Bodhidharma was a Buddhist monk who lived during the 5th or 6th century. He is traditionally credited as the transmitter of Chan Buddhism to China, regarded as its first Chinese patriarch. According to Chinese legend, he began the physical training of the monks of Shaolin Monastery that led to the creation of Shaolin kungfu. In Japan, he is known as Daruma. Little contemporary biographical information on Bodhidharma is extant, subsequent accounts became layered with legend and unreliable details. According to the principal Chinese sources, Bodhidharma came from the Western Regions, which refers to Central Asia but may include the Indian subcontinent, was either a "Persian Central Asian" or a "South Indian the third son of a great Indian king." Throughout Buddhist art, Bodhidharma is depicted as an ill-tempered, profusely-bearded, wide-eyed non-Chinese person. He is referred as "The Blue-Eyed Barbarian" in Chan texts. Aside from the Chinese accounts, several popular traditions exist regarding Bodhidharma's origins.

The accounts differ on the date of his arrival, with one early account claiming that he arrived during the Liu Song dynasty and accounts dating his arrival to the Liang dynasty. Bodhidharma was active in the territory of the Northern Wei. Modern scholarship dates him to about the early 5th century. Bodhidharma's teachings and practice centered on the Laṅkāvatāra Sūtra; the Anthology of the Patriarchal Hall identifies Bodhidharma as the 28th Patriarch of Buddhism in an uninterrupted line that extends all the way back to the Gautama Buddha himself. Bodhidharma known as " The Wall Gazing Brahmin ". There are two known extant accounts written by contemporaries of Bodhidharma. According to these sources, Bodhidharma came from the Western Regions, was either a "Persian Central Asian" or a "South Indian the third son of a great Indian king." Sources draw on these two sources, adding additional details, including a change to being descendent from a Brahmin king, which accords with the reign of the Pallavas, who "claim to belong to a brahmin lineage."The Western Regions was a historical name specified in the Chinese chronicles between the 3rd century BC to the 8th century AD that referred to the regions west of Yumen Pass, most Central Asia or sometimes more the easternmost portion of it.

Sometimes it was used more to refer to other regions to the west of China as well, such as the Indian subcontinent. The earliest text mentioning Bodhidharma is The Record of the Buddhist Monasteries of Luoyang, compiled in 547 by Yáng Xuànzhī, a writer and translator of Mahayana sutras into Chinese. Yang gave the following account: At that time there was a monk of the Western Region named Bodhidharma, a Persian Central Asian, he traveled from the wild borderlands to China. Seeing the golden disks on the pole on top of Yǒngníng's stupa reflecting in the sun, the rays of light illuminating the surface of the clouds, the jewel-bells on the stupa blowing in the wind, the echoes reverberating beyond the heavens, he sang its praises, he exclaimed: "Truly this is the work of spirits." He said: "I am 150 years old, I have passed through numerous countries. There is no country I have not visited; the distant Buddha-realms lack this." He placed his palms together in salutation for days on end. The account of Bodhidharma in the Luoyan Record does not associate him with meditation, but rather depicts him as a thaumaturge capable of mystical feats.

This may have played a role in his subsequent association with the martial arts and esoteric knowledge. The second account was written by Tánlín. Tánlín's brief biography of the "Dharma Master" is found in his preface to the Long Scroll of the Treatise on the Two Entrances and Four Practices, a text traditionally attributed to Bodhidharma and the first text to identify him as South Indian: The Dharma Master was a South Indian of the Western Region, he was the third son of a great Indian king. His ambition lay in the Mahayana path, so he put aside his white layman's robe for the black robe of a monk Lamenting the decline of the true teaching in the outlands, he subsequently crossed distant mountains and seas, traveling about propagating the teaching in Han and Wei. Tánlín's account was the first to mention that Bodhidharma attracted disciples mentioning Dàoyù and Dazu Huike, the latter of whom would figure prominently in the Bodhidharma literature. Although Tánlín has traditionally been considered a disciple of Bodhidharma, it is more that he was a student of Huìkě.

Tanlin's preface has been preserved in Jingjue's Lengjie Shizi ji "Chronicle of the Laṅkāvatāra Masters", which dates from 713-716./ca. 715 He writes, The teacher of the Dharma, who came from South India in the Western Regions, the third son of a great Brahman king." In the 7th-century historical work "Further Biographies of Eminent Monks", Daoxuan drew on Tanlin's preface as a basic source, but made several significant additions: Firstly, Daoxuan adds more detail concerning Bodhidharma's origins, writing that he was of "South Indian Brahman stock". Secondly, more detail is provided concerning Bodhidharma's journeys. Tanlin's original is imprecise about Bodhidharma's travels, saying only that he "crossed distant mountains and seas" before arriving in Wei. Daoxuan's account, implies "a specific itinerary": "He first arrived at Nan-yüeh during the Sung period. From there he t

Felder v. Casey

Felder v. Casey, 487 U. S. 131, was a United States Supreme Court case that held that a state notice-of-claim statute could not be applied to a civil rights suit under 42 U. S. C. § 1983 in state court. A Wisconsin statute required people wishing to sue a state or local government entity or officer to give notice at least 120 days in advance of filing suit; the claimant must provide an itemized statement of the relief sought, the lawsuit must be filed within six months of receiving notice that the claim has been disallowed. Failure to comply with the statute's requirements was grounds for dismissing the suit. Bobby Felder, a black Milwaukee resident, alleged that he was beaten and arrested by white Milwaukee Police Department officers on July 4, 1981. Nine months he filed a lawsuit in Wisconsin state court against the city of Milwaukee and the police officers under 42 U. S. C. § 1983, a federal law that allows lawsuits for violations of constitutional rights. The officers moved to dismiss Felder's lawsuit because he had not complied with the state notice-of-claim statute, on appeal the Wisconsin Supreme Court agreed that the statute applied and Felder had not adequately complied with it, so the case must be dismissed.

The Court held that Wisconsin's notice-of-claim statute was preempted because it "conflicts in both its purpose and effects with the remedial objectives of § 1983, because its enforcement in such actions will and predictably produce different outcomes in § 1983 litigation based on whether the claim is asserted in state or federal court." The state statute imposed an exhaustion requirement, which the Court had held did not apply to § 1983 suits in Patsy v. Board of Regents of Florida, 457 U. S. 496. Exhaustion of remedies Text of Felder v. Casey, 487 U. S. 131 is available from: Justia Library of Congress Oyez

Raúl Rosarivo

Raúl Mario Rosarivo was an Argentine typographer, designer, poet and illustrator, known for his work in the analysis of the Gutenberg Bibles. He held the position of General Director of the Buenos Aires Provincial Graphic Workshops. Rosarivo, in his Divina proporción tipográfica, first published in 1947, analyzed Renaissance books with the help of compass and ruler and described the use of the "número de oro", by which he meant the ratio 2:3, in books produced by Gutenberg. According to Rosarivo himself, his work and assertion that Gutenberg used the "golden number" to establish the harmonic relationships between the diverse parts of his printed works, was analyzed by experts at the Gutenberg Museum and re-published in the Gutenberg Jahrbuch, its official magazine. Divina proporción tipográfica, La Plata, Argentina. Previous editions: 1948 and 1947. Brief discussion about his work, is available online in Spanish Romances de Medianoche - Kraft, Buenos Aires, 1943. Collection of poems. Cómo Formar el Buenos Aires, 1946 De la Unidad Artística del Libro.

Consideraciones críticas. Semca, Buenos Aires, 1947. Crónica de Johann Gutenberg, Cámara de Industriales Gráfios de la Argentina, Buenos Aires, 1955. Historia General del Libro Impreso - Ediciones Áureas, Buenos Aires, 1964. Die Masszahl 1,5 als esthätische Norm tipographischer Grössenverhältnisse, Professor Raúl Rosarivo, Buenos Aires, Argentinien. Übersetzung: Heinz H. Schmiedt. Goldene Proportionen des "Psalteriums". von Fust und Schöffer, mit drei Abbildungen von Professor Raúl Rosarivo, Buenos Aires, Argentinien. Das Buch vom Goldenen Typografischen Modul 1:1,5. Das Modul von Johann Gutenberg und seiner Zeitgenossen in der Proportion 2:3. Übersetzt aus dem spanischen von Heinz Nieth. Bearbeitung der deutschen Ausgabe von Hermann Zapf. Scherpe Verlag, Krefeld, 1961. Book design Canons of page construction Jan Tschichold celebrating his life and work of R. M. Rosarivo Complete works of R. M. Rosarivo