A boat is a watercraft of a large range of types and sizes, but smaller than a ship, distinguished by its larger size, cargo or passenger capacity, or its ability to carry boats. Small boats are found on inland waterways such as rivers and lakes, or in protected coastal areas. However, some boats, such as the whaleboat, were intended for use in an offshore environment. In modern naval terms, a boat is a vessel small enough to be carried aboard a ship. Anomalous definitions exist, as lake freighters 1,000 feet long on the Great Lakes are called "boats". Boats vary in proportion and construction methods with their intended purpose, available materials, or local traditions. Canoes have been used since prehistoric times and remain in use throughout the world for transportation and sport. Fishing boats vary in style to match local conditions. Pleasure craft used in recreational boating include ski boats, pontoon boats, sailboats. House boats may be used for long-term residence. Lighters are used to convey cargo to and from large ships unable to get close to shore.
Lifeboats have safety functions. Boats can be propelled by manpower and motor. Boats have served as transportation since the earliest times. Circumstantial evidence, such as the early settlement of Australia over 40,000 years ago, findings in Crete dated 130,000 years ago, in Flores dated to 900,000 years ago, suggest that boats have been used since prehistoric times; the earliest boats are thought to have been dugouts, the oldest boats found by archaeological excavation date from around 7,000–10,000 years ago. The oldest recovered boat in the world, the Pesse canoe, found in the Netherlands, is a dugout made from the hollowed tree trunk of a Pinus sylvestris, constructed somewhere between 8200 and 7600 BC; this canoe is exhibited in the Drents Museum in Netherlands. Other old dugout boats have been recovered. Rafts have operated for at least 8,000 years. A 7,000-year-old seagoing reed. Boats were used between 4000 and 3000 BC in the Indian Ocean. Boats played an important role in the commerce between the Indus Valley Civilization and Mesopotamia.
Evidence of varying models of boats has been discovered at various Indus Valley archaeological sites. Uru craft originate in Beypore, a village in south Calicut, Kerala, in southwestern India; this type of mammoth wooden ship was constructed of teak, with a transport capacity of 400 tonnes. The ancient Arabs and Greeks used such boats as trading vessels; the historians Herodotus, Pliny the Elder and Strabo record the use of boats for commerce and military purposes. Boats can be categorized into three main types: human-powered. Unpowered craft include rafts meant for one-way downstream travel. Human-powered boats include canoes, kayaks and boats propelled by poles like a punt. Sailboats, propelled by means of sails. Motorboats, propelled by mechanical means, such as engines; the hull is the main, in some cases only, structural component of a boat. It provides both buoyancy; the keel is a boat's "backbone", a lengthwise structural member to which the perpendicular frames are fixed. On most boats a deck covers the hull, in whole.
While a ship has several decks, a boat is unlikely to have more than one. Above the deck are lifelines connected to stanchions, bulwarks topped by gunnels, or some combination of the two. A cabin may protrude above the deck forward, along the centerline, or covering much of the length of the boat. Vertical structures dividing the internal spaces are known as bulkheads; the forward end of a boat is called the aft end the stern. Facing forward the right side is referred to as starboard and the left side as port; until the mid-19th century most boats were made of natural materials wood, although reed and animal skins were used. Early boats include the bound-reed style of boat seen in Ancient Egypt, the birch bark canoe, the animal hide-covered kayak and coracle and the dugout canoe made from a single log. By the mid-19th century, many boats had been built with iron or steel frames but still planked in wood. In 1855 ferro-cement boat construction was patented by the French, who coined the name "ferciment".
This is a system by which a steel or iron wire framework is built in the shape of a boat's hull and covered over with cement. Reinforced with bulkheads and other internal structure it is strong but heavy repaired, and, if sealed properly, will not leak or corrode; these materials and methods were copied all over the world and have faded in and out of popularity to the present time. As the forests of Britain and Europe continued to be over-harvested to supply the keels of larger wooden boats, the Bessemer process cheapened the cost of steel, steel ships and boats began to be more common. By the 1930s boats built of steel from frames to plating were seen replacing wooden boats in many industrial uses and fishing fleets. Private recreational boats of steel remain uncommon. In 1895 WH Mullins produced steel boats of galvanized iron and by 1930 became the world's largest producer of pleasure boats. Mullins offered boats in aluminum from 1895 through 1899 and once again in the 1920s, but it wasn't until the mid-20th century that aluminium gained widespread popularity.
Though much more expensive than steel, aluminum alloys exist that do not corrode in salt water, allowing a similar load carrying capacity to steel at much less weight. Around the mid-1960s, boats made of fiberglass became popular, e
Elections to East Lothian Council will be held on 4 May 2017 on the same day as the other Scottish local government elections. The election will consist of 6 wards electing three or four Councillors using the single transferable vote system a form of proportional representation, with 22 Councillors elected; this election features revised ward boundaries to three wards resulting in the reduction of the number of East Lothian councillors from 23 to 22. Two former Musselburgh wards are being merged and will lose Wallyford and Whitecraig with 4 councillors to be elected; the bulk of the previous Fa'side ward will become Tranent/Wallyford/Macmerry. Haddington and Lammermuir ward expands with the addition of Ormiston and Pencaitland and gains a councillor. Note: "Votes" are the first preference votes; the net gain/loss and percentage changes relate to the result of the previous Scottish local elections on 3 May 2012. This may differ from other published sources showing gain/loss relative to seats held at dissolution of Scotland's councils.
2012: Musselburgh West Musselburgh East and Carberry 2017: 2xSNP 1xConservative 1xLab 2012-2017 Change: 2 wards combined due to ward change resulting in one less councillor for Musselburgh. Conservative gain one seat. 2012: 2xLabour 2xSNP 2017: 2xLabour 1xSNP 1xCON 2012-2017 Change: Conservative gain one seat from SNP 2012: 3xLabour 1xSNP 2017: 2xLabour 1xSNP 1xConservative 2012-2017 Change: Conservatives gain one seat from Labour 2012: 1xLabour 1xConservative 1xSNP 2017: 2xCon 1xLabour 2012-2017 Change: Conservatives gain one seat from SNP 2012: 1xConservative 1xLabour 1xSNP 2017: 1xConservative 2xLabour 1xSNP 2012-2017 Change: No change 2012: 1xLabour 1xConservative 1xSNP 2017: 1xLabour 1xConservative 1xSNP 2012-2017 Change: No change † On 26 February 2019 Haddington and Lammermuir Councillor Brian Small resigned his seat. A by-election followed was held on 9 May 2019; the seat was won by Craig Hoy of the Conservative Party
James Diament Westcott, III known as James Diament Westcott, Jr. was an American politician from the state of Florida who served as the 19th Justice of the Florida Supreme Court. Westcott was born in the city of Tallahassee in the Florida Territory on either May 1, 1838 or June 18, 1838. Westcott is the son of James Westcott, an early Florida politician who would serve as its U. S. Senator. Although Westcott is the third in his family to share the name, he used the "Jr." suffix rather than the "III" suffix throughout his life. Westcott studied at the West Florida Seminary. In 1858, Westcott became the Assistant Secretary of the Florida Senate; the following year, he became the private secretary of Governor Madison S. Perry. During the American Civil War, served as an officer in the Confederate States Army, serving in the 1st Florida Infantry under the command of Brigadier General James Patton Anderson. Westcott attained the rank of Captain. After his retirement from the Confederate States Army in 1864, Westcott served as the clerk of the C.
S. District Court for Florida. After the end of the war, Westcott was elected to the Florida House of Representatives, representing Leon County, in 1866, though he would resign that year. In the 1868 elections, Westcott, a Democrat ran for Florida Attorney General; this is despite the fact that both the 1868 Presidential election and 1868 Florida Governor election were both landslides for the Republican Party as a result of the 1868 Florida Constitution enfranchising freedmen, who registered as Republicans. Additionally, many former Confederates Democrats, were still disenfranchised as part of Reconstruction. Within a few weeks of assuming office as Attorney General in July 1868, Westcott was appointed to the Florida Supreme Court by Republican Governor Harrison Reed, making him the youngest justice in the Court's history. Despite their political differences, Reed saw potential in appointing Westcott to the Supreme Court. For one, it was important for Reed to appease the Southern Democrats by appointing one of their own to the Court, as it was filled with carpetbagger Republicans.
Additionally, Westcott's friendly disposition on the one hand and thoroughness in researching the law and precedent on the other made in invaluable to the Court, earned him respect from members of both parties. During his time on the Court, Westcott wrote 267 decisions, more than any other Justice up to that time except for Chief Justice Edwin M. Randall. In 1872, incumbent Republican U. S. Senator Thomas W. Osborn did not run for re-election. Westcott ran receiving the Democratic nomination. However, Westcott lost in the general election to Republican Simon B. Conover as a result of the continuing Republican wave during Reconstruction. Westcott continued to serve on the Florida Supreme Court until illness forced him to resign in 1885. Westcott died in Tallahassee, Florida on April 19, 1887 from the same illness that forced him to resign just two years earlier. Westcott is buried in Tallahassee's Old City Cemetery. Westcott, a lifelong bachelor, left his entire estate to his Alma mater, the West Florida Seminary, struggling at the time.
In part thanks to his contribution, the college survived to become Florida State University. In December 1936, Florida State University renamed the Administration Building to the James D. Westcott Jr. Memorial Building. James Westcott Westcott Building