Delaware Fightin' Blue Hens football
The Delaware Fightin' Blue Hens football team represents the University of Delaware in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Championship Subdivision college football. The team is led by head coach Danny Rocco and plays on Tubby Raymond Field at 22,000-seat Delaware Stadium located in Newark, Delaware; the Fightin' Blue Hens have won six national titles in their 117-year history – 1946, 1963, 1971, 1972, 1979, 2003. They returned to the FCS National Championship game in 2007 and 2010; the Blue Hens are recognized as a perennial power in FCS football and Delaware was the only FCS program to average more than 20,000 fans per regular-season home game for each season from 1999 to 2010. The program's long history began in the late 1800s, but the tradition did not begin to take shape until the arrival of Bill Murray in 1940. During his 11 seasons at the helm, the Fightin' Blue Hens compiled a record of 49–16–2 with one National Championship in 1946, which culminated in a win over Rollins in the now-defunct Cigar Bowl.
That was good for an impressive.747 winning percentage. After Murray departed to take over at Duke University in 1950, David M. Nelson came on board as head coach. During his years at UD, Nelson developed the Delaware Wing-T offensive system; this system rooted in running the football and deceptive fake hand-offs, became the identity of Delaware football for nearly 50 years. Nelson brought with him another icon of Delaware football: the "winged" helmet; the iconic "Michigan" style helmet was developed by Nelson's coach at Michigan, Fritz Crisler, who first used the helmet design when he was head coach at Princeton. Nelson played for Crisler when Crisler was head coach at Michigan, Nelson brought the helmet design with him to every team he coached. Nelson stepped down as football coach in 1965, in his 15 years, the Hens compiled an 84–42–2 record with one National Championship in 1963 and a bowl win over Kent State in the now-defunct Refrigerator Bowl. In 1966, an assistant football and baseball coach named Harold "Tubby" Raymond took over, after a rocky start became the face of Delaware football for 36 seasons.
While Nelson developed the Delaware Wing-T, Raymond perfected it. When he retired in 2001, Raymond had racked up 300 wins against 119 losses and three ties, good for a.714 win percentage. His teams earned 14 Lambert Cup Trophies, four national semi-finals, three National Championships in 1971, 1972, 1979, his 300 wins account for nearly half of the football victories in school history. These three men are all enshrined in the College Football Hall of Fame in Indiana. Georgia Tech is the only other school to place three consecutive coaches into the College Football Hall of Fame; the team has had much success on the field. In addition to the national championships listed above, notable program victories include multiple wins over Football Bowl Subdivision schools Navy, Maryland and Temple. Speculation exists regarding whether the Blue Hens will "move up" to the FBS level at some point; the University of Delaware has more than 60 wins against opponents playing at the highest level, whether, FBS, I-A, or the University level.
However, whereas most I-AA schools move up because of the perception of increased money and prestige, UD has an profitable football program, it is well-regarded academically and athletically. "We're the LSU. C. Keeler said in American Football Monthly in September 2004. "We have every resource. There's some people who have better resources than we do, but in general, the college campus we have is in one of the greatest college towns in America, the academics... we led the nation last year in out-of-state applications, more than Michigan or Texas. But that's what this school has become – everybody wants to come to school here."While most schools at the FCS level can expect 8,000–10,000 fans for a football game on a good day, the Fightin' Blue Hens can expect sellout crowds of over 22,000 at every home contest. Since Delaware Stadium opened in 1952, it has undergone four major expansions to come to its current capacity of 22,000; the home attendance record was set in 1973 on October 27 against Temple University with 23,619 fans, attendance has exceeded 22,000 fans frequently.
When the Fightin' Blue Hens have a home game, the stadium population becomes the fourth largest city in Delaware—behind Wilmington and Newark itself. Maine head coach Jack Cosgrove told Keeler that playing Delaware at Delaware Stadium is the highlight of many of his players' collegiate careers because of their large fan support. In 2011, Sporting News ranked Newark 162 on its list of the 271 Best Sports Cities. On June 19, 2008, Keeler was granted a 10-year contract extension, intended to keep him on as head coach of the Blue Hens through the 2017 season; the Homecoming Game versus William & Mary on October 18, 2008, marked the first time in 18 years that the Fightin' Blue Hens did not score a touchdown in a hom
Widener University is a private university in Chester, Pennsylvania. The university has one in Wilmington, Delaware. Founded as The Bullock School for Boys in 1821, the school was established in Delaware, it became The Alsop School for Boys from 1846 to 1853, Hyatt's Select School for Boys from 1853 to 1859. Military instruction was introduced in 1858, the school changed its name in 1859 to Delaware Military Academy, it became Chester County Military Academy. It was known as Pennsylvania Military College after 1892 and adopted the Widener name in 1972. About 3,300 undergraduates and 3,300 graduate students attend Widener in eight degree-granting schools; the university offers associate's, master's, doctoral degrees in areas ranging from traditional liberal arts to professional programs. The Carnegie Foundation classifies Widener as a Doctoral/Research University and a Community Engagement Institution. Widener University was founded in 1821 as the Bullock School for Boys preparatory school in Wilmington, Delaware, by John Bullock.
Bullock operated the school until 1846, when it was sold to Samuel Alsop and renamed the Alsop School for Boys. In 1853, the school was sold to Theodore Hyatt and renamed the Hyatt's Select School for Boys, again in 1859 to the Delaware Military Academy. In 1862, the school moved to Pennsylvania. By act of assembly on April 8, 1862, the Pennsylvania legislature incorporated the school as a university under the name of Chester County Military Academy. In 1865, the school moved to Chester and occupied the building which would become the Old Main building of the Crozer Theological Seminary. By 1868, the school relocated to its current location. From 1892 to 1972, the school was known as Pennsylvania Military College and was under the direction of General Charles Hyatt. In 1869, Pennsylvania Military College was the first school to have a U. S. Army detail to receive federal arms for training. In 1904, the school was recognized on the first list of distinguished institutions published by the U. S. War Department.
In 1923, "American March King" John Philip Sousa wrote and dedicated "The Dauntless Battalion" march to PMC's President, the faculty and the cadets of PMC. Sousa had been presented with an honorary doctor of music degree by the college in 1920, he was impressed by the cadet cavalry horsemen. In 1966, the school changed its name again to PMC Colleges, which incorporated Pennsylvania Military College as well as Penn Morton College, which had a non-military, co-educational curriculum; the school expanded the Chester campus from 25 acres to 90 acres. Graduate programs were introduced in 1966, female students were first enrolled in 1967. In 1972, the institution was renamed Widener College to honor the memory of Eleanor Elkins Widener, the maternal grandmother of Fitz Eugene Dixon Jr. a generous supporter of the organization over four decades and a member of the prominent Widener family of Philadelphia. The Corps of Cadets disbanded; the School of Law was acquired in 1975, split in 2015 to become two separate law schools: one on the Delaware campus and another in Harrisburg.
In recognition of its comprehensive offerings, Widener College became Widener University in 1979. Today, Widener is a four-campus university offering more than 80 programs of study; the Manor House was designed and built by Jonathan Edwards Woodbridge in 1888 at 14th and Potter Street. It was a wedding gift to his wife, Louise Deshong, was named "The Louise", it was modeled after the late 19th-century English country manor style and is unique for its hand-made brick construction. The house was given to the city of Chester as a home for young women. In 1976, Widener University purchased the home for use as a student residence, it became home to the Phi Sigma Sigma Sorority. The home is used by Widener University as a student dormitory; the Old Main and Chemistry Building were listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1978. Throughout its long history, the university has undergone several name changes; the following table details the various names Widener has held over the years as well as any significant organizational changes that occurred during each period.
Widener consists of four campuses, the Main Campus in Chester, plus campuses in Wilmington, Harrisburg and Exton, Pennsylvania. Founded in 1866 after the school moved to Chester, the 108-acre main campus consists of over 100 buildings and serves all undergraduate day students as well as Continuing Studies, Osher Lifelong Learning Institute students, graduate students. Widener's graduate programs include business, engineering, social work, physical therapy, clinical psychology; the School of Law, which opened in 1976 on the Delaware Campus, consists of 16 buildings across 40 acres and is 12 miles from the Main Campus. It contains the School of Law as well as the Legal Education Institute; some classes for Continuing Studies students and graduate business students are held here. The 21-acre Harrisburg Campus, opening in 1989, contains the School of Law and has graduate programs in nursing and social work held there. In July 2015, Widener School of Law, which used to be one school sitting on the Delaware and Harrisburg campuses, split to become Delaware Law School in Wilmington and Widener Law Commonwealth in Harrisburg.
Starting in 2004, the Exton Camp
NCAA Division II Football Championship
The NCAA Division II Football Championship is an American college football tournament played annually to determine a champion at the NCAA Division II level. It was first held as a single-elimination tournament with eight teams; the tournament field has subsequently been expanded three times. The National Championship game has been held in seven different cities; the 2018 game will be played at the McKinney ISD Stadium and Community Event Center in McKinney, Texas. Since 1994, the games have been broadcast on ESPN. Prior to 1973, for what was called the "NCAA College Division," champions were selected by polls conducted at the end of each regular season by two major wire services. Polls were conducted by the Associated Press and United Press International at the end of each regular season; the AP would poll a panel of writers. National champions by polling While the NCAA started Division II playoffs in 1973, AP and UPI still conducted their polls these years. Since 1973, a post-season tournament has been held to determine the Division II Champion.
The current format, in use since 2016, features 28 teams. The 28 teams are organized into 4 super-regions of 7 teams each, the top-seeded team in each super-region gets a bye during the first round; the champions of the four super-regions meet in the semi-final round, the winners of the two semi-final games meet in a neutral-site championship game. Prior to the championship game itself, the game is held at the higher-seeded team's stadium; the championship game has been played at several sites through history, starting in 2018 it will be held at the McKinney Independent School District Stadium, a 12,000 seat facility that opened in August, 2018. † Mississippi College's 1989 tournament participation, along with its championship, were vacated by the NCAA Committee on Infractions. Most of the participants in early national championship games have moved into Division I, the main catalyst for their moves being the creation of Division I-AA, now the Division I Football Championship Subdivision, in 1978.
The following Division II title game participants moved to Division I: From 1964 to 1972, four regional bowl games were played in order to provide postseason action, however these games took place after the AP and UPI polls were completed, therefore these games did not factor in selecting a national champion for the College Division. The bowl games were: Winners of regional bowls From 1973 to 1977, some of the tournament games were known by bowl names. From 1973 through 1975, the two semifinal games were the Grantland Rice Bowl and the Pioneer Bowl, while the final game was the Camellia Bowl. In 1976 and 1977, the two semifinal games were the Grantland Rice Bowl and the Knute Rockne Bowl, while the final game was the Pioneer Bowl. College football national championships in NCAA Division I FBS NCAA Division I Football Championship NCAA Division I FCS Consensus Mid-Major Football National Championship NCAA Division III Football Championship NAIA National Football Championship NJCAA National Football Championship List of college bowl games NCAA Division II Football Championship history
College football is American football played by teams of student athletes fielded by American universities and military academies, or Canadian football played by teams of student athletes fielded by Canadian universities. It was through college football play that American football rules first gained popularity in the United States. Unlike most other sports in North America, no minor league farm organizations exist in American or Canadian football. Therefore, college football is considered to be the second tier of American football in the United States and Canadian football in Canada. However, in some areas of the country, college football is more popular than professional football, for much of the early 20th century, college football was seen as more prestigious than professional football, it is in college football where a player's performance directly impacts his chances of playing professional football. The best collegiate players will declare for the professional draft after three to four years of collegiate competition, with the NFL holding its annual draft every spring in which 256 players are selected annually.
Those not selected can still attempt to land an NFL roster spot as an undrafted free agent. After the emergence of the professional National Football League, college football remained popular throughout the U. S. Although the college game has a much larger margin for talent than its pro counterpart, the sheer number of fans following major colleges provides a financial equalizer for the game, with Division I programs — the highest level — playing in huge stadiums, six of which have seating capacity exceeding 100,000 people. In many cases, college stadiums employ bench-style seating, as opposed to individual seats with backs and arm rests; this allows them to seat more fans in a given amount of space than the typical professional stadium, which tends to have more features and comforts for fans.. College athletes, unlike players in the NFL, are not permitted by the NCAA to be paid salaries. Colleges are only allowed to provide non-monetary compensation such as athletic scholarships that provide for tuition and books.
Modern North American football has its origins in various games, all known as "football", played at public schools in Great Britain in the mid-19th century. By the 1840s, students at Rugby School were playing a game in which players were able to pick up the ball and run with it, a sport known as Rugby football; the game was taken to Canada by British soldiers stationed there and was soon being played at Canadian colleges. The first documented gridiron football match was played at University College, a college of the University of Toronto, November 9, 1861. One of the participants in the game involving University of Toronto students was William Mulock Chancellor of the school. A football club was formed at the university soon afterward, although its rules of play at this stage are unclear. In 1864, at Trinity College a college of the University of Toronto, F. Barlow Cumberland and Frederick A. Bethune devised rules based on rugby football. Modern Canadian football is regarded as having originated with a game played in Montreal, in 1865, when British Army officers played local civilians.
The game gained a following, the Montreal Football Club was formed in 1868, the first recorded non-university football club in Canada. Early games appear to have had much in common with the traditional "mob football" played in Great Britain; the games remained unorganized until the 19th century, when intramural games of football began to be played on college campuses. Each school played its own variety of football. Princeton University students played a game called "ballown" as early as 1820. A Harvard tradition known as "Bloody Monday" began in 1827, which consisted of a mass ballgame between the freshman and sophomore classes. In 1860, both the town police and the college authorities agreed; the Harvard students responded by going into mourning for a mock figure called "Football Fightum", for whom they conducted funeral rites. The authorities held firm and it was a dozen years before football was once again played at Harvard. Dartmouth played its own version called "Old division football", the rules of which were first published in 1871, though the game dates to at least the 1830s.
All of these games, others, shared certain commonalities. They remained "mob" style games, with huge numbers of players attempting to advance the ball into a goal area by any means necessary. Rules were simple and injury were common; the violence of these mob-style games led to a decision to abandon them. Yale, under pressure from the city of New Haven, banned the play of all forms of football in 1860. American football historian Parke H. Davis described the period between 1869 and 1875 as the'Pioneer Period'. On November 6, 1869, Rutgers University faced Princeton University in the first-ever game of intercollegiate football, it was played with a round ball and, like all early games, used a set of rules suggested by Rutgers captain William J. Leggett, based
The Citrus Bowl is an annual college football bowl game played at Camping World Stadium in Orlando, Florida. The bowl is operated by Florida Citrus Sports, a non-profit group that organizes the Camping World Bowl and Florida Classic; the game was first played as the Tangerine Bowl in 1947 before being renamed as the Florida Citrus Bowl in 1983. When Capital One was the game's title sponsor between 2001 to 2014, the game was referred to as the Capital One Bowl from 2003 to 2014. Other previous sponsors include CompUSA, Ourhouse.com, Buffalo Wild Wings and Overton's. Presently, it is being sponsored by VRBO, a vacation rental marketplace, is known as the VRBO Citrus Bowl. Since becoming one of the premier bowls, the Citrus Bowl is played at 1 p.m. EST on New Year's Day before the Rose Bowl, both of which have been televised on ESPN since 2011; when January 1 is a Sunday, the game has been played on January 2 or December 31, to avoid conflicting with the National Football League schedule. As of 2015, at $4.25 million per team, it has the largest payout of all the non-College Football Playoff bowls.
In nearly every year since 1985, the game has featured two teams ranked in the Top 25. The game, which began play in 1947, is one of the oldest of the non-CFP bowls, along with the Gator Bowl and Sun Bowl. By 1952, the game was dubbed the "Little Bowl with the Big Heart", because all the proceeds from the game went to charity. Before 1968, the game featured matchups between schools throughout the South featuring the Ohio Valley Conference champion or other small colleges, although a few major colleges did play in the bowl during this early era as well. From 1964 through 1967, it was one of the four regional finals in the College Division, along with the Pecan, Grantland Rice, Camellia bowls. In 1968, the Boardwalk Bowl in Atlantic City took over as a regional final, the Tangerine Bowl became a major college bowl game, featuring teams from the University Division. In 1986, it was one of the bowl games considered for the site of the "winner take all" national championship game between Penn State and Miami, before the Fiesta Bowl was chosen.
The 1990 season game had national championship implications. The 1997 season game, which featured nearby Florida beating Penn State, holds the game's attendance record at 72,940. In 2004, the bowl bid to become the fifth BCS game, but was not chosen due to the stadium's aging condition. In July 2007, the Orange County Commissioners voted in favor of spending $1.1 billion to build the Amway Center for the Orlando Magic, the Dr. Phillips Center for the Performing Arts, to upgrade the Citrus Bowl stadium. Following the 2014 game, Capital One ceased its sponsorship of the bowl, moved its sponsorship to the Orange Bowl. Buffalo Wild Wings was announced as the new title sponsor of the bowl game in 2014. Buffalo Wild Wings had been the title sponsor of what is now the Cactus Bowl. In the offseason of 2017, Buffalo Wild Wings ceased sponsoring the bowl as the search for a new sponsor is ongoing; the 2016 season game was played on December 31, the first time in 30 years that the game was not played on January 1st or 2nd.
From 1968 through 1975, the bowl featured the Mid-American Conference champion against an opponent from the Southern Conference, the Southeastern Conference, or an at-large opponent. MAC teams were 6–2 during those games; as the major football conferences relaxed restrictions on post-season play in the mid-1970s, the bowl went to a matchup between two at-large teams from major conferences, with one school from the South. From the 1987 season through the 1991 season, the bowl featured the Atlantic Coast Conference champion against an at-large opponent. ACC teams were 3–2 during those games. From the 1992 season through the 2015 season, the bowl featured an SEC vs. Big Ten matchup – the SEC won 14 of those games, while the Big Ten won 10. During the 1990s, the second-place finisher in the SEC went to this bowl. Florida coach Steve Spurrier, speaking to the fact that Tennessee occupied that spot three of four years as Florida finished first, famously quipped "You can't spell'Citrus' without U-T!"Currently, the bowl has tie-ins with the SEC and the Big Ten, holding the first selection after the CFP selection process for both conferences.
Since the formation of the CFP, the Citrus Bowl has a chance to host an ACC team, replacing the Big Ten representative. This will happen the years in which the Orange Bowl is not a CFP semi-final game and selects a Big Ten team to match against their ACC team; this happened following the 2016 season, as the Orange Bowl was not a CFP semi-final and invited Michigan of the Big Ten to face Florida State of the ACC. The next year, Wisconsin was invited to the Orange Bowl, so the SEC's LSU was pitted against Notre Dame, who received an invite in lieu of an ACC team; the undefeated 1955 Hillsdale College football team refused an invitation to the game when bowl officials insisted that Hillsdale's four African-American players would not be allowed to play in the game. The University at Buffalo's first bowl bid was to the Tangerine Bowl in 1958; the Tangerine Bowl Commission hoped that the Orlando High School Athletic Association, which operated the stadium, would waive its rule that prohibited integrated sporting events.
When it refused, the team unanimously voted to skip the bowl because its two black players (ha
Atlantic City, New Jersey
Atlantic City is a resort city in Atlantic County, New Jersey, United States, known for its casinos and beaches. In 2010, the city had a population of 39,558, it was incorporated on May 1854, from portions of Egg Harbor Township and Galloway Township. It borders Absecon, Pleasantville, Ventnor City, Egg Harbor Township, the Atlantic Ocean. Atlantic City inspired the U. S. version of the board game Monopoly the street names. Since 1921, Atlantic City has been the home of the Miss America pageant. In 1976, New Jersey voters legalized casino gambling in Atlantic City; the first casino opened two years later. Because of its location in South Jersey, hugging the Atlantic Ocean between marshlands and islands, Atlantic City was viewed by developers as prime real estate and a potential resort town. In 1853, the first commercial hotel, the Belloe House, was built at the intersection of Massachusetts and Atlantic Avenues; the city was incorporated in 1854, the same year in which the Camden and Atlantic Railroad train service began.
Built on the edge of the bay, this served as the direct link of this remote parcel of land with Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. That same year, construction of the Absecon Lighthouse, designed by George Meade of the Corps of Topographical Engineers, was approved, with work initiated the next year. By 1874 500,000 passengers a year were coming to Atlantic City by rail. In Boardwalk Empire: The Birth, High Times, Corruption of Atlantic City, "Atlantic City's Godfather" Nelson Johnson describes the inspiration of Dr. Jonathan Pitney to develop Atlantic City as a health resort, his efforts to convince the municipal authorities that a railroad to the beach would be beneficial, his successful alliance with Samuel Richards to achieve that goal, the actual building of the railroad, the experience of the first 600 riders, who "were chosen by Samuel Richards and Jonathan Pitney": After arriving in Atlantic City, a second train brought the visitors to the door of the resort's first public lodging, the United States Hotel.
The hotel was owned by the railroad. It was a sprawling, four-story structure built to house 2,000 guests, it opened while it was still under construction, with only one wing standing, that wasn't completed. By year's end, when it was constructed, the United States Hotel was not only the first hotel in Atlantic City but the largest in the nation, its rooms totaled more than 600, its grounds covered some 14 acres. The first boardwalk was built in 1870 along a portion of the beach in an effort to help hotel owners keep sand out of their lobbies. Businesses were restricted and the boardwalk was removed each year at the end of the peak season; because of its effectiveness and popularity, the boardwalk was expanded in length and width, modified several times in subsequent years. The historic length of the boardwalk, before the destructive 1944 Great Atlantic Hurricane, was about 7 miles and it extended from Atlantic City to Longport, through Ventnor and Margate; the first road connecting the city to the mainland at Pleasantville was completed in 1870 and charged a 30-cent toll.
Albany Avenue was the first road to the mainland available without a toll. By 1878, because of the growing popularity of the city, one railroad line could no longer keep up with demand. Soon, the Philadelphia and Atlantic City Railway was constructed to transport tourists to Atlantic City. At this point massive hotels like The United States and Surf House, as well as smaller rooming houses, had sprung up all over town; the United States Hotel took up a full city block between Atlantic, Pacific and Maryland Avenues. These hotels were not only impressive in size, but featured the most updated amenities, were considered quite luxurious for their time. In the early part of the 20th century, Atlantic City went through a radical building boom. Many of the modest boarding houses that dotted the boardwalk were replaced with large hotels. Two of the city's most distinctive hotels were the Marlborough-Blenheim Hotel and the Traymore Hotel. In 1903, Josiah White III bought a parcel of land near Ohio Avenue and the boardwalk and built the Queen Anne style Marlborough House.
The hotel was a success and, in 1905–06, he chose to expand the hotel and bought another parcel of land adjacent to his Marlborough House. In an effort to make his new hotel a source of conversation, White hired the architectural firm of Price and McLanahan; the firm made use of reinforced concrete, a new building material invented by Jean-Louis Lambot in 1848. The hotel's Spanish and Moorish themes, capped off with its signature dome and chimneys, represented a step forward from other hotels that had a classically designed influence. White merged the two hotels into the Marlborough-Blenheim. Bally's Atlantic City was constructed at this location; the Traymore Hotel was located at the corner of the boardwalk. Begun in 1879 as a small boarding house, the hotel grew through a series of uncoordinated expansions. By 1914, the hotel's owner, Daniel White, taking a hint from the Marlborough-Blenheim, commissioned the firm of Price and McLanahan to build an bigger hotel. Rising 16 stories, the tan brick and gold-capped hotel would become one of the city's best-known landmarks.
The hotel made use of ocean-facing hotel rooms by jutting its wings farther from the main portion of the hotel along Pacific Avenue. One by one, additional large hotels were constructed along the boardwalk, including the Brighton, Shelburne, Ritz Carlton, Madison House, the Breakers. The
Boardwalk Hall known as the Historic Atlantic City Convention Hall, is an arena in Atlantic City, Atlantic County, New Jersey, United States. It was Atlantic City's primary convention center until the opening of the Atlantic City Convention Center in 1997. Boardwalk Hall was declared a U. S. National Historic Landmark in 1987; the venue seats 10,500 people for ice hockey, at maximum capacity can accommodate 14,770 for concerts. Boardwalk Hall is the home of the Miss America Pageant. Boardwalk Hall contains the world's largest musical instrument, a pipe organ of over 33,000 pipes, eight chambers, its console the world's largest of seven manuals and over 1000 stop keys, one of two 64-foot stops. Included in this organ are pipes operating on 100 inches of pressure, the Grand Ophicleide being the loudest and most famous; the Guinness Book of World Records states the following "... a pure trumpet note of ear-splitting volume... six times louder than the loudest train whistle." However, these stops are well-refined and are not overpowering in Boardwalk Hall due to its huge interior.
Edward L. Bader, mayor of Atlantic City from 1924–1929, led the initiative to acquire the land for Convention Hall, now Boardwalk Hall, construction was underway at the time of his death; the hall, designed by the architectural firm Lockwood Greene, was built in 1926. The main hall measures 456 by 310 feet; the barrel vault ceiling is 137 feet high. Ten pairs of three-hinged steel trusses support this unusually large clear span; each pair of trusses weighs 220 short tons. The trusses are tied to the frame columns to allow the building to flex with wind and ground pressure; the barrel ceiling consists of painted aluminum tiles. It is decorated to resemble Roman bath tiles, extends over 196,000 square feet; the Miss America Pageant, founded in 1921 in Atlantic City, used Boardwalk Hall from the hall's opening in 1940 until 2006. The Pageant returned to the hall in 2013, it was the venue for the August 1964 Democratic National Convention that nominated U. S. President Lyndon B. Johnson as the Democratic Party's candidate for the 1964 U.
S. presidential election, nine months after the assassination of his predecessor, John F. Kennedy, in November 1963; the following weekend, The Beatles held one of their largest concerts on their first U. S. tour at the hall. The hall was the venue for the concert by The Rolling Stones on their Steel Wheels Tour in 1989; the concert, shown on pay-per-view television, is remembered by fans for a mishap where viewers were cut off from the performance during the song " Satisfaction". On March 7, 2003, Bruce Springsteen and the E Street Band performed. Tickets for the event were sold-out. Springsteen returned to perform a solo show on his Devils & Dust Tour on November 13, 2005. On August 16, 2003 Justin Timberlake and Christina Aguilera were supposed to perform at the Boardwalk Hall, but due to a major stage collapse the show was postponed. On February 4, 2006, Bon Jovi from New Jersey performed for the Have a Nice Day Tour. Phish played three nights at Boardwalk Hall for Halloween in both 2010 and 2013.
The 2010 Halloween concert featured a performance of Little Feat's Waiting For Columbus album in its entirety. The 2013 show included the debut of Phish's unrecorded album Wingsuit, which would become the album Fuego. Jennifer Lopez performed a sold out show in front of 11,220 people during her Dance Again World Tour on July 29, 2012 American pop star Madonna performed at the venue four times, with the first sold-out show at arena in front of 12,322 people during her Confessions Tour on July 16, 2006, she performed the second show in front of 13,293 people during her Sticky & Sweet Tour on November 22, 2008, the third show in front of 12,207 people during her MDNA Tour on September 15, 2012, The fourth and last time in front of 9,498 people during her Rebel Heart Tour on October 3, 2015. Britney Spears performed a sold out show in December 2001, again for her Femme Fatale Tour on August 6, 2011. Lady Gaga was scheduled to perform here on March 2, 2013 for her Born This Way Ball, but the show was cancelled due to a hip injury which required surgery.
She has performed at the arena on July 4, 2010 and February 19, 2011 as a part of her Monster Ball Tour. She performed a sold out show on June 2014 for her Artrave: The Artpop Ball Tour. Beyoncé performed at the venue for the first time on The Mrs. Carter Show World Tour; the show sold out within its first few days of sales and took place on July 26, 2013. Journey and Rascal Flatts made a stop at the hall for one-night shows. On May 22, 2015, The Who stopped at the Hall to celebrate their 50th anniversary on their tour, The Who Hits 50! Mike Tyson fought in Boardwalk Hall several times as Heavyweight champion including four of his seven defenses as Undisputed Champion. Among his title defenses in Boardwalk Hall was a Fourth Round TKO over former champion Larry Holmes on January 22, 1988, his most famous bout at the venue was the 91 second Knockout of former champion and undefeated Michael Spinks on June 27, 1988. On April 19, 1991, Undisputed Heavyweight Champion Evander Holyfield defeated former champion George Foreman in his first title defense.
Other fighters who have had boxing matches in Boardwalk Hall include Sugar Ray Leonard, Oscar De La Hoya, Roberto Duran, Lennox Lewis, Roy Jones Jr. Floyd Mayweather Jr. Bernard Hopkins, Riddick Bowe, Julio César Chávez, Héctor Camacho, Micky Ward, Arturo Gatti. In September 2007, it was the venue for the Kelly Pavlik - Jerma