Simon Bisley is a British comic book artist best known for his 1990s work on ABC Warriors, Lobo and Sláine. Bisley's work influenced the Beast in the 2006 Doctor Who episode "The Satan Pit", Simon Pegg's character graphic artist Tim Bisley on the Channel 4 sitcom Spaced. Simon Bisley began drawing, he is self-taught, with only a short one-year stay at an art college, saying "I found it difficult to get any kind of feedback from the art teachers. They weren't interested at all in what I was doing, so I became kind of introverted with regard to my artwork and yeah, I was just all self-taught." Bisley started his career doing magazine and album covers, his first work being a T-shirt design for heavy metal magazine Kerrang! Though he had no experience in comics strip drawing at the time, he was hired by the magazine 2000 AD after they saw his interpretations of their magazine characters. According to the Comic Book Database, "while still a student, Bisley did a painting of a robot holding a baby that he sent to the offices of 2000 AD.
The image was seen by Pat Mills and inspired him to relaunch the ABC Warriors strip, with Bisley as artist, in 1987". He started with work on ABC Warriors in 1987 moving to Sláine and Judge Dredd. Since 1997, Bisley is a regular contributor of the comics magazine Heavy Metal. Bisley has done design work for several music videos, including Chippendales' "Room Service". Bisley's style is influenced by Frank Frazetta, Gustav Klimt, Salvador Dalí, Richard Corben, Bill Sienkiewicz, Egon Schiele, he took inspiration from rock album covers and graffiti as well as traditional comics art. Bisley's work has inspired the Beast in the 2006 Doctor Who episode "The Satan Pit", Simon Pegg's character graphic artist Tim Bisley on the Channel 4 sitcom Spaced; the Authority/Lobo: Jingle Hell Spring Break Massacre Batman: Black & White, miniseries, #2 Batman/Judge Dredd: Judgement on Gotham ISBN 1-56389-022-4 Batman/Lobo One-Shot Global Frequency #7 Hellblazer #259-260, 265-266, 282. "Chicken Run" "The Legend of Johnny Biker" "Ironfist" "Night Before Christmas" "The Great Arsoli" "Bimba" Mayhemic Destruction, by Mortal Sin Created In Hate by Anihilated First Offence, by First Offence Kilt by Death, by Drunken State Thrall: Demonsweatlive, by Danzig 6:66 Satan's Child, by Danzig Gorgeous Frankenstein, by Gorgeous Frankenstein Lost Tracks of Danzig, by Danzig Among Flies, by Last House on The Left Black Laden Crown by Danzig The Blood of Gods, by Gwar Gods, by The Bitmap Brothers Weaponlord, by Visual Concepts Tekken Tag Tournament 2, by Namco Bandai Games Conan: Adventures in an Age Undreamed Of (2017, Modiphius Entertainmen
DC Vertigo is an imprint of the American comic book publisher DC Comics. It was created in 1993 to publish stories with more graphic or adult content that could not fit within the restrictions of the Comics Code Authority, thus allowing more creative freedom than DC's main imprint; these comics were free to contain explicit violence and drug abuse, nudity and other controversial subjects, similar to the content of R-rated films. Although its initial publications were in the horror and fantasy genres, it has published works dealing with crime, social commentary, speculative fiction and other genres. Publishing a mix of company- and creator-owned work, its current focus is on the latter, it pioneered in North America an common publishing model, in which monthly series are periodically comprised into collected editions which are kept in print for bookstore sale. Vertigo series have won the comics industry's Eisner Award, including the "best continuing series" of various years. Several of its publications have been adapted to film and episodic television.
Vertigo originated in 1993 under the stewardship of Karen Berger, a former literature and art-history student, who had joined DC Comics in 1979 as an assistant editor. In the mid-1980s, Berger was editor of such DC titles as Wonder Woman and Amethyst, Princess of Gemworld, began recruiting writers from the UK, including Neil Gaiman, Jamie Delano, Peter Milligan and Grant Morrison, she "found their sensibility and point of view to be refreshingly different and smarter" than those of most American comics writers, worked with them and others on superhero/science fiction series Animal Man, Doom Patrol vol. 2, Shade, the Changing Man vol. 2. 2, horror titles Hellblazer and The Saga of the Swamp Thing. These six ongoing titles, all of which carried a "Suggested for Mature Readers" label on their covers, shared a sophistication-driven sensibility the fan press dubbed "the Bergerverse". In a 1992 editorial meeting, Levitz, DC publisher Jenette Kahn, managing editor Dick Giordano, Berger was given the mandate to place these titles under an imprint that, as Berger described, would "do something different in comics and help the medium'grow up'".
Several DC titles bearing the age advisory, such as Green Arrow and The Question, did not make the transition to the new imprint. Several new Vertigo mini-series were developed for Disney Comics' aborted Touchmark Comics imprint – analogous to their mature-audiences Touchstone Pictures studio – announced before the so-called "Disney Implosion" of 1991, subsequently abandoned. Touchmark Comics was to be run by former DC editor Art Young, but when it was canceled, both Young and the works were brought into the Vertigo fold, allowing Berger to expand the imprint's publishing plans; these titles included Enigma, Sebastian O, Shadows Fall. Vertigo was launched in January 1993 with a mixture of existing ongoing series continued under the new imprint, new ongoing series, new mini-series, single-volume collections or graphic novels, their publishing plan for the first year involved two new titles – whether ongoing/limited series or one-shots – each month. The existing series were Shade the Changing Man, The Sandman, Animal Man, Swamp Thing, Doom Patrol.
The first comic book published under the "Vertigo" imprint was the first issue of Death: The High Cost of Living, a 3-issue series by Neil Gaiman and Chris Bachalo. The second new title was Enigma, an 8-issue limited series planned to launch Touchmark, written by Peter Milligan and drawn by Duncan Fegredo, the artist from Grant Morrison's earlier Kid Eternity miniseries; the following month saw the debut of Sandman: Mystery Theatre by Matt Wagner and Steven T. Seagle, illustrated by Guy Davis, described as "playing the'30s with a'90s feel... haunting, film noir-ish..." and starring original Sandman Wesley Dodds in a title whose "sensibilities echo crime genre fiction." Joining it was J. M. DeMatteis and Paul Johnson's 64-page one-shot Mercy. New series that began in the months that followed include Kid Eternity by Ann Nocenti and Sean Phillips, Grant Morrison and Steve Yeowell's 3-issue steampunk miniseries Sebastian O, Skin Graft by Jerry Prosser and Warren Pleece, The Last One by DeMatteis and Dan Sweetman, Jonah Hex: Two-Gun Mojo by Tim Truman and Sam Glanzman, Black Orchid by Dick Foreman and Jill Thompson, The Extremist by Peter Milligan and Ted McKeever, Scarab by John Smith with Scot Eaton and Mike Barreiro, The Children's Crusade, a crossover involving several of the imprint's ongoing series.
Gaiman's The Books of Magic limited-series was relaunched as an ongoing series written by John Ney Rieber, illustrated by Peter Gross, Gary Amaro, Peter Snejbjerg. Although the books did not have a consistent "house style" of art, the cover designs of early Vertigo series featured a uniform trade dress with a vertical bar along the left side, which included the imprint logo, date
Whiteout (Oni Press)
Whiteout is a comic book limited series by writer Greg Rucka and artist Steve Lieber. It was released in four issues during 1998, by Oni Press and collected into a trade paperback. A film adaptation of the series was released in 2009; the story follows Carrie Stetko, a Deputy U. S. Marshal working at McMurdo Station in Antarctica, her investigation of a murder that takes place there; the story moves through many Antarctic stations, as Stetko chases down suspects and finds more murders. Early in the story, Stetko is left for dead in a storm, she loses two fingers due to severe cold-related injuries. The series was followed by Whiteout: Melt. Stetko is sent back to Antarctica by the government, as she is familiar with the territory and there had been a mass murder, it turns out. Stetko and a rogue Russian intelligence officer must save the day. A third volume in the series advertised as Whiteout: Thaw, was expected to be released as four separate issues beginning in the Fall of 2007. In December 2008, Rucka announced in a forum post that the title was changed to Whiteout: Night and the publication of the series would start in the Fall 2009.
The book once crossed over with Barry Ween, in a 6-page story done for the Oni Press Summer Vacation Supercolor Fun Special. The story, titled Weenout: The Carrie-Ween Crossover, was co-written by Rucka and Ween creator Judd Winick, illustrated by Winick and colored by Guy Major. Additionally, Lieber drew a B&W "pin-up" of Carrie & Barry for the Special, where Barry has built Carrie a robotic hand to replace her three-fingered right hand; the series are collected as trade paperbacks: Whiteout Volume 1 Whiteout: Melt In 2001 both series were collected into a limited edition hardcover, Total Whiteout. In 1999 Whiteout was nominated for the "Best Writer", "Best Penciller/Inker or Penciller/Inker Team" and "Best Limited Series" Eisner Awards and in 2000 it was nominated for the "Best Graphic Album" Eisner Award; the Carrie Stetko character was ranked 44th in Comics Buyer's Guide's "100 Sexiest Women in Comics" list. A critically and commercially panned film based on the comic book was released in 2009.
It was directed by Dominic Sena, stars Kate Beckinsale and Gabriel Macht in the lead roles. The first issue reprinted at the artist's webpage
Green Lantern is the name of several superheroes appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. They fight evil with the aid of rings that grant them a variety of extraordinary powers, all of which comes from imagination and/or emotions; the first Green Lantern character, Alan Scott, was created in 1940 by Martin Nodell during the initial popularity of superheroes. Alan Scott fought common criminals in New York City with the aid of his magic ring; the Green Lanterns are among DC Comics' longer lasting sets of characters. They have been adapted to television, video games, motion pictures. Martin Nodell created the first Green Lantern, he first appeared in the Golden Age of comic books in All-American Comics #16, published by All-American Publications, one of three companies that would merge to form DC Comics. This Green Lantern's real name was Alan Scott, a railroad engineer who, after a railway crash, came into possession of a magic lantern which spoke to him and said it would bring power.
From this, he crafted a magic ring. The limitations of the ring were that it had to be "charged" every 24 hours by touching it to the lantern for a time, that it could not directly affect objects made of wood. Alan Scott fought ordinary human villains, but he did have a few paranormal ones such as the immortal Vandal Savage and the zombie Solomon Grundy. Most stories took place in New York; as a popular character in the 1940s, the Green Lantern featured both in anthology books such as All-American Comics and Comic Cavalcade, as well as his own book, Green Lantern. He appeared in All Star Comics as a member of the superhero team known as the Justice Society of America. After World War II the popularity of superheroes in general declined; the Green Lantern comic book was cancelled with issue #38, All Star Comics #57 was the character's last Golden Age appearance. When superheroes came back in fashion in decades, the character Alan Scott was revived, but he was forever marginalized by the new Hal Jordan character, created to supplant him.
He made guest appearances in other superheroes' books, but got regular roles in books featuring the Justice Society. He never got another solo series. Between 1995 and 2003, DC Comics changed Alan Scott's superhero codename to "Sentinel" in order to distinguish him from the newer and more popular science fiction Green Lanterns. In 2011, the Alan Scott character was revamped, his costume was redesigned and the source of his powers was changed to that of the mystical power of nature. In 1959, Julius Schwartz reinvented the Green Lantern character as a science fiction hero named Hal Jordan. Hal Jordan's powers were more or less the same as Alan Scott's, but otherwise this character was different than the Green Lantern character of the 1940s, he had a new name, a redesigned costume, a rewritten origin story. Hal Jordan received his ring from a dying alien and was commissioned as an officer of the Green Lantern Corps, an interstellar law enforcement agency overseen by the Guardians of the Universe.
Hal Jordan was introduced in Showcase #22. Gil Kane and Sid Greene were the art team most notable on the title in its early years, along with writer John Broome. With issue #76, the series made a radical stylistic departure. Editor Schwartz, in one of the company's earliest efforts to provide more than fantasy, worked with the writer-artist team of Denny O'Neil and Neal Adams to spark new interest in the comic book series and address a perceived need for social relevance, they added the character Green Arrow and had the pair travel through America encountering "real world" issues, to which they reacted in different ways — Green Lantern as fundamentally a lawman, Green Arrow as a liberal iconoclast. Additionally during this run, the groundbreaking "Snowbirds Don't Fly" story was published in which Green Arrow's teen sidekick Speedy developed a heroin addiction that he was forcibly made to quit; the stories were critically acclaimed, with publications such as The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, Newsweek citing it as an example of how comic books were "growing up".
However, the O'Neil/Adams run was not a commercial success, the series was cancelled after only 14 issues, though an additional unpublished three installments were published as backups in The Flash #217-219. The title would know a number of cancellations, its title would change to Green Lantern Corps at one point as the popularity waned. During a time there were two regular titles, each with a Green Lantern, a third member in the Justice League. A new character, Kyle Rayner, was created to become the feature while Hal Jordan first became the villain Parallax died and came back as the Spectre. In the wake of The New Frontier, writer Geoff Johns returned Hal Jordan as Green Lantern in Green Lantern: Rebirth. Johns began to lay groundwork for "Blackest Night", viewing it as the third part of the trilogy started by Rebirth. Expanding on the Green Lantern mythology in the second part, "Sinestro Corps War", with artist Ethan van Sciver, found wide critical acclaim and commercial success with the series, which promised the introduction of a spectrum of colored "lanterns".
The series and its creators have received several awards over the years, including the 1961 Alley Award for Best Adventure Hero/Heroine with Own Book and the Academy of Comic Book Arts Shazam Award for Best Conti
Batman is a superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. The character was created by artist Bob Kane and writer Bill Finger, first appeared in Detective Comics #27 in 1939. Named the "Bat-Man," the character is referred to by such epithets as the Caped Crusader, the Dark Knight, the World's Greatest Detective. Batman's secret identity is Bruce Wayne, a wealthy American playboy and owner of Wayne Enterprises. After witnessing the murder of his parents Dr. Thomas Wayne and Martha Wayne as a child, he swore vengeance against criminals, an oath tempered by a sense of justice. Bruce Wayne trains himself physically and intellectually and crafts a bat-inspired persona to fight crime. Batman operates in the fictional Gotham City with assistance from various supporting characters, including his butler Alfred, police commissioner Jim Gordon, vigilante allies such as Robin. Unlike most superheroes, Batman does not possess any inhuman superpowers, he does, possess a genius-level intellect, is a peerless martial artist, his vast wealth affords him an extraordinary arsenal of weaponry and equipment.
A large assortment of villains make up Batman's rogues gallery, including the Joker. The character became popular soon after his introduction in 1939 and gained his own comic book title, the following year; as the decades went on, differing interpretations of the character emerged. The late 1960s Batman television series used a camp aesthetic, which continued to be associated with the character for years after the show ended. Various creators worked to return the character to his dark roots, culminating in 1986 with The Dark Knight Returns by Frank Miller; the success of Warner Bros. Pictures' live-action Batman feature films have helped maintain the character's prominence in mainstream culture. Batman has been licensed and featured in various adaptations, from radio to television and film, appears in merchandise sold around the world, such as apparel and video games. Kevin Conroy, Rino Romano, Anthony Ruivivar, Peter Weller, Bruce Greenwood, Jason O'Mara, Will Arnett, among others, have provided the character's voice for animated adaptations.
Batman has been depicted in both film and television by Lewis Wilson, Robert Lowery, Adam West, Michael Keaton, Val Kilmer, George Clooney, Christian Bale, Ben Affleck. In early 1939, the success of Superman in Action Comics prompted editors at National Comics Publications to request more superheroes for its titles. In response, Bob Kane created "the Bat-Man". Collaborator Bill Finger recalled that "Kane had an idea for a character called'Batman,' and he'd like me to see the drawings. I went over to Kane's, he had drawn a character who looked much like Superman with kind of... reddish tights, I believe, with boots... no gloves, no gauntlets... with a small domino mask, swinging on a rope. He had two stiff wings, and under it was a big sign... BATMAN"; the bat-wing-like cape was suggested by Bob Kane, inspired as a child by Leonardo Da Vinci's sketch of an ornithopter flying device. Finger suggested giving the character a cowl instead of a simple domino mask, a cape instead of wings, gloves. Finger said he devised the name Bruce Wayne for the character's secret identity: "Bruce Wayne's first name came from Robert Bruce, the Scottish patriot.
Wayne, being a playboy, was a man of gentry. I searched for a name. I tried Adams, Hancock... I thought of Mad Anthony Wayne." He said his suggestions were influenced by Lee Falk's popular The Phantom, a syndicated newspaper comic-strip character with which Kane was familiar. Kane and Finger drew upon contemporary 1930s popular culture for inspiration regarding much of the Bat-Man's look, personality and weaponry. Details find predecessors in pulp fiction, comic strips, newspaper headlines, autobiographical details referring to Kane himself; as an aristocratic hero with a double identity, Batman had predecessors in the Scarlet Pimpernel and Zorro. Like them, Batman performed his heroic deeds in secret, averted suspicion by playing aloof in public, marked his work with a signature symbol. Kane noted the influence of the films The Mark of Zorro and The Bat Whispers in the creation of the character's iconography. Finger, drawing inspiration from pulp heroes like Doc Savage, The Shadow, Dick Tracy, Sherlock Holmes, made the character a master sleuth.
In his 1989 autobiography, Kane detailed Finger's contributions to Batman's creation: One day I called Bill and said,'I have a new character called the Bat-Man and I've made some crude, elementary sketches I'd like you to look at.' He came over and I showed him the drawings. At the time, I only had a small domino mask, like the one Robin wore, on Batman's face. Bill said,'Why not make him look more like a bat and put a hood on him, take the eyeballs out and just put slits for eyes to make him look more mysterious?' At this point, the Bat-Man wore a red union suit. I thought that black would be a good combination. Bill said that the costume was too bright:'Color it dark grey to make it look more ominous.' The cape looked like two stiff bat wings attached to his arms. As Bill and I talked, we realized that these wings would get cumbersome when Bat-Man was in action and changed them into a cape, scalloped to look like bat wings when he was fighting or swinging down on a rope, he didn't have any gloves on, we added them so that he wouldn't leave fingerprints.
Kane signed away ownership in
Madman (Image Comics)
Madman is a creator owned fictional character, a comic book superhero that appears in comic books by creator Mike Allred and, published by a number of publishers over the years. The character first appeared in Creatures of the Id, his name, Frank Einstein, is a combination of Frank Sinatra and Albert Einstein, is a reference to Frankenstein. Frank Einstein was born an agent of the Tri-Eye Agency. Townsend was killed in a car accident stitched back together and brought to life by two scientists, Dr. Egon Boiffard and Dr. Gillespie Flem; this resurrection left him amnesiac, the resurrected John Doe was named after Boiffard's artistic and scientific heroes, Frank Sinatra and Albert Einstein, respectively. The procedure left Frank with supernatural reflexes and a slight degree of precognitive and empathic power. Madman's costume is based on the only thing he can remember: a fascination with a comic book character called Mr. Excitement. Frank Einstein now lives as a jack-of-all-trades wanderer, accompanied by a variety of allies, including the Atomics.
Only one of Frank's reanimators, Dr. Flem, is still in Frank's life. Dr. Boiffard, in an attempt to boost his brain power, transmuted his entire head into neural tissue, leaving him an invalid in a hospital. Boiffard became a cosmic being. Despite the fact Frank has blue skin, a metal scalp plate, criss-crossed scars similar to Frankenstein's monster, he has a steady girlfriend, a secretary by the name of Josephine "Joe" Lombard. Madman's other allies include Mott, an alien from the planet Hoople, saved by Frank when another alien, wanted to marry and eat Mott. Astroman was loaded with some of Frank's lost information. Astroman grew to love Frank's girlfriend, which made Machina jealous. Frank's aided by Marie and Warren, two artificial intelligences from the future. Due to a plot by the mischievous Mister Mxyzptlk and Superman switched dimensions, becoming physical hybrids of each other, they had to retrieve portions of Superman's powers, doled out amongst various people across both worlds. The two confronted Mister Mxyzptlk, Madman defeated him in a game of Twister before tricking him into saying his name backwards.
Joe had been fused with Luna and has been "pulled" from her body. Frank has met with ghosts and learned more about his previous life, including great insights to the ways of the universe. After Frank is told of Joe being pulled from Luna, he rushes back to Dr. Flem's laboratory, but finds that Mr. Monstadt has returned in a new, artificial body, powerful enough to defeat him, most of the Atomics, Joe, going to surprise Frank by becoming Madgirl. After the defeat of Monstadt, a fallen Atomic is revived and the team celebrates by going on a camping trip. Former enemies, now allies, are the Mutant Street Beatniks, who were just ordinary beatniks; when Mott first arrived he was being chased by Zenelle, a female alien from a species infamous throughout the galaxy for devouring their mates after the wedding night. Zenelle left behind a trail of spores as she tracked Mott through the city, exposure to which caused the beatniks to mutate into disgusting, warty versions of themselves. Zenelle carried him away, much to the relief of Mott.
Blaming Madman for their deformity, the Mutant Street Beatniks remained bitter enemies until they discovered that their deformation was the first stage of their mutation, which gave them super powers. Discovering these powers cleared up their skin condition, they no longer hate Madman and have formed a superhero team, calling themselves the Atomics. Around this time, their missing comrade returned from space, revealing that Zenelle had fallen in love with him to the degree she went against her culture and refused to eat him; because of the different time-flow between Snap City and Zenelle's planet, when their comrade returned he brought with him his teenage son, the product of his union with Zenelle. One of Madman's primary enemies is his former employer. Madman has fought runaway renegade robots from Dr. Flem's lab who were controlled by the mysterious and super-intelligent Factor Max. Other antagonists include the Mutant Street Beatniks, the Moonboys, the Puke, the G-Men from Hell and Crept.
However, the G-Men are occasional allies, several of the Mutant Street Beatniks become allies as well. Frank has faced generic monsters a number of times. Frank's resurrection altered his body, he possesses a supernatural intuitive talent for learning, allowing him to instinctively learn any skill and gain knowledge at a superhuman rate. He possesses supernatural physical coordination, his agility and reflexes are far superior to those of an ordinary human. His tendons and connective tissues are more elastic and his nerve endings transfer stimuli faster. Frank has manifested numerous psionic abilities that border on the supernatural, including the power to obtain information about an individual by making physical contact and clairvoyance, he is able to perceive the future, sometimes manifesting in vague dreams while asleep, other times displayed in clear thought, sometimes occurring at will. He does not have complete control over his psionic abilit
A comic book or comicbook called comic magazine or comic, is a publication that consists of comic art in the form of sequential juxtaposed panels that represent individual scenes. Panels are accompanied by brief descriptive prose and written narrative dialog contained in word balloons emblematic of the comics art form. Although comics has some origins in 18th century Japan, comic books were first popularized in the United States and the United Kingdom during the 1930s; the first modern comic book, Famous Funnies, was released in the U. S. in 1933 and was a reprinting of earlier newspaper humor comic strips, which had established many of the story-telling devices used in comics. The term comic book derives from American comic books once being a compilation of comic strips of a humorous tone; the largest comic book market is Japan. By 1995, the manga market in Japan was valued at ¥586.4 billion, with annual sales of 1.9 billion manga books/magazines in Japan. The comic book market in the United States and Canada was valued at $1.09 billion in 2016.
As of 2017, the largest comic book publisher in the United States is manga distributor Viz Media, followed by DC Comics and Marvel Comics. Another major comic book market is France, where Franco-Belgian comics and Japanese manga each represent 40% of the market, followed by American comics at 10% market share. Comic books are reliant on their appearance. Authors focus on the frame of the page, size and panel positions; these characteristic aspects of comic books are necessary in conveying the content and messages of the author. The key elements of comic books include panels, balloons and characters. Balloons are convex spatial containers of information that are related to a character using a tail element; the tail has an origin, path and pointed direction. Key tasks in the creation of comic books are writing and coloring. Comics as a print medium have existed in America since the printing of The Adventures of Mr. Obadiah Oldbuck in 1842 in hardcover, making it the first known American prototype comic book.
Proto-comics periodicals began appearing early in the 20th century, with historians citing Dell Publishing's 36-page Famous Funnies: A Carnival of Comics as the first true American comic book. The introduction of Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster's Superman in 1938 turned comic books into a major industry and ushered the Golden Age of Comics; the Golden Age originated the archetype of the superhero. According to historian Michael A. Amundson, appealing comic-book characters helped ease young readers' fear of nuclear war and neutralize anxiety about the questions posed by atomic power. Historians divide the timeline of the American comic book into eras; the Golden Age of Comic Books began in the 1930s. The Silver Age of comic books is considered to date from the first successful revival of the then-dormant superhero form, with the debut of the Flash in Showcase #4; the Silver Age lasted through the late 1960s or early 1970s, during which time Marvel Comics revolutionized the medium with such naturalistic superheroes as Stan Lee and Jack Kirby's Fantastic Four and Lee and Steve Ditko's Spider-Man.
The demarcation between the Silver Age and the following era, the Bronze Age of Comic Books, is less well-defined, with the Bronze Age running from the early 1970s through the mid-1980s. The Modern Age of Comic Books runs from the mid-1980s to the present day. A notable event in the history of the American comic book came with psychiatrist Fredric Wertham's criticisms of the medium in his book Seduction of the Innocent, which prompted the American Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency to investigate comic books. In response to attention from the government and from the media, the U. S. comic book industry set up the Comics Magazine Association of America. The CMAA instilled the Comics Code Authority in 1954 and drafted the self-censorship Comics Code that year, which required all comic books to go through a process of approval, it was not until the 1970s that comic books could be published without passing through the inspection of the CMAA. The Code was made formally defunct in November 2011.
In the late 1960s and early 1970s, a surge of creativity emerged in what became known as underground comix. Published and distributed independently of the established comics industry, most of such comics reflected the youth counterculture and drug culture of the time. Many had an uninhibited irreverent style. Underground comics were never sold at newsstands, but rather in such youth-oriented outlets as head shops and record stores, as well as by mail order. Frank Stack's The Adventures of Jesus, published under the name Foolbert Sturgeon, has been credited as the first underground comic; the rise of comic book specialty stores in the late 1970s created/paralleled a dedicated market for "independent" or "alternative comics" in the U. S; the first such comics included the anthology series Star Reach, published by comic book writer Mike Friedrich from 1974 to 1979, Harvey Pekar's American Splendor, which continued sporadic publication into the 21st century and which Shari Springer Berman an