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Bobsleigh or bobsled is a team winter sport that involves making timed runs down narrow, banked, iced tracks in a gravity-powered sleigh. International bobsleigh competitions are governed by the International Bobsleigh and Skeleton Federation known as FIBT from the French Fédération Internationale de Bobsleigh et de Tobogganing. National competitions are governed by bodies such as the United States Bobsled and Skeleton Federation and Bobsleigh Canada Skeleton; the first bobsleds were built in St. Moritz, Switzerland, in the late 19th century by wealthy tourists from Victorian Britain who were staying at the Palace Hotel owned by Caspar Badrutt; the early sleds were adapted from boys' delivery toboggans. These evolved into bobsleighs and skeletons; the tourists would race their hand-built contraptions down the narrow streets of St. Moritz, however, as collisions increased growing opposition from St Moritz residents led to bobsledding being banned from public highways. In the winter of 1884, Badrutt had a purpose-built run constructed near the hamlet of Cresta.

The Cresta Run is the home of the St. Moritz Tobogganing Club, it is still in use. Modern Bobsleigh teams compete to complete a downhill route in the fastest times. An aggregate time from several runs is used to determine the winners; the four-man event has been featured since the first Winter Games in 1924 in France. The only exception was the 1960 games in Squaw Valley when the organizing committee decided not to build a track to reduce costs; the two-man event was introduced at the 1932 games and a two-woman event was first contested at the 2002 Winter Olympics. The name is derived from the action some early competitors adopted of bobbing back and forth inside their sleds to increase speed. Although sledding on snow or ice had long been popular in many northern countries, the origins of bobsleighing as a modern sport are recent, its foundation began when hotelier Caspar Badrutt convinced some wealthy English regulars to remain through the entire winter at his hotel in the mineral spa town of St. Moritz, Switzerland.

He had been frustrated. By keeping his guests entertained with food and activities, he established the concept of "winter resorting". Within a few years, wintering at Badrutt's St Moritz hotel became fashionable in Victorian Britain. However, with increased numbers this led some guests to search for new diversions. In the early 1870s some adventurous Englishmen began adapting boys' delivery sleds for recreational purposes. However, when they began colliding with pedestrians in the icy lanes and roads of St Moritz, this led to the invention of "steering means" for the sleds; the basic bobsleigh consisted of two cresta's attached together with a board that had a steering mechanism at the front. The ability to steer meant. Longer runs meant higher speeds on curves. Local sentiments varied about these informal competitions but complaints grew so vociferous that Badrutt had to do something, his solution was to build a basic natural ice run for his guests outside the town near the small hamlet named Cresta in the lates 1870s.

Badrutt took action because he did not want to make enemies in the town and he had worked hard and investing a lot of time and money in popularizing wintering in St. Moritz so he was not going to let customers stop coming due to boredom. Formal competitions started down the natural ice Cresta Run in 1884, built in an annual partnership between guests and local people; the run, still in operation as of 2014, has served as a host track for skeleton at two Winter Olympics. As one of the few natural weather tracks in the world, it does not use artificial refrigeration, it is not known how much the original track evolved in the early years as the three sports matured and stabilized. The first club formed in 1897, the first purpose-built track for bobsleds opened in 1902 outside St Moritz. Over the years, bobsleigh tracks evolved from straight runs to turning tracks; the original wooden sleds gave way to streamlined fiberglass and metal ones. The International Bobsleigh and Skeleton Federation was founded in 1923.

Men's four-man bobsleigh appeared in the first Winter Olympic Games in 1924, the men's two-man bobsleigh event was added in 1932. Though not included in the 1960 Winter Olympics, bobsleigh has featured in every Winter Olympics since. Women's bobsleigh competition began in the US in 1983 with two demonstration races in Lake Placid, New York, one held in February and the second held during the World Cup races in March 1983. Women's two-woman bobsleigh made its Olympic debut at the 2002 Winter Olympic Games. Bobsleigh is contested at American and World Cup championships. Germany and Switzerland have proven the most successful bobsleighing nations measured by overall success in European, World Cup, Olympic championships. Since the 1990s Germans have dominated in international competition, having won more medals than any other nation. Italy, United States and Canada have strong bobsleigh traditions. Bobsleighs can attain speeds of 150 km/h, with the reported world record being 201 km/h."Bobsleigh competitors are noble".

The World Fair Play Trophy was awarded to an Italian bobsleigh competitor, Eugenio Monti, 1964 30 years to an Australian bobsleigh competitor, Justin McDonald, 1994. Modern tracks are made of concrete, coated with ice, they are required to have at least one straight section and o

Harinagar, Bihar

Harinagar is a small village in Kusheswar Asthan West Block in Darbhanga district in Bihar, India. Maithili is primary spoken all over the village and no other language is being practiced; the officers, who are outside of the Maithili speaking territory, use Hindi as a connecting language. Maithili is recognized as an official language in India in the 8th Schedule of the Indian Constitution; the population of the village is composed of various varna people. All four varna are represented in the village, out of. According to the census of 2011, the total population of the village is 6895; the population of the village is classified on the basis of caste, geographical position and other factors. The village is divided into Lakshmipur, Jagir Tola, Rajua Tola, Dharisham Tola, Mallah tola, Chamartoli or Musahari, etc. Dharisham contains Paasi people. Harinagar comes under Samastipur parliamentary constituency, it comes under Kusheshwar West Assembly constituency. Both constituencies are kept reserved for Scheduled Scheduled Tribe people.

The village is equipped with the Higher Secondary Kasturaba Gandhi Girls School with a hostel facility for the girls from lower caste backgrounds. There is a secondary high school. There are three primary schools up to 5th class; the village has four Anganbaadi centers, four Asha Kiran runs with the collaboration of UNICEF. There is a railway connectivity; the station code is HIR. The village enjoys electricity supply for a long time. Harinagar is connected by road as well as by railway; the rail is active now. Anyone can reach the village by bike, buses or rail via Darbhanga Junction. There are two popular places near the village. From these two places, anyone can get a vehicle to reach the village. However, these facilities are only available up to 6:00 PM local time; the villagers celebrate all Hindu festivals like Holi, Diwali or Deepawali, Kali Puja, Chhath Puja, Maha Shivratri, Basant Panchami. Among all the festivals, Judi-Sheetal is the most famous one in Harinagar; this festival celebrated in two part's of village in Dharsiyam Loard shiva and mother parvati married celebrated same time loak niritya and local dance programe in Lakshmipur.

It is celebrated on 14 / 15 April each year. Harinagar contains One Shiv Temple, it is notable. No people with other religious beliefs reside there. Most of them are Bhaman by caste; the economy of the village is dependent on agriculture and pastoral work, as the villagers do not have any other option to work with industry and the like. The villagers go out of the village in the quest of jobs in big cities where they work in industries and drive auto-rickshaws; the educated people work as teachers, supervisors, team-leaders, engineers. The villagers are facing many challenges to fulfill the needs of their family. Employment problems are the biggest issue. Struggling for quality education is the most important obstacle which hinders the development of the village, it is a big misfortune of the village that in spite of having so many educational institutions, the villagers still have to struggle for quality education. The teachers in these schools are less qualified. If one or two of them are qualified, they have been given extra educational duties to attain.

In spite of all these difficulties, a significant change has occurred in the education system of the village. The majority of the students go for higher education; the position of women in the village is deteriorating, as Pardah systems are still prevalent, they are not allowed to get higher education. In the last few years a significant check has been seen, but the condition of women are still to go long

Waleran of Le Puiset

Waleran of Le Puiset, son of Hugh I of Le Puiset and Alice de Montlhéry. Seigneur of Birejik, he is quoted in a donation made circa 1102 by his brother Hugh to the abbey of Saint-Martin-des-Champs. He went to fight in the Holy Land at the service of Baldwin of Bourg, Count of Edessa, in the army of Bohemond of Taranto. From 1115, he decided to eliminate the Armenian nobility of the county after several Armenian plots to deliver Edessa to the Turks. After having subjected and exiled Kogh Vasil, Baldwin attacked Abu ` lgharib Lord of Birejik. A compromise is reached, whereby Abu'lgharib delivered the city and exiled himself into Cilician Armenia. Baldwin gave the fief of Birejik and the hand of the daughter of Abu'lgharib to Waleran. King Baldwin I of Jerusalem died in 1118, Baldwin II, Count of Edessa, succeeded him, with the help of Joscelin I of Courtenay. Before his departure for Jerusalem in 1118, before entrusting Edessa to Waleran, subordinated the county of Edessa to Joscelin in order to reward him for his help in gaining the throne.

On September 13, 1122, Joscelin and Waleran tried to surprise Belek Ghazi, who traveled from Aleppo to his stronghold of Kharput, but they were captured and imprisoned. King Baldwin II, who tried to free them, is captured in turn on April 18, 1123. Belek tried to exploit his advantage and invade the principality of Antioch, but a mere fifty Armenians undertook to deliver their lords and went to Kharput, disguised as monks and merchants. With the help of the Armenian workers of the city, they massacred the garrison, seized the citadel and delivered the prisoners. While Baldwin and the Armenians held the city, Joscelin went to seek help, but Belek, warned on August 7, 1123, returned to Kharput and besieged the citadel, forcing the defenders to surrender before the arrival of those who would rescue the defenders.. Belek ordered the execution of all the defenders, with the exception of Baldwin, one of his nephews, Waleran, who were again imprisoned and transferred to Harran. Waleran died in captivity in 1126.

Riley-Smith, The First Crusaders, 1095-1131, Cambridge University Press, London, 1997 La Monte, John L. The Lords of Le Puiset on the Crusades. Speculum, 1942 JSTOR 2856610 Grousset, René, L'Empire du Levant: Histoire de la Question d'Orient, Payot, coll. Bibliothèque historique, 1949 Grousset, René, Histoire des croisades et du royaume franc de Jérusalem, Vol I. 1095-1130, L'anarchie musulmane, Perrin, 1934 Runciman, Steven, A History of the Crusades, Volume II: The Kingdom of Jerusalem and the Frankish East, 1100-1187, Cambridge University Press, London, 1952

Crash Team Racing Nitro-Fueled

Crash Team Racing Nitro-Fueled is a kart racing game developed by Beenox and published by Activision. It is a remaster of Crash Team Racing, developed by Naughty Dog for the PlayStation in 1999, includes content from the games Crash Nitro Kart developed by Vicarious Visions in 2003, Crash Tag Team Racing developed by Radical Entertainment in 2005, it is the seventeenth installment in the Crash Bandicoot series, the fourth racing game overall. The game was released worldwide for Nintendo Switch, PlayStation 4, Xbox One on June 21, 2019, received favorable reviews from critics. Like the original Crash Team Racing, Nitro-Fueled is a racing game featuring characters from the Crash Bandicoot series. Players must avoid obstacles and navigate the various tracks to reach the finish line, performing boosts via power sliding and jumping to gain speed, using power-ups scattered across the track to give themselves a boost or hinder their opponents; the game supports local quick races and grand prix circuits, multiple battle modes, online multiplayer, as well as featuring a full adventure mode with new areas and boss battles being unlocked as the player progresses.

Nitro-Fueled includes all of the content from Crash Team Racing, along with several new features not present in the original game, including online multiplayer and the ability to choose different karts, which can be customized by the player. The adventure mode has been tweaked: in addition to new cinematic cutscenes being added, players can choose between "Classic" and "Nitro-Fueled" adventure modes, the latter of which allows players to change their character and kart between races, as well as choose between three difficulty levels. An additional "Ring Rally" mode was added as part of a post-launch update, in which players must pass through rings on a track to gain time extensions and prevent a timer from expiring. Nitro-Fueled adds a substantial amount of content from Crash Nitro Kart, including all of its characters, race tracks, battle arenas and battle modes. Additional karts and character skins from Crash Tag Team Racing are included as well; this and other new content is accessible via the Pit Stop, an in-game shop that allows players to purchase unlockables using Wumpa Coins earned through gameplay or obtained via microtransactions.

Nitro-Fueled featured limited-time Grand Prix events that took place monthly following the game's launch. Each event was accompanied by a free update. Players could compete in special challenges on these new tracks during the event period to earn Nitro Points. If players were unable to obtain enough points before the event concludes, the content was made available for purchase in the Pit Stop three months after the event's conclusion. A total of eight Grand Prix events were held between July 2019 and March 2020, though new content will continue to be added after their conclusion; as of February 2020, Nitro-Fueled features 51 playable characters, including every racer from the prior Crash racing games. This includes characters who only appeared as boss opponents. Only the eight base characters from the original Crash Team Racing are available to players; the other Crash Team Racing characters can be unlocked by progressing through the game's adventure mode and completing challenges, while all other characters are unlocked via purchase from the Pit Stop.

The game featured 26 playable characters at launch, consisting of all the racers featured in Team Racing and Nitro Kart. Several additional characters have been added as part of free post-launch game updates, can be unlocked through progression in Grand Prix events or via the Pit Stop; this includes all the playable racers from Tag Team Racing and Nitro Kart 2, along with several characters making their first playable appearance in a Crash racing game. New racers include N. Brio and Koala Kong from the original Crash Bandicoot. After the release of Crash Bandicoot N. Sane Trilogy, a collection of remasters of the first three Crash Bandicoot titles, it was speculated that Crash Team Racing would be remastered. In an interview with Vicarious Visions, producer Kara Massie did not rule out the possibility of a remaster of Crash Team Racing for the PlayStation 4, she acknowledged that she was asked about it by fans. The game was revealed at The Game Awards on December 6, 2018, was announced to be releasing on June 21, 2019 for Nintendo Switch, PlayStation 4, Xbox One.

Much like N. Sane Trilogy, the game was recreated from the ground up with new assets, online play, added new content including all characters, battle arenas, kart customizations and battle modes from Crash Nitro Kart, developed by Vicarious Visions, who developed the N. Sane Trilogy. Several karts, character skins, characters were added from Crash Tag Team Racing, developed by Radical Entertainment; the game features an option to choose between the remastered soundtracks. Players who pre-ordered the game received a set of "Electron" character skins for Crash and Cortex. A premium "Nitros Oxide Edition" of Nit


Tradinista! was a group of young Roman Catholics devoted to a synthesis of Marxist and traditional Roman Catholic critiques of political and economic liberalism, to the promotion of a socialism that would be compatible with Catholic social teaching. The name Tradinista! is a portmanteau of traditionalist and Sandinista. The symbol used by the group on its website was a pelican wounding its breast to feed its young – a symbol of Christ. Tradinista! began in 2016, gathering on a private online discussion group known as the "Papal Octopus" and promoting their ideas on Twitter. In September 2016, they launched a website with a manifesto sketching their main aims, other articles explaining the manifesto in detail; the authors used pseudonyms on their site, but some of them identified themselves in discussing their group on other sites. The Tradinista! website was taken offline in 2017, but it went online again as "an archival website maintaining the materials published as part of the Tradinista project."

Tradinista! held that political authorities ought to promote the teachings of the Catholic Church and the virtue of the people. It held that the economic system should be ordered to the common good of the whole society and that capitalism should be abolished, it considered racism, misogyny and transphobia to be structural injustices that ought to be eradicated. It was pro-immigration. Tradinista! can be seen as a form of political Catholicism and of Christian socialism. The New York Times columnist Ross Douthat brought Tradinista! Up in a column, claiming that part of the younger generation of Roman Catholics were drawn either to a revived Catholic Integralism, or to the Tradinista!, arguing that Tradinista!'s affirmation of the social kingship of Christ "attacks the modern liberal order at the root." The First Things literary editor Matthew Schmitz wrote that he was "not contra" the Tradinista! The right-wing Catholic writer John Zmirak criticized the group, which he argued "rejects important moral truths and embraces crude economic errors."

The left-wing Catholic writer Dean Dettloff, on the other hand, criticized the group for not being sincerely progressive. Christian left Archive of the Tradinista Website The Tradinista! Manifesto About Page of the Tradinista! Tumblr

Jason O'Toole (journalist)

Jason O'Toole is an Irish author and journalist. He has been described by several publications as the best interviewer of his generation, he wrote a weekly interview called, "The Jason O'Toole Interview", for the Irish Mail on Sunday and the Irish Daily Mail from 2009 to 2014. He is the former Senior Editor of the popular Irish publication, Hot Press magazine, he returned to his post of senior editor at Hot Press magazine in September 2016 and stepped down in December 2018. He is now a columnist with the Irish Sunday Mirror. Jason O'Toole earned a BA in Humanities and an MA in Political Communication from Dublin City University. O'Toole wrote the biography of Brian Cowen: The Path to Power. An excerpt from the book appears in the Lord of the Files anthology published in November 2011 by the Institute of Public Administration. O'Toole edited an anthology on new Irish fiction, entitled Off The Edge, with an introduction by author Lee Dunne, his book Crime Ink, a collection of his Hot Press journalism, was released in July 2009.

It went straight into the top 10 best-sellers list in Ireland on its release. The book was selected as part of the Be Inspired: Great Irish Book Week, a chapter from it was included in the anthology Gems from Irish Publishing. O'Toole wrote The Last Days of Katy French, which the Irish Independent wrote was "well written and non-judgmental", adding that "maybe the book should be required reading on the Leaving Certificate curriculum". Over 18 months after its release, the book reentered the best-sellers charts at number 5 in non-fiction category in January 2011, according to the Nielsen figures published by the Sunday Independent on 22 January 2011. O'Toole co-wrote The End of The Party with Bruce Arnold, published in November 2011 by Gill and Macmillan; the book was selected as one of the top ten Irish books of the year by Joe Duffy's RTÉ show Liveline The show described the book as "gripping". Writing in the Sunday Independent, political writer John Drennan stated: "...this reads like a fast-paced thriller crossed with scenes of farce that would be more appropriate to Halls Pictorial Weekly.

End of the Party lifts the lid off the crypt of internal politicking and political ambition that buried Fianna Fail and the country. In particular, for the first time, it unveils the alcohol-induced inertia that hollowed out a once uniquely successful party."O'Toole has a co-author credit on Jimmy Magee's memoir, "The Memory Man", published in Sept 2012 by Gill & Macmillan. The book entered the best-sellers charts at no 2 in the hardback non-fiction category, it was short-listed for the Irish Sports Book of The Year Award, organised by Bord Gais. He published in October 2012 by Gill & MacMillan. O'Toole co-wrote Different Class with Jimmy Magee, published in October 2013. O'Toole's book Hollywood Irish was published in September 2019. O'Toole's journalism has appeared in dozens of publications, including The Sunday Times, Empire magazine, The Mail on Sunday, Film Ireland, the Evening Herald, Irish Independent, La Republica, In Dublin, The People, The Daily Mail, "The Mirror", "Panorama", The Star on Sunday, The Dublin Quarterly, Playboy magazine and the Australian-based Irish Echo.

O'Toole was one of six short-listed for the National Journalist of the Year Award for the inaugural NNI Journalism Awards in October 2011. The book he co-wrote with Jimmy Magee was short-listed for the Irish Sports Book of The Year Award, organised by Bord Gais, he has conducted many high-profile controversial interviews with well-known and sometimes controversial Irish figures, including: John Gilligan – Ireland's most infamous criminal spoke at length to O'Toole about his life of crime and the murder of crime journalist Veronica Guerin. After the publication of the interview, Hot Press was banned from Irish prisons; the Minister for Justice, Dermot Ahern, described the publication of the Hot Press magazine interview with the convicted criminal as "regrettable". Ahern added he had been in contact with the head of the prison service and it was his understanding that O'Toole had signed into the Midlands Prison as a visitor and did not reveal that he was going to carry out an interview, he was responding to criticism by Fine Gael's justice spokesman Charlie Flanagan who urged the minister to enforce rules to prevent further interviews being carried out: "It is an insult to victims of crime to allow convicted criminals to enjoy such privileges while serving time."

Brian Cowen – In his May 2007 interview with Jason O'Toole, former Minister for Health Brian Cowen admitted to smoking marijuana: "Anyone who went to the UCD bar in the'70s that didn't get a whiff of marijuana would be telling you a lie. I would say there were a couple of occasions when it was passed around – and, unlike President Clinton, I did inhale! There wasn't a whole lot in it – a Sweet Afton, as a 10-year-old, under a railway bridge on a rainy day, in small town Ireland in the late'60s. I got more enjoyment out of a few pints." This provoked much criticism from opposition parties in the Dáil. Cowen became Taoiseach following the resignation of Bertie Ahern. Cowen gave O'Toole his first major interview as Taoiseach, which ap