Bob Wills

James Robert Wills was an American Western swing musician and bandleader. Considered by music authorities as the co-founder of Western swing, he was known as the King of Western Swing. Wills formed several bands and played radio stations around the South and West until he formed the Texas Playboys in 1934 with Wills on fiddle, Tommy Duncan on piano and vocals, rhythm guitarist June Whalin, tenor banjoist Johnnie Lee Wills, Kermit Whalin, who played steel guitar and bass; the band played on Tulsa, Oklahoma radio station KVOO and added Leon McAuliffe on steel guitar, pianist Al Stricklin, drummer Smokey Dacus, a horn section that expanded the band's sound. Wills favored jazz-like arrangements and the band found national popularity into the 1940s with such hits as "Steel Guitar Rag", "New San Antonio Rose", "Smoke On The Water", "Stars And Stripes On Iwo Jima", "New Spanish Two Step". Wills and the Texas Playboys recorded with several publishers and companies, including Vocalion, Columbia, MGM moving.

In 1950, he had two top 10 hits, "Ida Red Likes the Boogie" and "Faded Love", which were his last hits for a decade. Throughout the 1950s, he struggled with poor health and tenuous finances, but continued to perform despite the decline in popularity of his earlier music as rock and roll took over. Wills had a heart attack in 1962 and a second one the next year, which forced him to disband the Playboys, although Wills continued to perform solo; the Country Music Hall of Fame inducted Wills in 1968 and the Texas State Legislature honored him for his contribution to American music. In 1972, Wills accepted a citation from the American Society of Composers and Publishers in Nashville, he was recording an album with fan Merle Haggard in 1973 when a stroke left him comatose until his death in 1975. The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame inducted Wills and the Texas Playboys in 1999, he was born on a farm in Kosse, Limestone County, Texas to John Tompkins Wills. His parents were both of English ancestry but they had distant Irish ancestry as well.

His father was a statewide champion fiddle player, either the Wills family was playing music or someone was "always wanting us to play for them", in addition to raising cotton on their farm. In addition to picking cotton, the young Jim Bob learned to play the mandolin. Both a sister and several brothers played musical instruments, another sister played piano; the Wills family held country dances in their home, there was dancing in all four rooms. While living in Hall County, they played at'ranch dances', which were popular throughout west Texas. Wills not only learned traditional music from his family, he learned some blues songs directly from African Americans in the cotton fields near Lakeview and said that he did not play with many white children other than his siblings, until he was seven or eight years old. African Americans were his playmates, his father enjoyed watching him jig dance with the black children; the family moved to Hall County in the Texas Panhandle in 1913, in 1919 they bought a farm between the towns of Lakeview and Turkey, Texas.

At the age of 16, Wills hopped a freight train. Jim Rob, as he became known, drifted for several years, traveling from town to town trying to earn a living, at one point losing his life when he nearly fell from a moving train, being chased by railroad police. In his 20s, he attended barber school, got married, moved first to Roy, New Mexico returned to Turkey in Hall County to work as a barber at Hamm's Barber Shop, he alternated barbering and fiddling when he moved to Fort Worth, Texas after leaving Hall County in 1929. There he played in minstrel and medicine shows, and, as with other Texas musicians such as Ocie Stockard, continued to earn money as a barber, he wore blackface makeup to appear in comedy routines, something, common at the time. "He was playing his violin and singing." There were a banjo player with him. "Bob was the comic. However, it was as Jim Rob Wills, paired with Herman Arnspiger, that he made his first commercial recordings in November 1929 for Brunswick/Vocalion. Wills was known for his wisecracking.

One source for this was when, as a young boy, he heard his father and cowboys give out loud cries when the music moved them. When asked if his wisecracking and talking on the bandstand came from his medicine show experience, he said it did not. Rather, he said that it came directly from playing and living close to Negroes, that he never did it as show, but more as a way to express his feelings. While in Fort Worth, Wills added the "rowdy city blues" of Bessie Smith and Emmett Miller to a repertoire of waltzes and breakdowns he had learned from his father, patterned his vocal style after that of Miller and other performers such as Al Bernard. Wills acknowledged. Furthermore, his 1935 version of "St. Louis Blues" is nearly a word-for-word copy of Al Bernard's patter on his 1928 recording of the same song; that Wills made his professional debut in blackface was commented on by Wills' daughter, Rosetta: "He had a lot of respect for the musicians and music of his black friends," Rosetta is quoted as saying on the Bob Wills and the Texas Playboys website.

She remembers that her father was such a fan of Bessie Smith that "e once rode fifty miles on ho

Bering tundra

The Bering tundra ecoregion is an ecoregion that covers a portion of northeastern Russia, between the Kolyma Mountains on the west, the Bering Sea coast to the east. The area is an important stopping place for migratory birds, it has an area of 474,227 square kilometres. The ecoregion stretches 1,000 km on alignment from southwest-to-northeast, between the Kolyma Mountains on the west, the Bering Sea coast to the east, Kamchatka peninsula to the south; the climate of Koryak is Humid cool summer. This climate is characterised by long cold winters, short, cool summers. Mean precipitation is about 358 mm/year; the mean temperature at the center of the ecoregion is −24.1 °C in January, 12.2 °C in July. The ecoregion supports fauna typical of forest-tundra. Low-lying areas may feature willow and alder on floodplains. Elsewhere the ground cover is grasses and members of the families Asteraceae and Rosaceae. Mosses and lichens take over at higher elevations. Species diversity is low due to the harsh climate and the isolation of the area since glacial times.

Large mammals the include the East Siberian brown bear, the Anadyr fox, some bighorn sheep in the highlands. Common smaller mammals include the American mink. Large colonies of migrating birds rest or nest in the area every summer and autumn. Numbers of over 700,000 individuals and 200 species have been recorded in the ecoregion. There is at least one significant nationally protected area in this ecoregion, the Koryak Nature Reserve, on the northeastern region of Kamchatka, stretching from mountains to the coast. List of ecoregions in Russia


Flühli is a municipality in the district of Entlebuch in the canton of Lucerne in Switzerland. The municipality consists of the villages of Sörenberg, which form independent parishes. Flühli is part of the UNESCO Entlebuch Biosphere Reserve since 2001. Flühli is first mentioned in the 17th Century as güetli uf dem Flüöli; the battle of Sörenberg was fought in 1380 between Entlebuch. The region was only settled year-round in the 17th Century; the municipality of Flühli is the largest in the canton of Lucerne and is located in the Alpine foothills in the valley of the Waldemme river. It consists of the villages of Flühli and, further up Sörenberg; the municipality rises up to its highest points, at the Brienzer Rothorn and Tannhorn summits of the Emmental Alps. The municipality of Flühli has an area of 108.1 km2. Of this area, 44.8 % is used for agricultural purposes. Of the rest of the land, 2.2% is settled and the remainder is non-productive. In the 1997 land survey, 37.89% of the total land area was forested.

Of the agricultural land, 44.79% is used for farming or pastures, while 0.06% is used for orchards or vine crops. Of the settled areas, 0.94% is covered with buildings, 0.06% is industrial, 0.18% is classed as special developments, 0.04% is parks or greenbelts and 0.99% is transportation infrastructure. Of the unproductive areas, 0.02% is unproductive standing water, 1.01% is unproductive flowing water and 14.03% is other unproductive land. Flühli has a population of 1,961; as of 2007, 15.6% of the population was made up of foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has grown at a rate of 4.9%. Most of the population speaks German, with Albanian being second most common and Italian being third. In the 2007 election the most popular party was the CVP; the next three most popular parties were the SVP, the FDP and the SPS. The age distribution in Flühli is. 577 people or 30% are 20–39 years old, 561 people or 29.2% are 40–64 years old. The senior population distribution is 205 people or 10.7% are 65–79 years old, 69 or 3.6% are 80–89 years old and 8 people or 0.4% of the population are 90+ years old.

The entire Swiss population is well educated. In Flühli about 58.1% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education. As of 2000 there are 595 households. 97 or about 16.3% are large households, with at least five members. As of 2000 there were 401 inhabited buildings in the municipality, of which 217 were built only as housing, 184 were mixed use buildings. There were 137 single family homes, 47 double family homes, 33 multi-family homes in the municipality. Most homes were either three story structures. There were 13 four or more story buildings. Flühli has an unemployment rate of 0.64%. As of 2005, there were 250 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 102 businesses involved in this sector. 87 people are employed in the secondary sector and there are 24 businesses in this sector. 346 people are employed in the tertiary sector, with 65 businesses in this sector. As of 2000 45.9% of the population of the municipality were employed in some capacity.

At the same time, females made up 35.2% of the workforce. In the 2000 census the religious membership of Flühli was. There are 40 individuals. Of the rest; the historical population is given in the following table: Flühli in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland