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Body of Christ

In Christian theology, the term Body of Christ has two main but separate meanings: it may refer to Jesus' words over the bread at the celebration of the Jewish feast of Passover that "This is my body" in Luke 22:19–20, or it may refer to all individuals who are "in Christ" 1 Corinthians 12:12–14. Body of Christ may refer to Christ's post-resurrection body in Heaven. Christ associated himself with the poor of the world and this is called the Body of Christ. “If we wish to encounter Christ, we have to touch his body in the suffering bodies of the poor, as a response to the sacramental communion bestowed in the Eucharist. The Body of Christ, broken in the sacred liturgy, can be seen, through charity and sharing, in the faces and persons of the most vulnerable of our brothers and sisters.” Said Pope Francis on launching the World Day of the Poor. There are significant differences in how Christians understand the term as used by Christ at the Last Supper and as developed in Christian theology of the Eucharist.

For some it may be symbolic, for others it becomes mystical understanding. As used by Saint Paul in the Pauline epistles The Body of Christ refers to all individuals who "heard the word of truth, the gospel of your salvation, believed in him, were sealed with the promised Holy Spirit" Ephesians 1:13, "are being built together into a dwelling place for God by the Spirit" Ephesians 2:22, are "joined and held together by every joint with which it is equipped, when each part is working properly, makes the body grow so that it builds itself up in love" Ephesians 4:16. In Roman Catholic theology the use of the phrase "mystical body" distinguishes the mystical body of Christ, the Church, from the physical body of Christ, from a "moral body" such as any club with a common purpose. While teaching that in the bread consecrated in the Eucharist there is no change open to the senses or to scientific investigation, the Catholic Church supports the Real Presence, i.e. that the reality of the bread is changed into that of the body of Christ.

The Church teachings refer to this change as one of the "substance" or "transubstantiation". It rejects the term "consubstantiation", which suggests that the substance or reality of the bread remains after the consecration, instead of being converted or changed into that of the body of Christ. At the same time, the Church holds that all that can be examined either directly or by scientific investigation – what in philosophy are called the "accidents" – remains quite unchanged. In the Roman Rite, the priest or other minister who gives the consecrated host to a communicant says: "The body of Christ", indicating what is held to be the reality of what is given. Since the consecrated bread is believed to be the body of Christ and sacred, what remains of the host after celebration of Mass is kept in the church tabernacle; this is for the purpose of taking Communion to the sick, but to serve as a focal point for private devotion and prayer. On appropriate occasions, there may be public Eucharistic adoration.

The Eastern Orthodox Church believes that the Eucharistic elements of bread and wine become the actual body and blood of Christ. It has authoritatively used the term "Transubstantiation" to describe this change, as in The Longer Catechism of The Orthodox, Eastern Church and in the decrees of the 1672 Synod of Jerusalem. Various Protestant theologians expressed different opinions regarding the Eucharist and the body of Christ. In contrast to Zwingli, Martin Luther reasoned that because divinity involves omnipresence, the body of Christ can be present in the Eucharist because of its participation in the divine nature. A long debate took place between Luther and Zwingli on the issue of omnipresence, with each providing a variety of theological and biblical arguments to support his view. In current Lutheran teachings, the Body of Christ is used in a somewhat similar form to the Catholic teachings, but the Lutherans reject the Catholic teaching of transubstantiation. For the Lutheran, the Body of Christ is the formal title of the sacramental bread in the Eucharist, as seen in the Lutheran Divine Service.

It is said in the Words of Institution – see Luther's Small Catechism. A similar teaching is taught in various Methodist churches. John Calvin disagreed with Luther's reasoning about omnipresence and, like Zwingli, argued that human presence requires a specific location. Calvin stated that Christ's body was present in the first Eucharist during the Last Supper, but was thereafter in heaven. Melanchthon was accused of supporting Calvin, the debates between the various groups caused a further rift between the followers of Luther and Zwingli. For as the body is one, hath many members, all the members of that one body, being many, are one body: so is Christ. For by one Spirit are we all baptized into one body, whether we be Jews or Gentiles, whether we be bond or free. For the body is not many. — 1 Corinthians 12:12–14 The first meaning that Catholics attach to the expression "Body of Christ" is the Catholic Church. The Catechism of the Catholic Church quotes with approval, as "summing up the faith of the holy doctors and the good sense of the believer", the reply of Saint Joan of Arc to her judges: "About Jesus Christ and the Church, I know they're just one thing, we shouldn't complicate the matter."

In the same passage, it quotes Saint Augustine: "Let us rejoice and give thanks that we have become not only Christians, but Christ himself. Do you understand and grasp, God's grace toward us? Marvel and rejoice: we have become Christ. For if he is the head, we are the members.

Minimum detectable signal

A minimum detectable signal is a signal at the input of a system whose power allows it to be detected over the background electronic noise of the detector system. It can alternately be defined as a signal that produces a signal-to-noise ratio of a given value m at the output. In practice, m is chosen to be greater than unity. In some literature, the name sensitivity is used for this concept; when the resulting signal is interpreted by a human operator, as in radar systems, the related term minimum discernible signal may be used. This includes the lifetime of the signal on the radar display. In the case of a just-detectable signal, the resulting blip on the radar display may be too small or too fleeting to be recognized. Depending on what effects are considered, the term minimum visible signal may be used to consider only whether the signal may be visible on the display, ignoring other effects like clutter. In general it is clear that for a receiver to "see" a signal it has to be greater than the noise floor.

To detect the signal however, it is required to be at a power level greater than the noise floor by an amount, dependent on the type of detection used as well as other factors. There are exceptions to this requirement but coverage of these cases is outside the scope of this article; this required difference in power levels of the signal and the noise floor is known as the signal to noise ratio. To establish the minimum detectable signal of a receiver we require several factors to be known. Required signal-to-noise ratio in dB Detection bandwidth in Hz Temperature of the receiver system T0 in kelvins Boltzmann's constant k = 1.38×10−23 joules per kelvin Receiver noise figure in dBTo calculate the minimum detectable signal we first need to establish the noise floor in the receiver by the following equation: Noise floor dBm = 10 log 10 ⁡ + NF + 10 log 10 ⁡ BW. As a numerical example: A receiver has a bandwidth of 100 MHz and noise figure of 1.5 dB and the physical temperature of the system is 290 kelvins.

Noise floor = 10 log + 1.5 + 10 log = −174 + 1.5 + 80 = −92.5 So for this receiver to begin to "see" a signal it would need to be greater than −92.5 dBm. Confusion can arise because the level calculated above is sometimes called the Minimum Discernable Signal. For the sake of clarity we will refer to this as the noise floor of the receiver; the next step is to take into account the SNR required for the type of detection we are using. If we need the signal to be 10 times more powerful than the noise floor the required SNR would be 10 dB. To calculate the actual minimum detectable signal is a case of adding the required SNR in dB to the noise floor. So for the example above this would mean that the minimum detectable signal is: MDS = -92.5 + 10 = -82.5 MDS = 10Log + NF + 10Log + SNR In this equation: kT0 is the available noise power in a bandwidth BW = 1 Hz at T0, expressed in watts. KT0 x 1000 is the available noise power in a bandwidth BW at T0, expressed in milliwatts. T0 is the system temperature in kelvins, k is Boltzmann's constant.

If the system temperature and bandwidth is 290 K and 1 Hz the effective noise power available in 1 Hz bandwidth from a source is −174 dBm. 1 Hz noise floor: calculating the noise power available in a one hertz bandwidth at a temperature of T = 290 K defines a figure from which all other values can be obtained. 1 Hz noise floor equates to a noise power of −174 dBm so a 1 kHz bandwidth would generate −174 + 10 log10 = −144dBm of noise power. MDS = 10Log + NF + 10Log + SNR The equation above indicates several ways in which the minimum detectable signal of a receiver can be improved. If one assumes that the bandwidth and SNR are fixed however by the application one way of improving MDS is by lowering the receivers physical temperature; this lowers the NF of the receiver by reducing the internal thermally produced noise. These type of receivers are referred to as Cryogenic Receivers. Noise figure is noise factor expressed in decibels. F is the ratio of the input signal-to-noise-ratio to the output signal-to-noise-ratio.

F quantifies how much the signal degrades with respect to the noise because of the presence of a noisy network. A noiseless amplifier has a noise factor F=1, so the noise figure for that amplifier is NF=0 dB: a noiseless amplifier does not degrade the signal to noise ratio as both signal and noise propagate through the network. If the bandwidth in which the information signal is measured turns out not to be 1 Hz wide the term 10 log10 allows for the additional noise power present in the wider detection bandwidth. Signal-to-noise-ratio is the degree to which the input signal power is greater than the noise power within the bandwidth B of interest. In the case of some digital systems a 10 dB difference between the noise floor and the signal level might be necessary. For voice signals the required SNR might b

Fire in the Straw

Fire in the Straw is a 1939 French drama film directed by Jean Benoît-Lévy and starring Lucien Baroux, Orane Demazis and Gaby Basset. The film's art direction was by Robert-Jules Garnier. Lucien Baroux as Antoine Vautier Orane Demazis as Jeanne Vautier Gaby Basset as Reine Roy Jean Fuller as Christian Vautier Jeanne Fusier-Gir as Madame Goulevin, la concierge Florence Luchaire as La petite Caroline Jeanne Helbling as Monica Henri Lanoë as Désiré, le fils de la concierge Raymond Aimos as Guérétrain Henri Nassiet as Despagnat Stéphane Audel Edmond Beauchamp Andrée Brabant Albert Broquin Robert Brunet Claire Gérard Jane Pierson Pierre Sarda Adrienne Trenkel Jacques Vitry Philippe Rège. Encyclopedia of French Film Directors, Volume 1. Scarecrow Press, 2009. Fire in the Straw on IMDb

St Mary Aldermary

The Guild Church of St Mary Aldermary is an Anglican church located in Watling Street at the junction with Bow Lane, in the City of London. Of medieval origin, it was rebuilt from 1510. Badly damaged in the Great Fire of London in 1666, it was rebuilt once more, this time by Sir Christopher Wren, unlike the vast majority of his City churches in a Gothic style. There has been a church on the site for over 900 years, its name is taken to mean that it is the oldest of the City churches dedicated to the Virgin Mary. The patronage of the rectory of St Mary Aldermary belonged to the prior and chapter of Canterbury, but was transferred to the Archbishop of Canterbury in 1400. In 1510, Sir Henry Keeble financed the building of a new church; the tower was still unfinished when he died in 1518. In 1629, two legacies enabled it to be completed, the work, begun 120 years before, was finished within three years. Keble was buried in a vault beneath the floor of church, but his grave was not allowed to remain for long.

Richard Newcourt recorded that Sir William Laxton, who died in 1556, Sir Tho. Lodge, who died in 1583, were buried in the Vault of this Sir Henry Keeble, his bones unkindly cast out, his Monument pull'd down, in place whereof, Monuments were set up of the others. John Stow mentions various dignitaries buried in the early church in his 1598 Survey of London, they include Richard Chaucer, said by Stow to be the father of the poet Geoffrey Chaucer. John Milton married his third wife, Elizabeth Minshull, in the church in 1663; the parish registers date from 1558, are now deposited in the Guildhall Library. St Mary Aldermary was badly damaged in the Great Fire of London of 1666, although parts of its walls and tower survived, it was rebuilt by Sir Christopher Wren in a Gothic style. A legacy of £5,000 had been left by one Henry Rogers for the rebuilding of a church, his widow agreed to use it to fund the reconstruction of St Mary's. According to some sources, she stipulated that the new church should be an exact imitation of the one destroyed.

The church as rebuilt has an aisled nave, six bays long, with a clerestory. There is a short chancel; the tower is attached to the south west corner of the building, is entered through a western lobby. It is divided into storeys by string courses; the nave and aisles are separated by arcades of clustered columns, supporting somewhat flattened Gothic arches. The ceilings are decorated with elaborate plaster fan vaulting; the east wall of the chancel is set askew in relation to the axis of the church. According to Nikolaus Pevsner, St Mary Aldemary is "the chief surviving monument of the 17th-century Gothic revival in the City and – with Warwick – the most important late 17th-century Gothic church in England"; the parish of the church of St Thomas the Apostle, destroyed in the Great Fire and not rebuilt, was united with that of St Mary's. In 1781 a new organ was installed, built by Hugh Russell. St Mary Aldermary was damaged by German bombs in the London Blitz during the Second World War. All the windows were shattered and some plaster fell from the vaulting but the building itself remained intact.

The church has been restored many times over the years. In 1876–7 there were major changes to the interior: a new oak screen was inserted dividing the church from the lobby; the latest interior restoration was finished in April 2005, with special attention paid to the plaster ceilings and the memorials on the north wall. A service was held on April 21, 2005 to celebrate the restoration, presided over by Richard Chartres, the Bishop of London. From 2005 until 2009, Father John Mothersole was the priest-in-charge and oversaw much of the restoration work at that time, he was succeeded in 2010 by Reverend Ian Mobsby as curate and as priest-in-charge, who continues in post at present. The church was designated a Grade I listed building on 4 January 1950. Charles Blount, 5th Baron Mountjoy In January 2010, the Bishop and Archdeacon of London invited the Moot Community to make their home in St Mary Aldermary. Moot is a Church of England community in the new monastic tradition. Members annually commit to live by a "rhythm of life", which encompasses spiritual practices such as prayer and presence, values such as acceptance, balance and hospitality.

The community is in a process of discernment about whether it has a vocation as a Church of England Acknowledged Religious Community. Daily prayer, regular worship services and discussion groups go on in the church, the community hosts conferences and courses on subjects such as justice in economics, conflict resolution or mindfulness; the church hosts regular art exhibitions and installations, retreat days. It is home to a café, which sells fair trade coffee and goods, there is a small market of food stalls outside the church on weekdays. Since 2007, the church has been the Regimental Church of the Royal Tank Regiment. List of churches and cathedrals of London List of Christopher Wren churches in London Daniell, A. E.. London City Churches. London: Constable. Godwin, George. "St Mary's, Aldermary". The Churches of London: A History and Description of the Ecclesiastical Edifices of the Metropolis. London: C. Tilt; each chapter paginated separately. Wilson, H. B.. Brief Notices of the Fabric and Glebe of St Mary Aldermary, in the City of London.

London: W. Pickering and

BuÄĦibba Temple

Buġibba Temple is a megalithic temple on the border of Buġibba and Qawra towns, limits of St. Paul's Bay, Malta, it is located in the grounds of the Dolmen Resort Hotel. The temple is located a short distance between Buġibba and Qawra Point, it was built during the Tarxien phase of Maltese prehistory. The temple is quite small, part of its coralline limestone façade can still be seen. From the trilithon entrance, a corridor leads to a central area. Part of the temple's floor has survived at the back of the site; the rest of the structure was destroyed over the years, as the area was leveled due to being used for agricultural purposes. The Buġibba Temple was discovered by Maltese archaeologist Themistocles Zammit in the 1920s, when he discovered large stones in a field close to Qawra Point; these remains were included on the Antiquities List of 1925, as "the megalithic remains on the side of the road to Qawra point". The temple was excavated in 1928 by Zammit and L. J. Upton Way, was again surveyed in 1952.

Two years in 1954, some minor excavations were made to ascertain the chronology of the temple. During the excavations, two decorated stone blocks were found. One is a carved square block, an altar, the other is a rectangular block with carved fish on two of its faces; these blocks are now in the National Museum of Archaeology in Valletta. The temple's capstone was replaced in modern times; the Dolmen Resort Hotel was built around the temple, incorporated into the grounds of the hotel close to its swimming pools. National Inventory of the Cultural Property of the Maltese Islands

Southwestern Advantage

Southwestern Advantage known as Southwestern Company, is a direct marketing sales company that recruits and trains college and university students as independent contractors to sell educational books and website subscriptions door-to-door using direct selling methods. Southwestern Advantage is part of the Southwestern family of companies. Direct selling methods have raised questions over the ultimate value of the transactions entered into, both by the consumer as the person purchasing the product, the individual contractors who make the sales on behalf of third parties such as Southwestern Advantage; every year, the company recruits a few thousand American and a few hundred European university students to work as independent contractors who sell educational books and subscription websites during the summer months. The company operates on a structured direct sales platform where student dealers participating in the program are independent contractors, not employees; the money they earn is determined by their sales revenue minus their expenses and the cost of goods sold.

They do not receive wages or employee benefits, the program does not offer any guaranteed pay. Because students hired are independent contractors, they are expected to finance their living expenses, food and rent when on company trips. In addition, expenses of the required Sunday meetings with managers paid for by the students themselves. Foreign students must airfare themselves. Students work 72 or more hours per week twice the upper limit imposed by the Fair Labor Standards Act. Students provide the company a letter of credit signed by two endorsers the student's parents, in which the endorsers agree to be responsible for up to $500 each if the student fails to pay any money owed to the company at the end of the summer. Students entering the program attend a week-long training program in Tennessee, they are responsible for the cost of their personal expenses. At the conclusion of the training, students are assigned to a sales area outside their home or school states. Sales areas are predominantly rural.

According to the charity Polaris, organizations send their recruiters to target unemployed young people and college students with promises of high profits. As independent contractors, Southwestern Advantage avoids the Fair Labor Standards Act's mandates for minimum wage or overtime pay. Students have a host family near their sales area alumni, family of other students, or families found by door-to-door appeals. Housing is not guaranteed by the company. Dealers report working 72 or more hours per week in the field, making 30 or more presentations each day, in addition to time spent on bookkeeping, talking to managers or at sales meetings held each Sunday. According to the company, in 2010 the average first-year dealer who stayed with the program for over 20 days grossed $2,415 per month before expenses, which range from $1,500 to $3,000. Students are taught to inquire about other families in the neighborhood; this is done to save time so salesmen can skip visiting the homes of people who would not be interested in educational products directed towards younger school aged individuals.

At the end of the summer, products are shipped to the dealers, who revisit the homes where they made a sale to deliver the product and collect any balance due. Dealers pay their living expenses out of the down payments they collect, remitting the rest to the company to cover wholesale costs. Dealers return to headquarters in Nashville, where they settle accounts and receive a check for the season's earnings; some dealers are invited to return in subsequent years as managers, who recruit their own teams during the school year and earn a percentage commission on the sales of their team, as in multi-level marketing. Southwestern Advantage publishes and markets educational books and subscription websites; the main product, Southwestern Advantage, is a series of educational reference books targeted to school-age children. The product line includes software, college prep material, others. In 2007, Southwestern Advantage lobbied against the Malinda's Traveling Sales Crew Protection Act, an anti-traveling sales crew bill intended to stop companies from putting their workers in dangerous and unfair conditions.

The bill was passed, but in a form that applies only to sales workers who travel in groups of two or more. In 2019, student dealers represented over 240 university campuses around the world. Harvard University banned Southwestern from recruiting on its campus in 1977. In 2005, the University of Maryland banned Southwestern from recruiting on its campus. In the UK University of Durham's campus in 2005, the Durham Students' Union, stating that the "Southwestern Company'experience' is not marketed as as it could be, some students may be misled", banned Southwestern from Dunelm House and mandated the union president "to liaise with Southwestern Books to work towards marketing, clearer and to ask the company to develop its recruitment process to ensure Durham students are aware of the risks and pressures that the job entails."The Guild of Students at the University of Birmingham passed a motion in May 2006 banning the company from its premises and encouraging the University to do the same. In 2010, the University of Idaho announced that Southwestern Advantage is prohibited from recruiting on campus due to misconduct and violation of University and Career Center policies.

A non-binding motion was passed at the 2010 AGM of the Students Association at the University