New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, South Australia to the west, its coast borders the Tasman Sea to the east. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, Australia's most populous city. In September 2018, the population of New South Wales was over 8 million, making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 5.1 million, live in the Greater Sydney area. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen; the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It comprised more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825; the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemen's Land, Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the colony's area was detached to form separate British colonies that became New Zealand and the various states and territories of Australia.
However, the Swan River Colony has never been administered as part of New South Wales. Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal territory, as have the areas now known as the Australian Capital Territory and the Jervis Bay Territory; the prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago. Before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region; the Wodi Wodi people are the original custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. Speaking a variant of the Dharawal language, the Wodi Wodi people lived across a large stretch of land, surrounded by what is now known as Campbelltown, Shoalhaven River and Moss Vale; the Bundjalung people are the original custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the unmapped eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland, now Australia.
In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land "New Wales", named after Wales. However, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he "revised the wording" to "New South Wales"; the first British settlement was made by. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, a new governor, Lieutenant-Colonel Lachlan Macquarie, was sent from Britain to reform the settlement in 1809. During his time as governor, Macquarie commissioned the construction of roads, wharves and public buildings, sent explorers out from Sydney and employed a planner to design the street layout of Sydney. Macquarie's legacy is still evident today. During the 19th century, large areas were successively separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia and Queensland. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855. Following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840.
In 1841 it was separated from the Colony of New South Wales to form the new Colony of New Zealand. Charles Darwin visited Australia in January 1836 and in The Voyage of the Beagle records his hesitations about and fascination with New South Wales, including his speculations about the geological origin and formation of the great valleys, the aboriginal population, the situation of the convicts, the future prospects of the country. At the end of the 19th century, the movement toward federation between the Australian colonies gathered momentum. Conventions and forums involving colony leaders were held on a regular basis. Proponents of New South Wales as a free trade state were in dispute with the other leading colony Victoria, which had a protectionist economy. At this time customs posts were common on borders on the Murray River. Travelling from New South Wales to Victoria in those days was difficult. Supporters of federation included the New South Wales premier Sir Henry Parkes whose 1889 Tenterfield Speech was pivotal in gathering support for New South Wales involvement.
Edmund Barton to become Australia's first Prime Minister, was another strong advocate for federation and a meeting held in Corowa in 1893 drafted an initial constitution. In 1898 popular referenda on the proposed federation were held in New South Wales, South Australia and Tasmania. All votes resulted in a majority in favour, but the New South Wales government under Premier George Reid had set a requirement for a higher "yes" vote than just a simple majority, not met. In 1899 further referenda were held in the same states as well as Queensland. All resulted in yes votes with majorities increased from the previous year. New South Wales met the conditions; as a compromise to the question on where the capital was to be located, an agreement was made that the site was to be within New South Wales but not closer than 100 miles from Sydney, while the provisional capital would be Melbourne. The area that now forms the Australian Capital Territory was ceded by New South Wales when Canberra was selected.
In the years after World War I, the high prices enjoyed durin
Bathurst, New South Wales
Bathurst is a regional city in the Central Tablelands of New South Wales, Australia. It is about 200 kilometres west-northwest of Sydney and is the seat of the Bathurst Regional Council. Bathurst is the oldest inland settlement in Australia and had a population of 35,000 as at the 2016 Census. Bathurst is referred to as the Gold Country as it was the site of the first gold discovery and where the first gold rush occurred in Australia. Today education and manufacturing drive the economy; the internationally known racetrack Mount Panorama is a landmark of the city. Bathurst has a historic city centre with many ornate buildings remaining from the gold rush period of the mid to late 19th century; the median age of the city's population is 35 years. Population growth has reached 1.6% per annum over the five years until 2010, making Bathurst the seventh fastest growing regional city in New South Wales. This growth over recent years has resulted in increased urban development including retail precincts, sporting facilities, housing estates and expanding industrial areas.
Bathurst is located on the western edge of the Great Dividing Range in the Macquarie River plain. The city is located adjacent to the Macquarie River, part of the Murray-Darling basin, the largest river system in Australia; the city is protected by a levee bank to protect the city from occasional flood events. Mount Panorama is located 3 kilometres from the CBD and within the city limits; the Great Western Highway which begins in the centre of the city of Sydney, ends at Bathurst. Two main state highways start at Bathurst: the Mitchell Highway to Bourke and the Mid-Western Highway to Hay. Bathurst is about mid-way along a regional road route from Canberra and Goulburn to Mudgee and the Hunter Region. Bathurst is on the Main Western railway line that starts at Sydney Central and proceeds for 242 kilometres by rail to Bathurst; the Macquarie River divides Bathurst with the CBD located on the western side of the river. Four road bridges and two rail bridges span the river within the city area. From the upstream side they are: Macquarie River Railway Bridge closed in 2011.
Two physical components comprise the Bathurst region. They are drained by the Macquarie, Turon and Campbells Rivers to the north and Abercrombie and Isabella Rivers to the south; the central basin area of the Bathurst area is granite soils while in the north area sandstone, greywacke, siltstones and minor volcanos predominate. The south is more complex geology with siltstones, greywacke and chert, basalt and granite intrusions and embedded volcanic and limestones. Underlying Bathurst is the dominant feature of Bathurst granite and at Mount Panorama and Mount Stewart basalt occurs. Topography of the region ranges from undulating to rough and steep country, about 30 km to the east of Bathurst is the folded and faulted sedimentary and metamorphosed formations of the Great Dividing Range which runs north-south. Due to its elevation, Bathurst has a subtropical highland climate, according to Köppen climate classification. Bathurst is in Australia's cool temperate climate zone, defined as having mild to warm summers and cool to cold winters.
Regular summer thunderstorms are common, resulting from the flat plains country to the west, leading into the mountainous nature of the country around Bathurst and assisting the development of storm cells. Bathurst gets 106.9 clear days annually. In winter, light to moderate snowfalls occur each year on the higher peaks around Bathurst, whilst snow is uncommon in the city itself—despite falling every year. On 11 February 2017, Bathurst recorded a new record high temperature of 41.5 °C, although temperatures of 40 °C are exceedingly rare for Bathurst. Bathurst's central business district is located on William, Howick and Durham Streets; the CBD covers two city blocks. Banking, government services, shopping centres, retail shops, a park and monuments are in this area. Bathurst has retained a mix of main street shopping along with enclosed shopping centres within the CBD, unlike other towns where the CBD focus has split between main street and new shopping centre developments located in the suburbs.
Within the CBD lies Kings Parade. It is a popular location for locals to meet. Keppel Street is Bathurst's second commercial shopping area, removed from the CBD by two blocks to the south; this area developed once the railway arrived in 1876. The main suburbs of Bathurst are: Kelso, West Bathurst, South Bathurst, Gormans Hill, Windradyne Heights and Abercrombie Estate. One of the newer suburbs is Marsden Estate, in Kelso. Bathurst's place in Australia's history is evidenced by the large number of landmark monuments and parks. In the centre of the city is a square known as Kings Parade. A market area from 1849 to 1906, it was redesign
Phillip Island Grand Prix Circuit
The Phillip Island Grand Prix Circuit is a motor racing circuit located near Ventnor, on Phillip Island, Australia. The current circuit was first used in 1956. Motor racing on Phillip Island began in 1928 with the running of the 100 Miles Road Race, an event which has since become known as the first Australian Grand Prix, it utilised a high speed rectangle of local closed-off public roads with four similar right hand corners. The course length varied, with the car course 6 miles per lap, compared to the motorcycle circuit, 10 miles in length; the circuit was the venue for the Australian Grand Prix through to 1935 and it was used for the last time on 6 May 1935 for the Jubilee Day Races. A new 3.312 mile triangular circuit utilising the pit straight from the original rectangular course was subsequently mapped out and first used for the Australian Race Drivers' Cup on 5 November 1935. The final car event on the circuit was held on Cup Day 1938 and the final motorcycle race meeting was conducted on 30 January 1940.
Aside from the Australian Grand Prix races, other significant events staged at the Phillip Island road circuit included: 1934 Phillip Island 100 1934 Winter 100 1934 Victorian Centenary Grand Prix 1935 Centenary 300 1935 Winter 100 1935 Australian Race Drivers' Cup 1936 Victorian Sporting Car Club Trophy 1936 Australian Tourist Trophy 1937 Phillip Island Trophy In 1951, a group of six local businessmen decided to build a new track. About 2 km away from the original circuit, it still bears the corner name signs of the original circuit; as the piece of available land was on the edge of the coast, the track is known for its steep grades – the highest 57 metres – which caused cost overruns and delays in track opening. The new track was opened in 1956 and in 1960 the first Armstrong 500 production car race was held at the circuit. Extensive damage resulted from the running of the 1962 Armstrong 500, with the circuit owners unable to finance repairs, the circuit was closed and the race was moved to the Mount Panorama Circuit at Bathurst in New South Wales, to become known as the Bathurst 1000.
The circuit reopened in October 1967 and hosted the Phillip Island 500K endurance race, a round of the Australian Manufacturers' Championship, from 1971 to 1977. The race was a round of the Australian Touring Car Championship in 1976 and 1977, but again, due to its testing terrain, the circuit required significant maintenance and declined through the 1970s. It was farmed by its owners while closed and was sold in 1985 in preparation for reopening, but did not do so until 1988 after agreement on a long term lease and rebuild agreement. During the time the circuit deteriorated and closed, part of the main problem for its owners was that the main bridge from the island to the Australian mainland could not carry the heavy vehicles needed to resurface the circuit; this meant that the bitumen surface was a cold mix which broke up under the rigours of racing, instead of the standard hot mix which would have allowed a more durable surface. It would not be until the mid-1980s that the bridge would be rebuilt allowing the necessary equipment needed for resurfacing.
The circuit was refurbished with a reduced length of 4.445 kilometres and was reopened on 4 December 1988 for the final round of the 1988 Swann Insurance International Series for motorcycles. In 1989, the Australian Motorcycle Grand Prix joined the F. I. M. Road Racing World Championship calendar for the first time, was held at Phillip Island; the 1989 race saw a race long dice in the 500 cc division between local favourites Wayne Gardner and Kevin Magee, along with Wayne Rainey and Christian Sarron. The race was won by 1987 World Champion Gardner to the delight of the huge crowd. Gardner would make it two in a row at the Island in 1990 before the race moved to Eastern Creek in Sydney for 1991; the Australian Motorcycle Grand Prix would remain at Eastern Creek until it returned permanently to Phillip Island from 1997 onwards. Phillip Island hosted its first Superbike World Championship round in 1990, taking over from Sydney's Oran Park Raceway as the Australian round of the series. Local riders Peter Goddard and Rob Phillis won the two races for what was Round 12 of the season, with Goddard having secured pole position.
The World Superbike round continues to be held annually at Phillip Island to this day. In 1990, the Australian Touring Car Championship returned to the circuit for the first time since 1977, this time as a sprint round. Dick Johnson won the round in his Ford Sierra RS500, in what was to be his final round victory; the event was not held in 1991 or 1992, but was reinstated to the calendar in 1993, with the sprint format continuing every year until 2004. By the ATCC was known as V8 Supercars. After not appearing on the calendar in 2004, from 2005 to 2007, Phillip Island hosted the Grand Finale. In each year, the event decided that year's champion, including in controversial circumstances in 2006. From 2008 to 2011, Phillip Island returned to hosting a 500 km race, this time known for sponsorship reasons as the L&H 500; the Phillip Island 500 replaced Sandown's Sandown 500 as the annual V8 Supercar 500 km race, an event, reinstated for 2012. Since Phillip Island has returned to hosting a sprint round of the championship, which has become known as the Phillip Island Super Sprint.
The Australian Motorcycle Grand Prix has always been more of a promoter event than a profit-raiser in itself. The contract was prolonged until 2026, although tobacco advertising has been banned since 2007. 1951: A significant meeting of six local businessmen decided to re-establish
Boss 302 Mustang
The Mustang Boss 302 is a high-performance variant of the Ford Mustang produced by Ford in 1969 and 1970, alongside its more powerful sibling the Boss 429 Mustang. Ford revived the name for another two year production run in 2012 and 2013, it was produced for the Trans Am racing series. The Camaro/Mustang rivalry had begun in 1967 with the introduction of the Chevrolet Camaro by General Motors; the Camaro was the largest threat to the lead Ford had in the "pony car" field, a market segment created by Ford with the introduction of the Mustang in mid-year 1964. The performance of the Mustang with 289 and 390 engines was not up to the Camaro, with its small block and big block V8. In an effort to improve the Mustang's image Ford made a 428 Cobra Jet V8 and a Ford Boss 302 engine optional for the 1968 mid-year and 1969 models, respectively; the 1969–70 Boss 302 engine was created in 1968 for the SCCA's 1969 Trans-Am road racing series. Available in the Boss 302 Mustangs of 1969–70, it's a unique Ford small-block engine featuring a thin-wall, high nickel content block casting.
It differed from regular 302s, with 4-bolt mains, screw in freeze plugs, heads using a canted valve design being developed for the planned 351 Cleveland. The construction was aided by the two engines sharing a cylinder head bolt pattern, though the Boss 302 heads had to have their coolant passages modified; this optional engine, indeed the entire vehicle package, including handling and aerodynamic aids, was made available for the express purpose of meeting the homologation guidelines to compete in the SCCA Trans-Am series, which limited engine displacement to 305 C. I. D. in order to compete. The Boss 429 Mustang was born in a similar way, except with the intent of homologating Ford's new "semi-HEMI" 429 C. I. D. Engine Tire trouble. 2) Slow pit stops. With Roger Penske as Chevrolet's racing team manager, the pit stops were magically choreographed and organized to perfection; when pit stop times between Mustangs and Camaros are compared, it turns out Ford lost several races "in the pits". Ford was using Firestone brand tires, which gave in trouble in 1969.
In 1970 they switch to Goodyear. The factory effort was headed up by Bud Moore, who fielded two cars in the 1970 season, won the championship that year; the Bud Moore Mustangs edged out Team Penske's Javelins, lead Penske d
A tire or tyre is a ring-shaped component that surrounds a wheel's rim to transfer a vehicle's load from the axle through the wheel to the ground and to provide traction on the surface traveled over. Most tires, such as those for automobiles and bicycles, are pneumatically inflated structures, which provide a flexible cushion that absorbs shock as the tire rolls over rough features on the surface. Tires provide a footprint, designed to match the weight of the vehicle with the bearing strength of the surface that it rolls over by providing a bearing pressure that will not deform the surface excessively; the materials of modern pneumatic tires are synthetic rubber, natural rubber and wire, along with carbon black and other chemical compounds. They consist of a body; the tread provides traction. Before rubber was developed, the first versions of tires were bands of metal fitted around wooden wheels to prevent wear and tear. Early rubber tires were solid. Pneumatic tires are used on many types of vehicles, including cars, motorcycles, trucks, heavy equipment, aircraft.
Metal tires are still used on locomotives and railcars, solid rubber tires are still used in various non-automotive applications, such as some casters, carts and wheelbarrows. The word tire is a short form of attire, from the idea; the spelling tyre does not appear until the 1840s when the English began shrink fitting railway car wheels with malleable iron. Traditional publishers continued using tire; the Times newspaper in Britain was still using tire as late as 1905. The spelling tyre began to be used in the 19th century for pneumatic tires in the UK; the 1911 edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica states that "he spelling'tyre' is not now accepted by the best English authorities, is unrecognized in the US", while Fowler's Modern English Usage of 1926 says that "there is nothing to be said for'tyre', etymologically wrong, as well as needlessly divergent from our own older & the present American usage". However, over the course of the 20th century, tyre became established as the standard British spelling.
The earliest tires were bands of leather iron placed on wooden wheels used on carts and wagons. The tire would be heated in a forge fire, placed over the wheel and quenched, causing the metal to contract and fit on the wheel. A skilled worker, known as a wheelwright, carried out this work; the first patent for what appears to be a standard pneumatic tire appeared in 1847 lodged by the Scottish inventor Robert William Thomson. However, this never went into production; the first practical pneumatic tire was made in 1888 on May Street, Belfast, by Scots-born John Boyd Dunlop, owner of one of Ireland's most prosperous veterinary practices. It was an effort to prevent the headaches of his 10-year-old son Johnnie, while riding his tricycle on rough pavements, his doctor, John Sir John Fagan, had prescribed cycling as an exercise for the boy, was a regular visitor. Fagan participated in designing the first pneumatic tires. Cyclist Willie Hume demonstrated the supremacy of Dunlop's tires in 1889, winning the tire's first-ever races in Ireland and England.
In Dunlop's tire patent specification dated 31 October 1888, his interest is only in its use in cycles and light vehicles. In September 1890, he was made aware of an earlier development but the company kept the information to itself. In 1892, Dunlop's patent was declared invalid because of prior art by forgotten fellow Scot Robert William Thomson of London, although Dunlop is credited with "realizing rubber could withstand the wear and tear of being a tire while retaining its resilience". John Boyd Dunlop and Harvey du Cros together worked through the ensuing considerable difficulties, they employed inventor Charles Kingston Welch and acquired other rights and patents which allowed them some limited protection of their Pneumatic Tyre business's position. Pneumatic Tyre would become Dunlop Tyres; the development of this technology hinged on myriad engineering advances, including the vulcanization of natural rubber using sulfur, as well as by the development of the "clincher" rim for holding the tire in place laterally on the wheel rim.
Synthetic rubbers were invented in the laboratories of Bayer in the 1920s. In 1946, Michelin developed the radial tire method of construction. Michelin had bought the bankrupt Citroën automobile company in 1934, so it was able to fit this new technology immediately; because of its superiority in handling and fuel economy, use of this technology spread throughout Europe and Asia. In the U. S. the outdated bias-ply tire construction persisted, with market share of 87% as late as 1967. Delay was caused by tire and automobile manufacturers in America "concerned about transition costs." In 1968, Consumer Reports, an influential American magazine, acknowledged the superiority of radial construction, setting off a rapid decline in Michelin's competitor technology. In the U. S. the radial tire now has a market share of 100% in automobiles. Today, over 1 billion tires are produced annually in over 400 tire factories. There are 2 aspects to. First, tension in the cords pull on the bead uniformly around the wheel, except where it is reduced above the contact patch.
Second, the bead transfers that net force to the rim. Air pressure, via the ply cords, exerts tensile force on the entire bead surrounding th
The Holden Monaro is a rear-wheel drive coupé, produced by Holden between 1968 and 1977 and between 2001 and 2005. Three generations of the Monaro have been produced, with the last spawning a limited edition model to farewell the historic name; the Monaro body was used by several different manufacturing brands around the world, seeing export models, various concept cars and an all-wheel drive variant. Named after the Monaro region in New South Wales, Holden's new coupé was introduced in July 1968 as a two-door pillarless hardtop coupé available in three models: Monaro base model, Monaro'GTS', Monaro'GTS 327'; the GTS versions had "full instrumentation" which included a tachometer mounted on the centre console. This proved to be a bad location, as the drivers knee would obstruct the view and it rattled; the cars could be ordered with a choice of six-cylinder engines of 161 in3 capacity or two versions of 186 in3 capacity, or a 307 in3 capacity Chevrolet-sourced V8. The exclusive'GTS 327' model was powered by the 250 bhp Chevrolet 327 in3 V8.
Uniquely styled by Holden, the Monaro featured styling cues derived from Chevrolet designs, employing a "coke bottle" look similar to that of the Camaro and Nova coupés of the late 1960s. After Holden engineers had claimed that the Monaro's engine bay was too small to house the 327 Chevrolet V8, the decision was made to speed up development of Holden's first Australian-developed V8, the 5.0L 308 in3 capacity Holden V8 engine, the smaller, 4.2L 253 in3 V8. However, as this particular V8 engine project ran behind schedule, this led to engineers remeasuring the engine bay and finding that the original measurement calculations had been incorrect, thus allowing the use of the imported Chevrolet engine after all; the HK Monaro GTS327 gave Holden its first victory in the Bathurst 500 in 1968 at the hands of Bruce McPhee and co-driver Barry Mulholland. Whilst Mulholland only drove one of the total 130 race laps, McPhee drove the remainder and scored both pole position and fastest lap of the race. Norm Beechey drove a HK Monaro GTS327 to third place in the 1969 Australian Touring Car Championship, the first time the ATCC was held as a series rather than a single race.
Beechey showed the capabilities of the Monaro when he won the final two rounds of the five-round series at Surfers Paradise and Symmons Plains. In early 1969, the HK Monaro range was awarded Wheels magazine's Car of the Year for 1968. In June 1969, the HK Monaro was replaced by the facelifted HT Monaro. The'GTS 327' became the'GTS 350' with the replacement of the Chevrolet 327 in3 V8 by the 300 bhp Chevrolet 350 in3 V8; as the Monaro was Holden's main car in Series Production racing, this was in response to Ford who had released the Ford XW Falcon GTHO Phase I in 1969, powered by the 351 Windsor V8 engine. There was an automatic version of the'GTS 350' introduced which used a lower power version of the 350 in3 engine coupled to a 2-speed Powerglide transmission. HT Monaro marked the phasing out of the 5.0-litre Chevrolet V8, the introduction of Holden's own locally made V8 engines, the 4.2-litre 253, the 5.0-litre 308. Late in the HT model run, a new locally produced 3-speed automatic transmission, the Trimatic, was offered as an option, although it was not available on the'GTS 350'.
The HT Monaro can be distinguished from the HK by the adoption of plastic grilles, a round speedometer instead of "strip" style allowing for bringing the tachometer into the main instrument cluster instead of on the floor console, rubber front suspension bushes instead of the HK's sintered bronze, larger taillights where the turn indicators wrapped around the now undercut edges. Bodywork'go-faster' stripe designs varied for each series. HT had twin air scoops / vents incorporated into their bonnet, which served no real purpose in delivering air into the engine bay; the HT Monaro GTS350 was successful in Series Production racing. The Holden Dealer Team was formed in 1969 by longtime Ford Works Team boss Harry Firth with the team using the GTS350 in competition; the HDT entered three Monaros in the 1969 Hardie-Ferodo 500 the lead car driven by Colin Bond and Tony Roberts winning from 1968 winners Bruce McPhee and Barry Mulholland who had switched to driving a Falcon GTHO. Coming home third in the Dealer Team's 3rd Monaro was Des West and Bathurst rookie Peter Brock.
In January 1970, Bond and Roberts would win the Rothmans 12 Hour Series Production race at Surfers Paradise driving their HDT Holden Monaro. Norm Beechey upgraded to a HT GTS350 and would win the 1970 Australian Touring Car Championship, Holden's first ATCC championship success. Beechey won three of the seven rounds at Bathurst and Lakeside where he wrapped up the title; the 550 bhp Monaro proved too much for the opposition which included defending champion Ian Geoghegan in his Ford Mustang, Allan Moffat in his Ford Mustang Boss 302 Trans-Am, Bob Jane's Mustang and Beechey's own teammate Jim McKeown in a Porsche 911S. Beechey's win was all the more remarkable considering he failed to finish at Warwick Farm and did not start the final round at Symmons Plains after suffering an engine failure in qualifying, he finished 2nd to Geoghegan in round 4 at Mallala. Beechey would continue to run the Monaro (dubbed Trans-Aus in re
Chevrolet Camaro (first generation)
The first-generation Chevrolet Camaro appeared in Chevrolet dealerships on September 29, 1966 for the 1967 model year on a brand-new rear wheel drive GM F-body platform and was available as a 2-door, 2+2 seat, hardtop or convertible, with the choice of either a straight-6 or V8 engine. The first-generation Camaro was built through the 1969 model year. All of 1967-1969 Camaros were built in the two U. S. assembly plants: Norwood and Van Nuys, California. There were five non-U. S. Camaro assembly plants in countries that required local assembly and content; these plants were located in the Philippines, Switzerland and Peru. The Camaro's standard drivetrain was either a 230 cu in straight-6 engine rated at 140 hp at 4400 rpm and 220 lb⋅ft of torque at 1600 rpm. There were 8, 10, 12 different engines available in 1967-1969 Camaros. There were several optional transmissions. A four-speed manual was available with any engine; the two-speed "Powerglide" automatic transmission was available all three years.
The three-speed "Turbo Hydra-Matic 350" automatic became available starting in 1969. The optional automatic for SS 396 cars was the Turbo 400 three-speed automatic. There was a plethora of other options available all three years, including three main packages: The RS was an appearance package that included hidden headlights, revised taillights with back-up lights under the rear bumper, RS badging, exterior bright trim, it was available on any model. The SS performance package consisted of a 350 cu in or 396 cu in V8s and chassis upgrades for better handling and to deal with the additional power; the SS featured non-functional air inlets on the hood, special striping, SS badging. The Z/28 performance package was designed to compete in the SCCA Trans-Am Series, it included a solid-lifter 302 cu in V8, 4-speed transmission, power disc brakes, two wide "skunk" stripes down the hood and trunk lid. The idea of offering such a wide variety of packages and numerous options was to "blanket" Camaro's end of the personal car market with everything from an entry level I6 cylinder engine to multiple high-performance V8 engines.
The 1967 Camaro shared the subframe / semi-unibody design with the 1968 Chevy II Nova. 80 factory and 40 dealer options, including three main packages, were available: the RS, the SS, the Z/28. The SS included a 350 cu in producing 295 bhp at 380 lb ⋅ ft at 3200 rpm of torque; the SS featured non-functional air inlets on the hood, special striping, SS badging on the grille, front fenders, gas cap, horn button. It was possible to order both the SS and RS options, making it a SS/RS. In 1967, a Camaro SS/RS convertible with a 396 engine paced the Indianapolis 500; the Z/28 option code was introduced in December 1966 for the 1967 model year. It was the brainchild of Vince Piggins, who conceived offering "virtually race-ready" Camaros for sale from any Chevrolet dealer; this option package was not mentioned in any sales literature, so it was unknown to most buyers. The Z/28 option required front disc power brakes and a Muncie 4-speed manual close-ratio transmission, it featured a 302 cu in V-8, 3 in stroke crankshaft with 4 in bore, an aluminum intake manifold, a 4-barrel vacuum secondary Holley carburetor of 780 cfm.
The engine was designed to race in the Trans Am series (which required engines smaller than 305 cu in. Advertised power of this engine was listed at 290 hp; this is an under-rated figure. Chevrolet wanted to keep the horsepower rating at less than 1 hp per cubic inch, for various reasons; the factory rating of 290 hp occurred at 5300 rpm, while actual peak for the high-revving 302 was closer to 360 hp and 400 hp at 6800-7000 rpm. The Z/28 came with upgraded suspension, racing stripes on the hood and trunk lid,'302' front fender emblems on the 67 and early 68 cars, and'Z/28' emblems in late 68 & 69, it was possible to combine the Z/28 package with the RS package. Only 602 Z/28s were sold in 1967, along with 100 Indianapolis Pace Car replicas; the 1967 and 1968 Z/28s did not have optional on the 1969 Z/28s. The 1967 Z28 received air from an open element air cleaner or from an optional cowl plenum duct attached to the side of the air cleaner that ran to the firewall and got air from the cowl vents.
15-inch rally wheels were included with Z/28s. The origin of the Z/28 nameplate came from the RPO codes - RPO Z28 was the code for the Special Performance Package. RPO Z27 was for the Super Sport package. Cars assembled in Switzerland, at GM's local facility in Biel, were all coupes with the 283 cu in V8 that produced 198 PS at 4800 rpm and 285 lb⋅ft at 2400 rpm - an engine, not available in contemporary Camaros built in the United States; the Swiss-built Camaros were not available with the three-speed manual and had a differential lock and front disc brakes as standard. Some additional safety equipment was standard. Production numbers: The styling of the 1968 Camaro was similar to the 1967 design. With the introduction of Astro Ventilation, a fresh-air-inlet system, the side vent windo