Yale University Press
Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University. It was founded in 1908 by George Parmly Day, and became a department of Yale University in 1961. As of 2009, Yale University Press published approximately 300 new hardcover and 150 new paperback books annually and has more than 6,000 books in print and its books have won five National Book Awards, two National Book Critics Circle Awards and eight Pulitzer Prizes. Since its inception in 1919, the Yale Series of Younger Poets Competition has published the first collection of poetry by new poets, the first winner was Howard Buck, the 2011 winner was Katherine Larson. Yale University Press and Yale Repertory Theatre jointly sponsor the Yale Drama Series, the winner of the annual competition is awarded the David C. Horn Prize of $10,000, publication of his/her manuscript by Yale University Press, the Yale Drama Series and David C. Horn Prize are funded by the David Charles Horn Foundation, in 2007, Yale University Press acquired the Anchor Bible Series, a collection of more than 115 volumes of biblical scholarship, from the Doubleday Publishing Group.
New and backlist titles are now published under the Anchor Yale Bible Series name, the Dwight H. Terry Lectureship was established in 1905 to encourage the consideration of religion in the context of modern science and philosophy. Many of the lectures, which are hosted by Yale University, have been edited into book form by the Yale University Press, the Yale Publishing Course was founded in 2010 by former Publishing Director of the Yale University Press, Tina C. It filled the gap created by the closing of the legendary Stanford Publishing Course and it operates under the aegis of the Office of International Affairs of Yale University. The Course trains mid to senior-level publishing professionals to tackle the most compelling issues facing the publishing industry, the curriculum focuses on in-depth analyses of global trends, innovative business models, management strategies, and new advances in technology. Its immersive week-long programs, one devoted to publishing and the other to magazine and digital publishing, combine lectures, discussion groups.
The faculty is made up of leading experts and members of the Yale School of Management, the Yale Library. Participants come from all over the world and represent all areas of publishing within organizations of all sizes and types of publications, in 1963, the Press published a revised edition of Ludwig von Misess Human Action. Official website, including a mission statement Yale University Press, London Yale Publishing Course, New Haven, Connecticut
English overseas possessions
In 1639, a series of English fortresses on the Indian coast was initiated with Fort St George. In North America and Virginia were the first centres of English colonization, as the 17th century wore on, Plymouth, New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, New Scotland, New Haven and Rhode Island and Providence were settled. In 1664, New Netherland and New Sweden were taken from the Dutch, becoming New York, New Jersey, the Kingdom of England is generally dated from the rule of Æthelstan from 927. During the rule of the House of Knýtlinga, from 1013 to 1014 and 1016 to 1042, in 1066, William the Conqueror, Duke of Normandy, conquered England, making the Duchy a Crown land of the English throne. Through the remainder of the Middle Ages the kings of England held extensive territories in France, under the Angevin Empire, England formed part of a collection of lands in the British Isles and France held by the Plantagenet dynasty. The collapse of this dynasty led to the Hundred Years War between England and France, at the outset of the war the Kings of England ruled almost all of France, but by the end of it in 1453 only the Pale of Calais remained to them.
Calais was eventually lost to the French in 1558, the Channel Islands, as the remnants of the Duchy of Normandy, retain their link to the Crown to the present day, Other early English expansion occurred within the British Isles. As early as 1169, the Norman invasion of Ireland began to establish English possessions in Ireland, as a result of this the Lordship of Ireland was held for centuries by the English monarch, although it was not until the early 17th century that the Plantation of Ulster began. English control of Ireland fluctuated for centuries until Ireland was incorporated into the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the voyages of Christopher Columbus began in 1492, and he sighted land in the West Indies on 12 October that year. Cabot sailed in 1497, successfully making landfall on the coast of Newfoundland, there, he believed he had reached Asia and made no attempt to found a permanent colony. He led another voyage to the Americas the following year, the Reformation had made enemies of England and Spain, and in 1562 Elizabeth sanctioned the privateers Hawkins and Drake to attack Spanish ships off the coast of West Africa.
Later, as the Anglo-Spanish Wars intensified, Elizabeth approved further raids against Spanish ports in the Americas, the influential writers Richard Hakluyt and John Dee were beginning to press for the establishment of Englands own overseas empire. The first serious attempts to establish English colonies overseas were made in the last quarter of the 16th century, the 1580s saw the first attempt at permanent English settlements in North America, a generation before the Plantation of Ulster. Soon there was an explosion of English colonial activity, driven by men seeking new land, by the pursuit of trade, in the 17th century, the destination of most English people making a new life overseas was in the West Indies rather than in North America. Financed by the Muscovy Company, Martin Frobisher set sail on 7 June 1576, from Blackwall, London, in August 1576 he landed at Frobisher Bay on Baffin Island and this was marked by the first Church of England service recorded on North American soil. Frobisher returned to Frobisher Bay in 1577, solemnly taking possession of the side of it in Queen Elizabeths name.
In a third voyage, in 1578, he reached the shores of Greenland, while on the coast of Greenland, he claimed that for England. At the same time, between 1577 and 1580, Sir Francis Drake was circumnavigating the globe and he claimed Elizabeth Island off Cape Horn for his queen, and on 24 August 1578 claimed another Elizabeth Island, in the Straits of Magellan
Department of Trade and Industry (United Kingdom)
The Department of Trade and Industry was a United Kingdom government department formed on 19 October 1970. It was replaced with the creation of the Department for Business and Regulatory Reform and the Department for Innovation and Skills on 28 June 2007. The department was first formed on 19 October 1970 with the merger of the Board of Trade, the new department took over the Department of Employments former responsibilities for monopolies and mergers. In January 1974, the departments responsibilities for energy production were transferred to a newly created Department of Energy, in 1983 the departments of Trade and Industry were reunited. The Department of Energy was re-merged back into the DTI in 1992, until it was succeeded in June 2007 the DTI continued to set the energy policy of the United Kingdom. The DTI had a range of responsibilities. There were ultimately nine main areas covered by the DTI, Company Law Trade Business Growth Innovation Employment Law Regional Economic Development Energy Science Consumer Law.
From 1999 to 2005 it led the national E-Commerce Awards with InterForum and this aimed to encourage Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises to develop their business through the use of E-Commerce technologies. It had responsibility for investigating misconduct by company directors, in which role Private Eye repeatedly lampooned it as the Department of Timidity and Inaction
Department for International Trade
In July 2016 it was replaced by the Department for International Trade. UKTI was formed in May 1999 as British Trade International, comprising two parts, Trade Partners UK and Invest UK, to support its aim to enhance the competitiveness of companies in Britain through overseas trade and investments, and attract a continuing high level of quality foreign direct investment. UK Trade & Investment is an organisation with headquarters in London. In Devon and Somerset, UKTI regional services are now delivered by Serco, In China and university leaders work with UKTI as business ambassadors. They promote the UK internationally and highlight trade and investment opportunities and they focus on helping small and medium-sized enterprises. UK Trade & Investment brings together the work of the Foreign & Commonwealth Office, the UK Special Representative for International Trade and Investment works as part of UKTI to promote British business and produce. UK Trade & Investment has a branch called UKTI DSO headed by Sir Richard Paniguian
Privy Council of the United Kingdom
Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council, usually known simply as the Privy Council, is a formal body of advisers to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. Its membership mainly comprises senior politicians, who are present or former members of either the House of Commons or the House of Lords, the Council holds the delegated authority to issue Orders of Council, mostly used to regulate certain public institutions. The Council advises the sovereign on the issuing of Royal Charters, which are used to grant special status to incorporated bodies, the Privy Councils powers have now been largely replaced by the Cabinet of the United Kingdom. The Judicial Committee consists of judges appointed as Privy Counsellors, predominantly Justices of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom. The Privy Council of the United Kingdom was preceded by the Privy Council of Scotland, the key events in the formation of the modern Privy Council are given below, Witenagemot was an early equivalent to the Privy Council of England.
During the reigns of the Norman monarchs, the English Crown was advised by a court or curia regis. The body originally concerned itself with advising the sovereign on legislation, later, different bodies assuming distinct functions evolved from the court. The courts of law took over the business of dispensing justice, the Council retained the power to hear legal disputes, either in the first instance or on appeal. Furthermore, laws made by the sovereign on the advice of the Council, powerful sovereigns often used the body to circumvent the Courts and Parliament. During Henry VIIIs reign, the sovereign, on the advice of the Council, was allowed to enact laws by mere proclamation, the legislative pre-eminence of Parliament was not restored until after Henry VIIIs death. Though the royal Council retained legislative and judicial responsibilities, it became an administrative body. The Council consisted of forty members in 1553, but the sovereign relied on a smaller committee, by the end of the English Civil War, the monarchy, House of Lords, and Privy Council had been abolished.
The remaining parliamentary chamber, the House of Commons, instituted a Council of State to execute laws, the forty-one members of the Council were elected by the House of Commons, the body was headed by Oliver Cromwell, de facto military dictator of the nation. In 1653, Cromwell became Lord Protector, and the Council was reduced to thirteen and twenty-one members, all elected by the Commons. In 1657, the Commons granted Cromwell even greater powers, some of which were reminiscent of those enjoyed by monarchs, the Council became known as the Protectors Privy Council, its members were appointed by the Lord Protector, subject to Parliaments approval. In 1659, shortly before the restoration of the monarchy, the Protectors Council was abolished, Charles II restored the Royal Privy Council, but he, like previous Stuart monarchs, chose to rely on a small group of advisers. Under George I even more power transferred to this committee and it now began to meet in the absence of the sovereign, communicating its decisions to him after the fact.
Thus, the British Privy Council, as a whole, ceased to be a body of important confidential advisers to the sovereign and it is closely related to the word private, and derives from the French word privé
Plantation (settlement or colony)
Plantation was an early method of colonization where settlers went in order to establish a permanent or semi-permanent colonial base, for example for planting tobacco or cotton. Such plantations were intended to promote Western culture and Christianity among nearby indigenous peoples. Although the term planter to refer to a settler first appears as early as the 16th-century, the term plantation was applied to the large farms that were the economical basis of many of the 17th-century American colonies. The peak of the economy in the Caribbean was in the 18th century. Most of that time Britain prospered as the top slaving nation in the Atlantic world, more than 2,500,000 slaves were transported to the Caribbean plantations between 1690 and 1807. In 1789 the French colony of Saint-Domingue, producer of 40 percent of the sugar, was the most valuable colony on earth. Slaves outnumbered whites and free people of color by at least eight to one, but provided all of the manual labor. Slave labor made sugar production profitable, importing sugar to Great Britain resulted in a dramatic change in the eating habits of Britons, one of the greatest in human history.
In 1700, Britons used an average of four pounds of sugar a year, the Plantations of Ireland were an instrument of retribution and colonization after several Irish rebellions against English rule throughout the 16th and 17th centuries. The largest settlement, the Plantation of Ulster in the part of the island, was established following the rebellion of Hugh Roe ODonnell. The plantations were seen as part of process that would Anglicise Ireland, lands were seized from the native landowners both as punishment for rebellion and as punishment for remaining Catholic rather than conforming to the established church. These lands were given to English Protestant settlers who would be loyal to the Crown, during the Middle Ages, the Scottish government planted Scots-speaking lowland merchant colonies in the Gàidhealtachd, for example at Campbeltown and Cromarty. Jamestown, Virginia was the first permanent English settlement in North America, during the 17th century, the Chesapeake Bay area was immensely hospitable to tobacco cultivation.
Ships annually hauled 1.5 million pounds of tobacco out to the Bay by the 1630s, farmers responded to falling prices by growing even more tobacco. The labor supply from Africa was expensive, in the 17th century, farmers relied on indentured servants for labor. To encourage settlement of the colonies, the Crown granted land to colonists who paid for workers, the planters replaced tobacco with other crops after the soils became exhausted in the coastal areas. Cotton was produced on plantations on the Sea Islands off South Carolina, settlers poured into what became known as the Deep South, putting pressure on the federal government to remove the Native American tribes from the Southeast. Cotton was king, and worldwide demand for American cotton resulted in growing wealth among planters in the South, European colonists did not regard the land as belonging to the tens of thousands of Native Americans who occupied it, because their patterns of use were so different
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
American Revolutionary War
From about 1765 the American Revolution had led to increasing philosophical and political differences between Great Britain and its American colonies. The war represented a culmination of these differences in armed conflict between Patriots and the authority which they increasingly resisted. This resistance became particularly widespread in the New England Colonies, especially in the Province of Massachusetts Bay. On December 16,1773, Massachusetts members of the Patriot group Sons of Liberty destroyed a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor in an event that became known as the Boston Tea Party. Named the Coercive Acts by Parliament, these became known as the Intolerable Acts in America. The Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, establishing a government that removed control of the province from the Crown outside of Boston. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, and established committees, British attempts to seize the munitions of Massachusetts colonists in April 1775 led to the first open combat between Crown forces and Massachusetts militia, the Battles of Lexington and Concord.
Militia forces proceeded to besiege the British forces in Boston, forcing them to evacuate the city in March 1776, the Continental Congress appointed George Washington to take command of the militia. Concurrent to the Boston campaign, an American attempt to invade Quebec, on July 2,1776, the Continental Congress formally voted for independence, issuing its Declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe began a British counterattack, focussing on recapturing New York City, Howe outmaneuvered and defeated Washington, leaving American confidence at a low ebb. Washington captured a Hessian force at Trenton and drove the British out of New Jersey, in 1777 the British sent a new army under John Burgoyne to move south from Canada and to isolate the New England colonies. However, instead of assisting Burgoyne, Howe took his army on a campaign against the revolutionary capital of Philadelphia. Burgoyne outran his supplies, was surrounded and surrendered at Saratoga in October 1777, the British defeat in the Saratoga Campaign had drastic consequences.
Giving up on the North, the British decided to salvage their former colonies in the South, British forces under Lieutenant-General Charles Cornwallis seized Georgia and South Carolina, capturing an American army at Charleston, South Carolina. British strategy depended upon an uprising of large numbers of armed Loyalists, in 1779 Spain joined the war as an ally of France under the Pacte de Famille, intending to capture Gibraltar and British colonies in the Caribbean. Britain declared war on the Dutch Republic in December 1780, in 1781, after the British and their allies had suffered two decisive defeats at Kings Mountain and Cowpens, Cornwallis retreated to Virginia, intending on evacuation. A decisive French naval victory in September deprived the British of an escape route, a joint Franco-American army led by Count Rochambeau and Washington, laid siege to the British forces at Yorktown. With no sign of relief and the situation untenable, Cornwallis surrendered in October 1781, Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tory majority in Parliament, but the defeat at Yorktown gave the Whigs the upper hand
Twelve Years' Truce
The Twelve Years Truce was the name given to the cessation of hostilities between the Habsburg rulers of Spain and the Southern Netherlands and the Dutch Republic as agreed in Antwerp on 9 April 1609. It was a watershed in the Eighty Years War, marking the point from which the independence of the United Provinces received formal recognition by outside powers. The Archdukes Albert and Isabella used the years of the Truce to consolidate Habsburg rule, the war in the Low Countries reached a stalemate in the 1590s. In the following years the Army of Flanders was entirely on the defensive, unable to sustain the cost of a war on three fronts, Philip II was forced to declare a suspension of payments in 1596. Spains predicament was adroitly used by Stadtholder Maurice, in a series of campaigns, the Republics army surprised Breda in 1590, took Deventer and Nijmegen the following year and captured Groningen in 1594. By that stage the Army of Flanders had lost almost all its positions north of the great rivers.
After the accession of Philip III in Spain and of the Archdukes Albert and Isabella in the Habsburg Netherlands in 1598, the Army of Flanders tried to regain the offensive against the Dutch Republic. While it met with a defeat in the Battle of Nieuwpoort on 2 July 1600. The lengthy Siege of Ostend amply demonstrated the balance of power, both sides poured enormous resources into the besieging or defending a town that was reduced to rubble. Ambrogio Spinola, who had succeeded Archduke Albert as commander in the field, eventually captured the town on 22 September 1604, the following year, Spinola seized the initiative, bringing the war north of the great rivers for the first time since 1594. Suddenly the Dutch Republic had the enemy threatening its heartland, by 1606, the Spanish army had captured Oldenzaal, Lingen and Groenlo despite the efforts of Maurice of Nassau. Meanwhile, Habsburg diplomacy had managed to disengage from two fronts, in 1598 Henry IV and Philip II had ended the Franco-Spanish War with the Peace of Vervins.
Six years later, James I, Philip III and the Archdukes concluded the Anglo-Spanish War with the Treaty of London, these treaties allowed the Habsburgs to concentrate their resources on the war against the Dutch. They did not, keep the Republics allies from continuing their material support, Habsburg successes in the Low Countries came at a heavy price. In 1605 the Dutch East India Company made serious inroads into the Portuguese spice trade and these advances signaled a serious threat that the conflict might spread further in the Spanish overseas empire. The scale of Spinolas campaigns had, exhausted the Spanish treasury, on 9 November 1607 Philip III announced a suspension of payments. The balance of power had led to a balance of exhaustion, after decades of war, both sides were finally prepared to open negotiations. The two opposing sides started putting out discrete overtures early in the season of 1606
Lord President of the Council
The Lord President of the Council is the fourth of the Great Officers of State of the United Kingdom, ranking beneath the Lord High Treasurer and above the Lord Privy Seal. The Lord President usually attends and is responsible of presiding over meetings of the Privy Council, in the modern era, the holder is by convention always a member of one of the houses of Parliament and the office is a Cabinet post. The Lord President is currently David Lidington as of 14 July 2016, the Privy Council meets once a month, wherever the Sovereign may be residing at the time, to give formal approval to Orders in Council. Only a few Privy Counsellors need attend such meetings, and only invited to do so at the Governments request. As the duties of the Lord President are not onerous, the post has often given to a government minister whose responsibilities are not department-specific. In recent years it has been most typical for the Lord President to serve as Leader of the House of Commons or Leader of the House of Lords.
Before the change of government in 2010, the Lord President was Peter Mandelson, examples of this practice are the meetings in New Zealand in 1990 and 1995, when Geoffrey Palmer and James Bolger respectively were acting Lords President. In the 19th century, the Lord President was generally the cabinet responsible for the education system. This role was gradually scaled back in the late 19th and early 20th centuries but remnants of it remain, a particularly vital role was played by the Lord President of the Council during the Second World War. The Lord President served as chairman of the Lord Presidents Committee and this committee acted as a central clearing house for dealing with the countrys economic problems. This was vital to the running of the British war economy. Winston Churchill, clearly believing that this wartime co-ordinating role was beneficial, introduced a similar, the so-called overlord ministers included Frederick Leathers as Secretary of State for the Co-ordination of Transport and Power and Frederick Marquis, 1st Baron Woolton as Lord President.
Wooltons job was to co-ordinate the separate ministries of agriculture, the Lord President has no role in the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Privy Council Office Vice-President of the Executive Council President of the Queens Privy Council for Canada Sinecure
Chamber of commerce
A chamber of commerce is a form of business network, for example, a local organization of businesses whose goal is to further the interests of businesses. Business owners in towns and cities form these local societies to advocate on behalf of the business community, local businesses are members, and they elect a board of directors or executive council to set policy for the chamber. The board or council hires a President, CEO or Executive Director, plus staffing appropriate to size, the first chamber of commerce was founded in 1599 in Marseille, France. Another official chamber of commerce would follow 65 years later, probably in Bruges, Hull Chamber of Commerce is the UKs oldest, followed by those of Leeds and of Belfast in Northern Ireland. As a non-governmental institution, a chamber of commerce has no role in the writing and passage of laws. It may however, lobby in an attempt to get laws passed that are favorable to businesses, membership in an individual chamber can range from a few dozen to well over 800,000, as is the case with the Paris Île-de-France Regional Chamber of Commerce and Industry.
Some chamber organizations in China report even larger membership numbers, Chambers of commerce can range in scope from individual neighborhoods within a city or town up to an international chamber of commerce. In addition, Chambers represent the interests of businesses, while the BBB represents both the interests of businesses and the general public, some Chambers are partially funded by local government, others are non-profit, and some are a combination of the two. Chambers of commerce can include economic development corporations or groups as well as tourism, some chambers have joined state and even international bodies. Currently, there are about 13,000 chambers registered in the official Worldchambers Network registry, and this network is informal, with each local chamber incorporated and operating separately, rather than as a chapter of a national or state chamber. Chambers of commerce in the United States can be considered community, regional, city Chambers work on the local level to bring the business community together to develop strong local networks, which can result in a business-to-business exchange.
In most cases, city Chambers work with their government, such as their mayor, their city council. There are bilateral chambers of commerce that link the business environments of two countries, community chambers of commerce have started in the UK and spread to in the US, becoming city chambers of commerce as the communities developed and became larger. Community chambers of commerce are smaller and most have a limits on numbers of members, city chambers of commerce have a long history in the US. The Charleston Chamber of Commerce is one of the oldest, dating back to colonial 1773 and that same year, Bostons Chamber of Commerce organized a seminal tax protest, The Boston Tea Party. In 2005 there were 2,800 chambers of commerce in the United States and 102 chambers representing U. S. businesses overseas. State chambers of commerce are much different from local and regional chambers of commerce, as work on state. State Chambers work with their Governor, state representatives, state senators, US congressional leaders, understanding the National or International need for understanding and information is the key service that these level of chambers of commerce provide