Connie Haines was an American singer and actress. Her 200 recordings were up-tempo big band songs with the Harry James and Tommy Dorsey orchestras, Frank Sinatra. Born Yvonne Marie Antoinette Jasme in Savannah, Haines was of French-Irish descent, her mother Mildred JaMais died about sixteen months after her daughter, shortly before her 111th birthday. She began performing at age 4 as a singer in Pick Malone's Saucy Baby Show in Savannah, by age 9 had a regular radio show performing as "Baby Yvonne Marie, the Little Princess of the Air", her professional debut in New York came at the Roxy Theatre when she was 14. After a number of regional successes and winning the Major Bowes contest, she was hired by Harry James, who asked her to change her name. In 1981, she recalled: "He said, and there would be no room on the marquee for me. You look like a Connie to me." She became the lead singer on The Abbott and Costello Show from 1942 to 1946. She joined Tommy Dorsey, Haines credited Dorsey with developing her style further.
Haines performed including Duchess of Idaho. In the early 1950s, Haines had a program, Connie Haines Entertains, on the short-lived Progressive Broadcasting System, she did a television show with Frankie Laine. On February 7, 1960, she became hostess of Faith of Our Children. Beginning June 18, 1961, Haines had her own TV program, the Connie Haines Show, which featured Ziggie Elman, Frankie Carle and the Steiner Brothers. Haines gave "command performances before three presidents of the United States: Dwight Eisenhower, John Kennedy and Lyndon Johnson." In the early 1950s, Haines joined with Jane Russell, Beryl Davis and Della Russell to do an impromptu performance at a charity night for Hollywood Episcopal Church. Their version of the spiritual Do Lord not only entertained the audience but attracted the attention of people in the recording industry. With a recording contract in hand, the group recorded several gospel songs, donating all of their royalties to the churches to which each belonged.
The group appeared on The Colgate Comedy Hour and the Arthur Murray program on television. As part of Motown Records diverse signing of new and established artists, in 1963 Haines was one of the first white singer to record for Motown recording 14 songs written by Smokey Robinson, including her 1963 release "What's Easy For Two Is Hard For One" recorded by Mary Wells. In 1965 she recorded a version of the as-yet-unreleased song "For Once in My Life", a hit for Stevie Wonder, but her version was not released until 2015, she was divorced twice. Her first marriage, on September 7, 1951, was to World War II flying ace Robert DeHaven, a Hughes Aircraft executive and test pilot, in 1951; that marriage produced a daughter. Haines and DeHaven were divorced February 19, 1962, her subsequent marriage to popular bandleader Del Courtney lasted from 1966 to 1972. In the late 1950s, Haines struggled with physical problems that left her paralyzed for more than a year, she was pregnant with her second child and performing at the Biltmore Bowl in Los Angeles when she began to have trouble walking.
She had to enter a hospital. A newspaper article said: "X-rays showed that her hip bones had separated and one was dangling, twisting the spinal cord. A hormone imbalance aggravated her condition and she was ordered to bed." After her son was born, she was paralyzed for 13 additional months. In 2002, Haines was in an automobile accident. In 1969, Haines became hostess of the Prize Movie weekday broadcast on Channel 7 in San Francisco. After studying two years at Unity Village, Haines was ordained a minister in the Unity Church in August 1975, she first ministered with a church in Sacramento and worked with Christ Church Unity in El Cajon, California. In 1980, she performed on "G. I. Jive," a television musical special billed as a nostalgic tribute to World War II entertainers, it was shown on PBS stations across the country. It was repeated throughout the 1980s. In 1981, Haines described herself as "an ambassadoress for Home Savings and Loan," adding that the firm provided concerts to raise funds for charities.
Connie Haines died of myasthenia gravis on September 22, 2008 at age 87. She was survived by her son, sister and 109-year-old mother, Mildred JaMais. "It's All Over Now" / "If I Had You" "They're Mine, They're Mine, They're Mine" / "But What Are These?" "You Made Me Love You" / "Will You Still Be Mine?" "Today's Hits" "On the Corner" / "Ol' Man Mose" "What's Easy for Two Is Hard for One" "Midnight Johnny" "Connie Haines Sings" "Tribute to Helen Morgan" "Singin’ and Swingin’" "Nightingale from Savannah" "The Magic of Believing" "Heart and Soul of Connie" "Kiss the Boys Goodbye" Birth of a Band.... Herself Duchess of Idaho.... Peggy Elliot A Wave, a WAC and a Marine.... Singer Twilight on the Prairie.... Ginger Moon Over Las Vegas.... Herself Connie Haines Interviews NAMM Oral History Library
Julie London was an American singer and actress, whose career spanned more than 40 years. Born in Santa Rosa, California to Vaudevillian parents, London was discovered while working as an elevator operator in downtown Los Angeles, began her career as an actress. London's 35-year acting career began in film in 1944, included roles as the female lead in numerous Westerns, co-starring with Rock Hudson in The Fat Man, with Robert Taylor and John Cassavetes in Saddle the Wind, opposite Robert Mitchum in The Wonderful Country. In the mid-1950s, she signed a recording contract with the newly established Liberty Records, released a total of 32 albums of pop and jazz standards during the 1950s and 1960s, with her signature song being "Cry Me a River", which she introduced in 1955. London was noted by critics for languid vocal style, she released her final studio album in 1969, but achieved continuing success playing the female starring role of Nurse Dixie McCall, in the television series Emergency!, in which she appeared opposite her real-life husband, Bobby Troup.
The show was produced by her ex-husband, Jack Webb. A shy and introverted woman, London granted interviews, spent the remainder of her life out of the public sphere. In 1995, she suffered a stroke, which left her with permanent health problems, died five years of a heart attack. Julie London was born Julie Peck on September 26, 1926, in Santa Rosa, the only child of Josephine and Jack Peck, who were a vaudeville song-and-dance team. At one time, her mother worked in a pharmacy. In 1929, when she was three years old, the family moved to San Bernardino, where she made her professional singing debut on her parents' radio program. Throughout her early life, both London and her mother were admirers of Billie Holiday. London was described by friends and family as a shy child "without much self-confidence."In 1941, when she was 14, her family moved to Hollywood. In her teenaged years, she began to sing in local nightclubs in Los Angeles, she graduated from the Hollywood Professional School in 1945, worked as an elevator operator in downtown Los Angeles throughout high school.
In 1943, London met Sue Carol, a talent agent and then-wife of actor Alan Ladd, while operating the elevator at Roos Bros. an upscale clothing store on Hollywood Boulevard. Struck by London's features, Carol facilitated a screen test for the inexperienced actress, London signed a contract with her. London subsequently met Esquire photographer Henry Waxman while working her second job as a clerk at a menswear store, he shot photographs of her that appeared in the magazine's November 1943 issue; these photos helped establish her as a pin-up girl prized by GIs during World War II. She made her film debut while still in high school, appearing under the name Julie London in the exploitation film Nabonga in 1944. After a series of uncredited roles, she signed a contract with Warner Bros. Pictures, appearing in the war film Task Force and the Western Return of the Frontiersman, she was cast in the lead role of Pat Boyd in the William Castle-directed film noir The Fat Man, opposite J. Scott Smart and Rock Hudson.
London completed shooting the film in August 1950. After Warner Bros. dropped her contract, London was offered a contract with Universal Pictures based on the role, but turned it down, opting instead to focus on her marriage to actor Jack Webb. After divorcing Webb in 1954, London resumed her career, appearing in the drama film The Fighting Chance, filmed in May 1955 and released by 20th Century Fox. Earlier in 1955, London was spotted singing at a jazz club in Los Angeles by record producer Simon Waronker, recommended to her by her friend Bobby Troup. Despite her notable stage fright, Waronker was impressed by London's vocals and delivery, recalled that "The lyrics poured out of her like a hurt bird." Waronker convinced London to pursue a recording career, signed her with the then-newly established Liberty Records. London recorded 32 albums in a career that began in 1955 with a live performance at the 881 Club in Los Angeles, her debut album, Julie Is Her Name, was released in December of that year after a self-titled single, Billboard named her the most popular female vocalist for 1955, 1956, 1957.
She was the subject of a 1957 Life cover article in which she was quoted as saying, "It's only a thimbleful of a voice, I have to use it close to the microphone. But it is a kind of oversmoked voice, it automatically sounds intimate."London's debut recordings were completed under the New York-based Bethlehem Records label. Four additional tracks recorded during these sessions were included on the album Bethlehem's Girlfriends, a compilation album released in 1957. Bobby Troup was one of the session musicians on the album. London recorded the standards "Don't Worry About Me", "Motherless Child", "A Foggy Day", "You're Blasé". London's most famous single, "Cry Me a River", was written by her high-school classmate Arthur Hamilton and produced by Troup; the recording became a million-seller after its release on her debut album in 1955. While her music career earned her public notice, London continued to appear in films, with lead roles in the film noir Crime Against Joe, as well as appearing as herself in the Jayne Mansfield musical comedy The Girl Can't Help It, in which London performs three songs, including "Cry Me a River".
The film was a box-office success, became one of the top-30 highest-grossing films of 1956. London subsequently appeared in a television advertisement for Marl
James Kern Kyser, known as Kay Kyser, was an American bandleader and radio personality of the 1930s and 1940s. James Kern Kyser was born in Rocky Mount, North Carolina, the son of pharmacists Emily Royster and Paul Bynum Kyser. Journalist and newspaper editor Vermont C. Royster was his cousin. Kyser graduated from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill with a Bachelor of Arts degree, he was senior class president. Owing to his popularity and enthusiasm as a cheerleader, he was invited by Hal Kemp to take over as bandleader when Kemp ventured north to further his career, he was better as an entertaining announcer than a musician. He adopted the initial of his middle name for its alliterative effect. See main article, Kay Kyser's Kollege of Musical Knowledge. Long before his national success, Kyser recorded two sessions for Victor in the late 1920s; these were issued on Victor's V-40000 series devoted to country music and regional dance bands. Following graduation and his band, which included Sully Mason on saxophone and arranger George Duning, toured Midwest restaurants and night clubs and built a following.
They were popular at Chicago's Blackhawk restaurant, where Kyser came up with an act combining a quiz with music which became "Kay Kyser's Kollege of Musical Knowledge." The act was broadcast on the Mutual Broadcasting System in 1938 and moved to NBC Radio from 1939 to 1949. The show spawned many imitators. Kyser led the band as "The Ol' Perfessor," spouting catchphrases, some with a degree of Southern American English terms: "That's right—you're wrong", "Evenin' folks, how y'all?" and "C'mon, chillun! Le's dance!" Although Kyser and his orchestra gained fame through the "Kollege of Musical Knowledge," they were a successful band in their own right. They had 11 number one records, including some of the most popular songs of the late 1930s and early 1940s. Unlike most other big bands of the era, which centered on only the bandleader, individual members of Kyser's band became stars in their own right and would receive the spotlight; some of the more popular members included vocalist Harry Babbitt, cornetist Merwyn Bogue, trombonist Bruce King, saxophonist Jack Martin, Ginny Simms, Sully Mason, Mike Douglas and Georgia Carroll.
Carroll, a blond fashion model and actress whose best-known role was Betsy Ross in Yankee Doodle Dandy, was dubbed "Gorgeous Georgia Carroll" when she joined the group in 1943. Within a year and Kyser married. Kyser was known for singing song titles, a device copied by Sammy Kaye and Blue Barron; when the song began, one of the band's lead singers sang the title phrase, the first verse or two of the song was performed instrumentally before the lyrics resumed. Several of his recordings spawned catch phrases, such as "Praise the Lord and Pass the Ammunition", his group had a major hit with the novelty tune, "Three Little Fishes". It sold over one million copies, was awarded a gold disc by the RIAA. During the Swing Era, Hal Kemp and Tal Henry performed in or near New York City, making possible a reunion of North Carolina musicians. After retirement and Henry got together to share music world memories. During the late 1930s and early 1940s, Kyser's band appeared in several motion pictures as themselves, beginning with the successful That's Right - You're Wrong, You'll Find Out, Playmates and My Favorite Spy.
Some of the films built a plot around the band. Around the World fictionalized the band's international tours of military camps. In Carolina Blues, Kyser has to replace his lead singer. Caught in a jam, he reluctantly hires the daughter of a powerful defense plant owner, played by Ann Miller. Two of the band's best-known performance appearances were in 1943 when they appeared in the wartime films Stage Door Canteen and Thousands Cheer. Kyser appeared as a light comedian. Kyser is the dupe in a scam. Kyser appeared in a Porky Pig cartoon, Africa Squeaks. In the cartoon, he voiced a caricature of himself called "Cake-Icer," at the request of director Bob Clampett. After the war, Kyser's band continued to record hit records, including two featuring Jane Russell as vocalist. It's All Up to You features vocals by Frank Sinatra and Dinah Shore, although Kyser's participation in this recording is disputed, record label showing Axel Stordahl as conductor. Kyser had intended to retire following the end of the war, but performance and recording contracts kept him in show business for another half decade.
During this time, Kyser made a cameo appearance in a Batman comic book. Kyser was first to introduce the new sonic audio process called the'sonovox', a singing electronic voice triggered by music; the Sonovox would be used by Jingle Companies such as PAMS and JAM Creative Productions, said jingles would be used in heavy rotation by rock radio stations such as WABC, WMEX, WXYZ, KONO, WKDA, WHTZ. In 1949 and 1950, "Kay Kyser's Kollege of Musical Knowledge" aired on NBC-TV. In addition to Kyser, the TV show featured Ish Kabibble and vocalists Mike Douglas, Sue Bennett and Liza Palmer, plus The Honeydreamers vocal group and the dance team of Diane Sinclair and Ken Spaulding. Ben Grauer was the ann
Camp Gilbert H. Johnson
Camp Gilbert H. Johnson is a satellite camp of Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune in Jacksonville, North Carolina and home to the Marine Corps Combat Service Support Schools, where various support military occupational specialties such as administration, logistics and motor transport maintenance are trained. Camp Johnson is situated on Montford Point, the site of recruit training for the first African Americans to serve in the Marine Corps, known as "Montford Point Marines"; the purpose of the camp is to conduct formal resident training for officers and enlisted personnel in the occupational fields of logistics, motor transport, personnel administration and financial management, as well as to conduct instructional management and combat water survival swim training. In addition to training Marines, Camp Johnson houses the Field Medical Training Battalion, which trains corpsmen and religious program specialists of the Navy; the commanding officer of MCCSSS serves as the area commander of Camp Johnson, provides administrative support to various tenant commands.
When Franklin D. Roosevelt signed Executive Order 8802, blacks were, for the first time, permitted to join the Marine Corps. One of the first African Americans to enlist in the United States Marine Corps was Gilbert "Hashmark" Johnson, who became a drill instructor. Between 1942 and 1949, the camp at Montford Point was a recruit depot for black recruits, training 20,000 African Americans during that period. In 1948, by Executive Order 9981, President Harry S. Truman ordered the military to integrate. In 1974, Montford Point was renamed Camp Gilbert H. Johnson in honor of the late Sergeant Major Gilbert H. "Hashmark" Johnson. A Montford Point drill instructor, he served during the Korean War. Camp Johnson became the home of the Marine Corps Combat Service Support Schools. In 2007, a documentary entitled The Montford Point Marine Project was released, honoring the black Marines who trained at Montford Point. Camp Johnson is home to the Montford Point Marines Museum; the museum is located in the East Wing of building M101.
The museum houses pictures of the camp during its years as a boot camp. Outside the gate of Camp Johnson stands a tribute to Marines and sailors who gave their lives trying to keep the peace in Lebanon; the Beirut Memorial is the site of an annual commemoration of the October 1983 Beirut barracks bombing, when 241 Marines and soldiers were killed. This area is home to a "9/11" memorial, a Vietnam War memorial; the "9/11" memorial features a beam salvaged from the tower wreckage. The memorial area is well maintained and is used for many ceremonies, from promotions to retirements; the built Vietnam Memorial consists of many thick glass panes erected from the ground in a circular shape. Each pane of glass is etched with the names of all the service men and women who gave their lives during the Vietnam war. In the center of the memorial is a large water fountain. Directly across the street is the North Carolina Veterans Cemetery; this cemetery is the resting place to many of Marine veterans. Funerals with "Military Honors" are done on site.
Funeral details are provided by the personnel of MCCSSS, Camp Johnson, neighboring units. Desegregation in the United States Marine Corps Montford Point Marine Association List of United States Marine Corps installations Military history of African Americans Frederick C. Branch "Camp Johnson's official website". Archived from the original on 2007-11-06. Retrieved 2007-11-21. "Montford Point Marine Association". Retrieved 2006-12-30. "News article on documentary". Retrieved 2007-03-09. Montford Point Marines Museum Bernard C. Nalty. "Face-to-Face with Segregation". The Right to Fight: African-American Marines in World War II. Marines in World War II Commemorative Series. United States Marine Corps. Retrieved 2006-12-29. Melton McLaurin. "Montford Point Marines". University of North Carolina Wilmington. Retrieved 2006-12-30
Harrisburg is the capital city of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, the county seat of Dauphin County. With a population of 49,192, it is the 15th largest city in the Commonwealth, it lies on the east bank of the Susquehanna River, 107 miles west of Philadelphia. Harrisburg is the anchor of the Susquehanna Valley metropolitan area, which had a 2017 estimated population of 571,903, making it the fourth most populous in Pennsylvania and 96th most populous in the United States. Harrisburg played a notable role in American history during the Westward Migration, the American Civil War, the Industrial Revolution. During part of the 19th century, the building of the Pennsylvania Canal and the Pennsylvania Railroad allowed Harrisburg to become one of the most industrialized cities in the Northeastern United States; the U. S. Navy ship USS Harrisburg, which served from 1918 to 1919 at the end of World War I, was named in honor of the city. In the mid-to-late 20th century, the city's economic fortunes fluctuated with its major industries consisting of government, heavy manufacturing and food services.
The Pennsylvania Farm Show, the largest free indoor agriculture exposition in the United States, was first held in Harrisburg in 1917 and has been held there every early-to-mid January since then. Harrisburg hosts an annual outdoor sports show, the largest of its kind in North America, an auto show, which features a large static display of new as well as classic cars and is renowned nationwide, Motorama, a two-day event consisting of a car show, motocross racing, remote control car racing, more. Harrisburg is known for the Three Mile Island accident, which occurred on March 28, 1979, near Middletown. In 2010 Forbes rated Harrisburg as the second best place in the U. S. to raise a family. Despite the city's recent financial troubles, in 2010 The Daily Beast website ranked 20 metropolitan areas across the country as being recession-proof, the Harrisburg region landed at No. 7. The financial stability of the region is in part due to the high concentration of state and federal government agencies.
Harrisburg's site along the Susquehanna River is thought to have been inhabited by Native Americans as early as 3000 BC. Known to the Native Americans as "Peixtin", or "Paxtang", the area was an important resting place and crossroads for Native American traders, as the trails leading from the Delaware to the Ohio rivers, from the Potomac to the Upper Susquehanna intersected there; the first European contact with Native Americans in Pennsylvania was made by the Englishman, Captain John Smith, who journeyed from Virginia up the Susquehanna River in 1608 and visited with the Susquehanna tribe. In 1719, John Harris, Sr. an English trader, settled here and 14 years secured grants of 800 acres in this vicinity. In 1785, John Harris, Jr. made plans to lay out a town on his father's land, which he named Harrisburg. In the spring of 1785, the town was formally surveyed by William Maclay, a son-in-law of John Harris, Sr. In 1791, Harrisburg became incorporated, in October 1812 it was named the Pennsylvania state capital, which it has remained since.
The assembling here of the sectional Harrisburg Convention in 1827 led to the passage of the high protective-tariff bill of 1828. In 1839, Harrison and Tyler were nominated for President of the United States at the first national convention of the Whig Party of the United States, held in Harrisburg. Before Harrisburg gained its first industries, it was a scenic, pastoral town, typical of most of the day: compact and surrounded by farmland. In 1822, the impressive brick capitol was completed for $200,000, it was Harrisburg's strategic location. It was settled as a trading post in 1719 at a location important to Westward expansion; the importance of the location was. The Susquehanna River flowed west to east at this location, providing a route for boat traffic from the east; the head of navigation was a short distance northwest of the town, where the river flowed through the pass. Persons arriving from the east by boat had to exit at Harrisburg and prepare for an overland journey westward through the mountain pass.
Harrisburg assumed importance as a provisioning stop at this point where westward bound pioneers transitioned from river travel to overland travel. It was because of its strategic location that the state legislature selected the small town of Harrisburg to become the state capital in 1812; the grandeur of the Colonial Revival capitol dominated the quaint town. The streets were orderly and platted in grid pattern; the Pennsylvania Canal was coursed the length of the town. The residential houses were situated on only a few city blocks stretching southward from the capitol, they were one story. No factories were present but there were blacksmith shops and other businesses. During the American Civil War, Harrisburg was a significant training center for the Union Army, with tens of thousands of troops passing through Camp Curtin, it was a major rail center for the Union and a vital link between the Atlantic coast and the Midwest, with several railroads running through the city and spanning the Susquehanna River.
As a result of this importance, it was a target of General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia during its two invasions; the first time during the 1862 Maryland Campaign, when Lee planned to capture the city after taking Harpers Ferry, West Virginia, but was prevented from d
The National Broadcasting Company is an American English-language commercial terrestrial television network, a flagship property of NBCUniversal, a subsidiary of Comcast. The network is headquartered at 30 Rockefeller Plaza in New York City, with additional major offices near Los Angeles and Philadelphia; the network is one of the Big Three television networks. NBC is sometimes referred to as the "Peacock Network", in reference to its stylized peacock logo, introduced in 1956 to promote the company's innovations in early color broadcasting, it became the network's official emblem in 1979. Founded in 1926 by the Radio Corporation of America, NBC is the oldest major broadcast network in the United States. At that time the parent company of RCA was General Electric. In 1930, GE was forced to sell the companies as a result of antitrust charges. In 1986, control of NBC passed back to General Electric through its $6.4 billion purchase of RCA. Following the acquisition by GE, Bob Wright served as chief executive officer of NBC, remaining in that position until his retirement in 2007, when he was succeeded by Jeff Zucker.
In 2003, French media company Vivendi merged its entertainment assets with GE, forming NBC Universal. Comcast purchased a controlling interest in the company in 2011, acquired General Electric's remaining stake in 2013. Following the Comcast merger, Zucker left NBCUniversal and was replaced as CEO by Comcast executive Steve Burke. NBC has thirteen owned-and-operated stations and nearly 200 affiliates throughout the United States and its territories, some of which are available in Canada and/or Mexico via pay-television providers or in border areas over-the-air. During a period of early broadcast business consolidation, radio manufacturer Radio Corporation of America acquired New York City radio station WEAF from American Telephone & Telegraph. Westinghouse, a shareholder in RCA, had a competing outlet in Newark, New Jersey pioneer station WJZ, which served as the flagship for a loosely structured network; this station was transferred from Westinghouse to RCA in 1923, moved to New York City. WEAF acted as a laboratory for AT&T's manufacturing and supply outlet Western Electric, whose products included transmitters and antennas.
The Bell System, AT&T's telephone utility, was developing technologies to transmit voice- and music-grade audio over short and long distances, using both wireless and wired methods. The 1922 creation of WEAF offered a research-and-development center for those activities. WEAF maintained a regular schedule of radio programs, including some of the first commercially sponsored programs, was an immediate success. In an early example of "chain" or "networking" broadcasting, the station linked with Outlet Company-owned WJAR in Providence, Rhode Island. C. WCAP. New parent RCA saw an advantage in sharing programming, after getting a license for radio station WRC in Washington, D. C. in 1923, attempted to transmit audio between cities via low-quality telegraph lines. AT&T refused outside companies access to its high-quality phone lines; the early effort fared poorly, since the uninsulated telegraph lines were susceptible to atmospheric and other electrical interference. In 1925, AT&T decided that WEAF and its embryonic network were incompatible with the company's primary goal of providing a telephone service.
AT&T offered to sell the station to RCA in a deal that included the right to lease AT&T's phone lines for network transmission. RCA spent $1 million to purchase WEAF and Washington sister station WCAP, shut down the latter station, merged its facilities with surviving station WRC; the division's ownership was split among RCA, its founding corporate parent General Electric and Westinghouse. NBC started broadcasting on November 15, 1926. WEAF and WJZ, the flagships of the two earlier networks, were operated side-by-side for about a year as part of the new NBC. On January 1, 1927, NBC formally divided their respective marketing strategies: the "Red Network" offered commercially sponsored entertainment and music programming. Various histories of NBC suggest the color designations for the two networks came from the color of the pushpins NBC engineers used to designate affiliate stations of WEAF and WJZ, or from the use of double-ended red and blue colored pencils. On April 5, 1927, NBC expanded to the West Coast with the launch of the NBC Orange Network known as the Pacific Coast Network.
This was followed by the debut of the NBC Gold Network known as the Pacific Gold Network, on October 18, 1931. The Orange Network carried Red Network programming, the Gold Network carried programming from the Blue Network; the Orange Network recreated Eastern Red Network programming for West Coast stations at KPO in San Francisco. In 1936, the Orange Network affiliate stations became part of the Red Network, at the same time the Gold Network became part of the Blue Network. In the 1930s, NBC developed a network for shortwave radio stations, called the NBC White Network. In 1927, NBC moved its operations to 711 Fifth Avenue in Manhattan, occupying the upper floors of a building de
Frederick Bean "Tex" Avery was an American animator, director and voice actor, known for producing and directing animated cartoons during the golden age of American animation. His most significant work was for the Warner Bros. and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer studios, where he was crucial in the creation and evolution of famous animated characters such as Bugs Bunny, Daffy Duck, Porky Pig, Elmer Fudd, Screwy Squirrel and Junior, Chilly Willy. Gary Morris described Avery's innovative approach:Above all, steered the Warner Bros. house style away from Disney-esque sentimentality and made cartoons that appealed to adults, who appreciated Avery's speed and irony, to kids, who liked the nonstop action. Disney's "cute and cuddly" creatures, under Avery's guidance, were transformed into unflappable wits like Bugs Bunny, endearing buffoons like Porky Pig, or dazzling crazies like Daffy Duck; the classic fairy tale, a market that Disney had cornered, was appropriated by Avery, who made innocent heroines like Red Riding Hood into sexy jazz babes, more than a match for any Wolf.
Avery endeared himself to intellectuals by breaking through the artifice of the cartoon, having characters leap out of the end credits, loudly object to the plot of the cartoon they were starring in, or speak directly to the audience. Avery's style of directing encouraged animators to stretch the boundaries of the medium to do things in a cartoon that could not be done in the world of live-action film. An often-quoted line about Avery's cartoons was, "In a cartoon you can do anything." He performed a great deal of voice work in his cartoons throwaway bits. Avery was born to George Walton Avery and Mary Augusta "Jessie" in Texas, his father was born in Alabama and his mother was born in Chickasaw County, Mississippi. His paternal grandparents were Needham Avery and his wife, Lucinda C. Baxly, his maternal grandparents were his wife Minnie Edgar. His paternal great-grandparents were wife Elizabeth Brannon Avery. Avery, nicknamed "Tex", "Fred", "Texas", was born and raised in Taylor, Texas, a small town in the vicinity of Austin.
Avery graduated in 1926 from North Dallas High School. A popular catchphrase at his school was "What's up, doc?", which he would utilize for Bugs Bunny in the 1940s. Interested in becoming a newspaper cartoonist, he took a summer course at the Chicago Art Institute. On January 1, 1928, Avery arrived in Los Angeles, he spent the following months working in menial jobs. According to animation historian Michael Barrier, these jobs included working in a warehouse, working on the docks at night, loading fruits and vegetables, painting cars, he began his animation career. He was only an inker, inking cels for animated short films in the Oswald the Lucky Rabbit series. Avery moved to a new studio, Universal Studio Cartoons, he was again employed as an inker, but moved up the studio's hierarchy. By 1930, Avery had been promoted to the position of animator. Avery at the start of his animation career continued being employed by the Walter Lantz Studio in the early 1930s, he worked on the majority of the Oswald the Lucky Rabbit cartoons from 1931 to 1935.
He is shown as'animator' on the original title card credits on the Oswald cartoons. He claimed to have directed two cartoons during this time. During some office horseplay at the Lantz studio, a thumbtack or paper clip flew into Avery's left eye and caused him to lose his sight in that eye; some speculate it was his lack of depth perception that gave him his unique look at animation and bizarre directorial style, but it did not stop his creative career. The incident is described in some detail based in part on old interviews with Avery. Part of the typical crude horseplay at the Universal studio was using a rubber band or a paper spitball to target the back of a colleague's head, they would shout "Bull's eye" after every successful shot. An animator called Charles Hastings decided to take the game one step further, by using a wire paper clip instead. Avery heard one of his colleagues telling him to look out, he reacted by turning around. Instead of the back of his head, the paper clip hit Avery in his left eye.
He lost use of his eye. As an animator, Avery worked under director Bill Nolan. Nolan delegated work to Avery, whenever Avery had to animate a sequence. Nolan's instructions for a scene involving Oswald being chased by bees, were simple, he would describe. The rest of the details were left up to Avery. Avery started handing out work to other animators working under Nolan, he still wanted more control over the creative process, served as a de facto director for a couple of films. Based on Avery's recollections, there is a description of, he was submitting sight gags for use in the short films. Some of them wer