developing an'individual voice', being open to different musical possibilities". Krin Gibbard argued that "jazz is a construct" which designates "a number of musics with enough in common to be understood as part of a coherent tradition". In contrast to commentators who have argued for excluding types of jazz, musicians are sometimes reluctant to define the music they play. Duke Ellington, one of jazz's most famous figures, said, "It's all music." Although jazz is considered difficult to define, in part because it contains many subgenres, improvisation is one of its defining elements. The centrality of improvisation is attributed to the influence of earlier forms of music such as blues, a form of folk music which arose in part from the work songs and field hollers of African-American slaves on plantations; these work songs were structured around a repetitive call-and-response pattern, but early blues was improvisational.
Classical music performance is evaluated more by its fidelity to the musical score, with less attention given to interpretation and accompaniment. The classical performer's goal is to play the composition. In contrast, jazz is characterized by the product of i
Tony Stratton-Smith was an English rock music manager, entrepreneur. He founded the London-based record label Charisma Records in 1969 and managed rock groups such as the Nice, Van der Graaf Generator and Genesis. Stratton-Smith was born in Birmingham in 1933, he started his career as a sports journalist reporting on football for the Daily Sketch and the Daily Express, while at the Express including being assigned to cover the Manchester United v Red Star Belgrade European Cup match in Yugoslavia. However their chief soccer correspondent Henry Rose decided to go instead; the aircraft bringing back the team and press crashed in what became known as the Munich Air Disaster and Rose was one of the fatalities. On he began being influenced by The Beatles, in particular their manager Brian Epstein and decided to enter the music business. One of the earliest bands he managed were the Liverpool-based The Koobas, he subsequently took over management of The Nice in 1968 from Andrew Loog Oldham and, frustrated with the workings of Oldham's Immediate Records label, decided to form his own.
Signings included the Bonzo Dog Band and Van der Graaf Generator. In 1969 he signed the progressive rock band Genesis onto his record and management companies, released Trespass, the band's second album. Genesis became the label's most commercially successful group. Stratton-Smith released many records by Monty Python and helped to finance the film Monty Python and the Holy Grail, he recorded former Bonzo frontman Vivian Stanshall and financed Stanshall's film Sir Henry at Rawlinson End, as well as being credited as its producer. Other important artists Stratton-Smith was associated with include Atomic Rooster, Brand X, Phil Collins, Peter Gabriel, Steve Hackett, Peter Hammill, Julian Lennon, Robert John Godfrey, String Driven Thing and Rare Bird. According to Hackett, Stratton-Smith missed an opportunity to sign Queen, whose demos had been brought in to Charisma. Gail Colson worked with him as label manager and joint managing director, she left to form her own company in the late 1970s and would manage the solo careers of Gabriel and Hammill, among others.
In the United States, Charisma Records recordings were licensed to other labels such as ABC Records, Elektra Records, Buddah Records, Atlantic Records, Mercury Records and Arista Records. The label was sold to Virgin Records in 1983. Virgin re-activated the Charisma name with a new logo for a short time during the late 1980s; the vast majority of the Charisma catalogue is now owned by EMI. "Strat" as he was known to his friends was known for his sense of flair for promotion. His sense of humour was reflected in promotional materials and record label art. With an ear for unusual and creative talent he made Charisma successful in its early years. Though known as "Charisma Records", the company promoted itself as "The Famous Charisma Label". Stratton-Smith died of pancreatic cancer on 19 March 1987 at age 53. A memorial service was held for him at London. Marillion's album Clutching at Straws was dedicated to him in the sleeve credits; the song "Time to Burn" by Peter Hammill is "something of a goodbye to Tony Stratton-Smith", 3, the 1988 band of Keith Emerson, Carl Palmer and Robert Berry, dedicates the closing track, "On My Way Home", of their only album To the Power of Three, to Stratton-Smith.
Citations Bibliography More Charisma Records information