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A boatswain, bo's'n, bos'n, or bosun known as a Petty Officer, deck boss, or a qualified member of the deck department, is the seniormost rate of the deck department and is responsible for the components of a ship's hull. The boatswain supervises the other members of the ship's deck department, is not a watchstander, except on vessels with small crews. Additional duties vary depending upon ship and circumstances; the word boatswain has been in the English language since 1450. It is derived from late Old English batswegen, from bat concatenated with Old Norse sveinn, meaning a young man, apprentice, a follower, retainer or servant. Directly translated to modern Norwegian it would be båtsvenn, while the actual crew title in Norwegian is båtsmann. While the phonetic spelling bosun is reported as having been observed since 1868, this latter spelling was used in Shakespeare's The Tempest written in 1611, as Bos'n in editions; the rank of boatswain is the oldest rank in the Royal Navy, its origins can be traced back to the year 1040.

In that year, when five English ports began furnishing warships to King Edward the Confessor in exchange for certain privileges, they furnished crews whose officers were the master, boatswain and cook. These officers were "warranted" by the British Admiralty, they were the standing officers of the navy. The boatswain was the officer responsible for the care of the rigging, anchors, boats and other stores; the Royal Navy's last official boatswain, Commander E W Andrew OBE, retired in 1990. The rank of cadet boatswain, in some schools, is the second highest rank in the combined cadet force naval section that a cadet can attain, below the rank of coxswain and above the rank of leading hand, it is equivalent to the rank of colour sergeant in the royal marines cadets. The boatswain works in a ship's deck department as the foreman of the unlicensed deck crew. Sometimes, the boatswain is a third or fourth mate. A boatswain must be skilled in all matters of marlinespike seamanship required for working on deck of a seagoing vessel.

The boatswain is distinguished from other able seamen by the supervisory roles: planning and assigning work. As deck crew foreman, the boatswain assigns tasks to the deck crew; as work is completed, the boatswain checks on completed work for compliance with approved operating procedures. Outside the supervisory role, the boatswain inspects the vessel and performs a variety of routine and semi-skilled duties to maintain all areas of the ship not maintained by the engine department; these duties can include cleaning and maintaining the vessel's hull and deck equipment as well as executing a formal preventive maintenance program. A boatswain's skills may include cargo rigging, winch operations, deck maintenance, working aloft, other duties required during deck operations; the boatswain is well versed in the care and handling of lines, has knowledge of knots, bends and splices as needed to perform tasks such as mooring a vessel. The boatswain operates the ship's windlasses when letting go and heaving up anchors.

Moreover, a boatswain may be called upon to lead firefighting efforts or other emergency procedures encountered on board. Effective boatswains are able to integrate their seafarer skills into supervising and communicating with members of deck crew with diverse backgrounds. On board sailing ships the boatswain was in charge of a ship's anchors, colours, deck crew and the ship's boats; the boatswain would be in charge of the rigging while the ship was in dock. The boatswain's technical tasks were modernised with the advent of steam engines and subsequent mechanisation. A boatswain is responsible for doing routine pipes using what is called a boatswain's call. There are specific sounds which can be made with the pipe to indicate various events, such as emergency situations or notifications of meal time. A common slang name for this instrument was the pippity dippity. A number of boatswains and naval boatswains mates have achieved fame. Reuben James and William Wiley are famous for their heroism in the Barbary Wars and are namesakes of the ships USS Reuben James and USS Wiley.

Medal of Honor recipients Francis P. Hammerberg and George Robert Cholister were U. S. Navy boatswain's mates. Victoria Cross recipients John Sheppard, John Sullivan, Henry Curtis, John Harrison were Royal Navy boatswain's mates. There are a handful of boatswains and boatswain's mates in literature; the boatswain in William Shakespeare's The Tempest is a central character in the opening scene, which takes place aboard a ship at sea, appears again in the final scene. Typhoon by Joseph Conrad has a nameless boatswain who tells Captain MacWhirr of a "lump" of men going overboard during the peak of the storm; the character Bill Bobstay in Gilbert and Sullivan's musical comedy H. M. S. Pinafore is alternatively referred to as a "bos'un" and a "boatswain's mate." Another boatswain from literature is Smee from Peter Pan. Lord Byron had a Newfoundland dog named Boatswain. Byron had a monument made for him at Newstead Abbey; the 1907 naval gothic novel The boats of the Glenn Carrig by William Hope Hodgeson features the character of the ship´s “bo´sun” as an important member of the crew and a personal friend to the narrator.

Quartermaster is the highe

Bula (band)

Bula is a Brazilian alternative rock band from Santos, São Paulo, composed by former members of Charlie Brown Jr. and A Banca. The band was conceived in mid-2014 by the remaining members of A Banca, formed in April of the previous year by former members of Charlie Brown Jr. after the death of its vocalist Chorão. Guitarist/lead vocalist Marcão, bassist Helena "Lena" Papini and drummer Bruno Graveto teamed up to continue making music, dubbing their new group "Bula" in reference both to the papal bull and the seal used to authenticate it, the bulla. Graveto's stay on the band was short-lived though, as he was invited to join pop rock band Strike and was replaced by André Pinguim. In November 2014 Bula released Não Estamos Sozinhos, through Deckdisc. Music videos were made for "Doses Gigantes" and "O Sol Dela Brilhou", in the following year they made their breakthrough performance at Lollapalooza. In 2016, André Freitas, who produced Não Estamos Sozinhos, joined them as a second guitarist. In May 2019 the band released Realidade Placebo.

In December they announced on their official Instagram account the departure of Lena Papini. Marco Britto – lead vocals, electric guitar André Pinguim – drums, beatboxing André Freitas – electric guitar Bruno Graveto – drums Helena "Lena" Papini – bass guitar Official website

Operation Darkhorse

Operation Darkhorse was an offensive against the Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters launched by the Armed Forces of the Philippines on January 27, 2014. The fighting broke just as the normalization annex of the Bangsamoro Framework Agreement was signed between the Philippine government and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front. Col. Dickson Hermoso, spokesman of the Army’s 6th Infantry Division, claimed that the offensive was not related to the signing of the annex of the peace treaty and said that the government has been collaborating with the MILF to launch an offensive against the BIFF before the signing of the annex; the government offensive was part of an effort to arrest various BIFF leaders including its leader, Umbra Kato for various crimes. The Philippine National Police has issued a warrant of arrest for various BIFF leaders. Hermoso described the offensive as a "law enforcement" effort by government forces; the offensive is part of Joint Ad Hoc Joint Action Group, a joint effort by the Philippine government and the MILF to eliminate lawless elements from MILF communities.

Philippine military launched an artillery attack on BIFF targets with 105-mm howitzers. The military conducted airstrikes. At least 20 BIFF members were killed according to the government. BIFF spokesperson, Abu Misry Mama denied. BIFF spokesman, Abu Misry Mama said, he said. He said that the government keeps sending heavily-armed forces to their communities on which he said forces the BIFF to retaliate; the BIFF wants a "straight to the point" and "direct" peace negotiation compared to the negotiations between the Philippine Government and the MILF, according to the spokesman. Mama added. Col Dickson Hermoso, spokesman of the 6th Infantry Division, turned down the BIFF's request for negotiations and said that the BIFF must first face criminal charges against them. Lt. Col. Ramon Zagala, Armed Forces public affairs office chief said that government forces has seized at least five strategic BIFF camps, he identified the following locations. The casualties according to government forces includes 53 BIFF fighters, including 3 child soldiers and one soldier from the Philippine government side.

The BIFF continues to deny. The government planned to end the offensive on February 1, the second deadline set by the Joint Ad Hoc Joint Action Group. BIFF spokesman Abu Misry Mama said that they torched an armored personnel carrier; the spokesman said that they can't utilize the vehicle due to the lack of roads in their area so they decided to torch the vehicle after removing the 50-caliber machine gun attached to the vehicle Government forces captured the main stronghold of the BIFF in Barangay Ganta, Shariff Saydona Mustapha. The flag of the Philippines was raised at the former BIFF camp; the Armed Forces of the Philippines formally ended Operation Darkhorse. Col. Dickson Hermoso, 6th Infantry Division spokesman, claimed that the government forces has lowered the morale of BIFF fighters following the capture of at least four strategic BIFF camps; the military declared. The military added that their law enforcement operations will continue despite the formal conclusion of Operation Darkhorse.

There is no official confirmation that Ameril Umbra Kato, leader of the BIFF was killed or captured during the military operation. 9,465 families or 35,334 people were displaced due to the clashes, with most of them coming from Shariff Saydona Mustapha, Rajah Buayan, Datu Piang in Maguindanao and Pikit in North Cotabato. Some areas where the displaced persons may need to be rehabilitated; the military has vowed "speedy reconstruction" of affected areas after the conclusion of the military offensive. It was reported that three child soldiers of the BIFF were killed during the operations; the Philippine government condemned the reported use of child soldiers by the BIFF as a violation of human rights


Habib Metropolitan Bank known as HabibMetro, is a Pakistani subsidiary of Swiss bank Habib Bank AG Zurich. It is based in Pakistan; the bank subsequently started its operations. It was founded by the Mohammedali Habib family as government started privatization of banking sector in Pakistan. In 2006, Habib Bank AG Zurich's Pakistan operations were merged into Metropolitan Bank Limited and subsequently renamed as Habib Metropolitan Bank Limited. In 2015, HabibMetro won Asian Development Bank award; the parent bank, Habib Bank AG Zurich has operations in Hong Kong, United Arab Emirates, South Africa, United Kingdom and Canada

Capella Films

Capella Films, Inc. was a film production company founded in 1990 and headquartered in Los Angeles, California. Formed by Hamburg-based Deyhle-Baer Media Holdings, Capella Films constituted the production branch to Capella Intl. which specialised in foreign distribution. Together, Capella Films and Capella Intl. Operated a active production and distribution hub whose partners included Universal Studios, German distributor, Connexion Films, American production arm, Connexion American Media Inc. Bregman-Baer Productions, April-Connexion Films. Capella Films, Inc. formed a $1.3billion acquisition attempt for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer/United Artists in 1997. Capella Films and Capella International company principals were responsible for the financing, and/or production, acquiring of full international or selective territorial rights for the following motion pictures. Capella Intl. Emphasized alternating foreign distribution rights with Universal, which handled a number of their domestic distribution releases during the early nineties.

The company maintained layers of relationships, both contractual and personal, with distributors to the extent that they were co-producers on many exterior films, meaning the net result was profitable ties to selected partners that bypassed the traditional bidding wars that accompanied foreign distribution deals. Critically, the company was structured around occupying multiple sites in the production and distribution chain, in order to better control the development and flow of product and revenue, thereby operate more profitably than their competitors. Capella Films and Capella International company principals were responsible for the financing, and/or production, acquiring of full international or selective territorial rights for the following motion pictures: Ace Ventura: Pet Detective Austin Powers: International Man of Mystery A Business Affair Carlito's Way Dumb and Dumber Four Weddings and A Funeral The Mask My Life Nobody's Fool The Real McCoy The Russian Singer The Shadow Shattered The Surgeon Two Bits Capella Films on IMDb website website


Macroeuphractus is a genus of extinct armadillos from the Late Miocene to Late Pliocene of South America. The genus is noted for its large size, with Macroeuphractus outesi being the largest non-pampathere or glyptodont armadillo discovered, as well as its specializations for carnivory, unique among all xenarthrans. There are three recognised species of Macroeuphractus: M. outesi, M. retusus and M. moreni. The former, the type species, is known from one specimen from the Late Pliocene of Buenos Aires, Argentina; this specimen is composed of a well preserved skull as well as numerous post-cranial elements. It represented a large species at around 100 kilograms. M. retusus is known from a single lower jaw from the Cerro Azul Formation, central Argentina M. moreni is known from various Late Miocene and Pliocene sites in the Río Quinto, Ituzaingó, Epecuén and Saldungaray Formations and the Umala and La Paz Formations, Bolivia Macroeuphractus is traditionally grouped with euphractines. The most recent phylogenetic examinations confirm its status as at least a sister group to euphractines, along with Paleuphractus and Proeuphractus.

Macroeuphractus is one of the few known xenarthrans to have specialised extensively for a carnivorous lifestyle. Modern euphractine armadillos are dedicated omnivores, but Macroeuphractus shows several features that indicate hypercarnivory: large, conical caniniform teeth an enlarged temporal fossa more developed muscles pertaining to the temporalis musculature a deeper rostrum more powerful anterior teeth a deeper and more robust zygomatic arch a greater moment arm of the temporalis muscle than in other armadillosThese features are unusual among xenarthrans but are more in line with predatory mammal groups. Like most armadillos, Macroeuphractus was fossorial, it could dig out small and medium-sized mammals such as caviomorph rodents, small notoungulates and argyrolagoidean paucituberculates. Species like Macroeuphractus outesi were large and had an apex predator status in their faunal communities. Macroeuphractus moreni was a rather widespread species, played a role in various faunal communities in the Miocene and Pliocene epochs of South America, while the other two species had a more limited range in Argentina.

The genus occurs in an epoch where sparassodonts and sebecids entered in decline, was among the various mammal groups to exploit this ecological vacancy prior to the arrival of North American carnivorans in the Pleistocene, alongside giant opossums such as Thylophorops. Nonetheless, Macroeuphractus still co-existed with late surviving sparassodonts such as Thylacosmilus and phorusrhacids like Llallawavis