Bodybuilding is the use of progressive resistance exercise to control and develop one's musculature for aesthetic purposes. An individual who engages in this activity is referred to as a bodybuilder. In competitive bodybuilding, bodybuilders appear in lineups and perform specified poses for a panel of judges who rank the competitors based on criteria such as symmetry, size, conditioning and stage presentation. Bodybuilders prepare for competitions through the elimination of nonessential body fat, enhanced at the last stage by a combination of extracellular dehydration and carbohydrate loading, to achieve maximum muscular definition and vascularity, as well as tanning to accentuate the contrast of the skin under the spotlights. Bodybuilders may use other performance-enhancing drugs to build muscles; the winner of the annual IFBB Mr. Olympia contest is recognized as the world's top male professional bodybuilder. Since 1950, the NABBA Universe Championships have been considered the top amateur bodybuilding contests, with notable winners such as Reg Park, Lee Priest, Steve Reeves, Arnold Schwarzenegger.
Winners go on to become professional athletes. Stone-lifting traditions were practiced in ancient Egypt and Tamilakam. Western weightlifting developed in Europe from 1880 to 1953, with strongmen displaying feats of strength for the public and challenging each other; the focus was not on their physique, they had large bellies and fatty limbs. Bodybuilding developed in the late 19th century, promoted in England by German Eugen Sandow, now considered as the "Father of Bodybuilding", he allowed audiences to enjoy viewing his physique in "muscle display performances". Although audiences were thrilled to see a well-developed physique, the men displayed their bodies as part of strength demonstrations or wrestling matches. Sandow had a stage show built around these displays through Florenz Ziegfeld; the Oscar-winning 1936 musical film The Great Ziegfeld depicts the beginning of modern bodybuilding, when Sandow began to display his body for carnivals. Sandow was so successful at flexing and posing his physique that he created several businesses around his fame, was among the first to market products branded with his name.
He was credited with inventing and selling the first exercise equipment for the masses: machined dumbbells, spring pulleys, tension bands. His image was sold by the thousands in "cabinet cards" and other prints. Sandow was a perfect "Gracilian", a standard of ideal body proportions close to those of ancient Greek and Roman statues. Men's physiques were judged by how they matched these proportions. Sandow organized the first bodybuilding contest on September 14, 1901, called the "Great Competition", it was held at the Royal Albert Hall in London. Judged by Sandow, Sir Charles Lawes, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, the contest was a great success and many bodybuilding enthusiasts were turned away due to the overwhelming amount of audience members; the trophy presented to the winner was a gold statue of Sandow sculpted by Frederick Pomeroy. The winner was William L. Murray of Nottingham; the silver Sandow trophy was presented to second-place winner D. Cooper; the bronze Sandow trophy — now the most famous of all — was presented to third-place winner A.
C. Smythe. In 1950, this same bronze trophy was presented to Steve Reeves for winning the inaugural NABBA Mr. Universe contest, it would not resurface again until 1977 when the winner of the IFBB Mr. Olympia contest, Frank Zane, was presented with a replica of the bronze trophy. Since Mr. Olympia winners have been awarded a replica of the bronze Sandow. From December 28, 1903 to January 2, 1904, the first large-scale bodybuilding competition in America took place at Madison Square Garden in New York City; the competition was promoted by Bernarr Macfadden, the father of physical culture and publisher of original bodybuilding magazines such as Health & Strength. The winner was Al Treloar, declared "The Most Perfectly Developed Man in the World". Treloar won a substantial sum at that time. Two weeks Thomas Edison made a film of Treloar's posing routine. Edison had made two films of Sandow a few years before; those were the first three motion pictures featuring a bodybuilder. In the early 20th century and Charles Atlas continued to promote bodybuilding across the world.
Many other important bodybuilders in the early history of bodybuilding prior to 1930 include: Earle Liederman, Zishe Breitbart, Georg Hackenschmidt, Emy Nkemena, George F. Jowett, Finn Hateral, Frank Saldo, Monte Saldo, William Bankier, Launceston Elliot, Sig Klein, Sgt. Alfred Moss, Joe Nordquist, Lionel Strongfort, Gustav Frištenský, Ralph Parcaut, Alan P. Mead. Actor Francis X. Bushman, a disciple of Sandow, started his career as a bodybuilder and sculptor's model before beginning his famous silent movie career. Bodybuilding became more popular in the 1950s and 1960s with the emergence of strength and gymnastics champions, the simultaneous popularization of bodybuilding magazines, training principles, nutrition for bulking up and cutting down, the use of protein and other food supplements, the opportunity to enter physique contests; the number of bodybuilding organizations grew, most notably the International Federation of Bodybuilders was founded in 1946 by Canadian brothers Joe and Ben Weider.
Other bodybuilding organizations included the
The 2010 FIRS Men's Inline Hockey World Championships was the 16th FIRS Men's Inline Hockey World Championships, an annual international inline hockey tournament organised by the International Roller Sports Federation. It took place between 17 July 2010 in Beroun, Czech Republic; the United States team was the defending champion. The tournament was won by the United States, who claimed their 12th world championship title by defeating Switzerland 6–1 in the World Championship final; the Czech Republic won against France 5–2 for the bronze medal. Spain won the World Cup tournament defeating Australia 1–0; the United States' Travis Fudge was named MVP of the tournament. Australia's Dean Dunstan and Michael Smart were the tournament's leading scorer and goaltender in save percentage respectively; the following 14 nations qualified for the tournament. One nation from Oceania, seven nations from Europe, three nations from North America, three nations from South America were represented. Fourteen participating teams were placed in the following four groups.
After playing a round-robin, the top three teams from Group A and Group B advanced to World Championship round. The last team in Group A and B advanced to the World Cup round. Teams in Group C competed in a round-robin with the top two teams advancing to the World Championship round; the teams who finished third and fourth advanced to the World Cup round and the two teams who finished fifth and sixth are sent to compete in the 13th-14th placement game. The World Championship round is the top level playoff where the winning team finishes first overall for the tournament and wins the gold medal, it comprises the top three teams from Group A and B and the top two teams from Group C. The winning teams in the quarter-finals move on to compete in the semi-finals, while the losing teams are sent to the 5th-8th placement round; the two winning teams in the semi-finals advance to the gold medal game leaving the losing teams to compete for the bronze medal and third and fourth spot overall. The 5th-8th placement round comprises the four teams who lost in the quarter-finals of the World Championship round.
The teams play a qualifier against one other team, with the winners advancing to play-off for the fifth place and the losers compete against each other for seventh place. The World Cup round is the second level playoff in the tournament where the winner finishes ninth overall and wins the World Cup gold medal, it acts as a placement round for the places nine to twelve. The teams compete in a semi-final with the winners moving on to compete for the World Cup gold medal and the losers competing for the World Cup bronze; the 13th-14th placement game consists of the two teams who finished last and second last in Group C. A single game is played with the winner receiving 13th place in the overall standings and the loser receiving 14th. List shows the top skaters sorted by points goals. Only the top five goaltenders, based on save percentage. FIRS Inline Hockey World Championships List of FIRS Senior Men's Inline Hockey World Championships medalists Official site
Declana griseata is a species of moth in the family Geometridae. It is endemic to New Zealand; this species is classified as "At Risk, Declining" by the Department of Conservation. D. griseata was first described and illustrated by George Vernon Hudson in 1898. Hudson further illustrated the species both in his 1928 and 1939 publications; the lectotype specimen is held at the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa. Hudson gave a illustration of the larvae of this species in his 1939 publication. In appearance the larvae are variable but it is able to mimic the appearance of a twig on its host plant; the pupa can be found on the ground. Hudson described the adult moth as follows: The expansion of the wings of the male is 1 1⁄8 inches, of the female 1 3⁄8 inches; the fore-wings are dull slaty-grey, with a paler central band. The hind-wings are pale grey, darker near the termen; the body is dark slaty-grey. The antenna of the male are not bi-pectinated. D. griseata is endemic to New Zealand. This species range is from the Bay of Plenty/Taupo to Southland.
However it is locally extinct in some North Island localities. D. griseata has been recorded as being collected in Wellington, Top house at Lake Rotoiti, Mount Hutt, Castle Hill, Cave Creek in Paparoa National Park, Arthurs Pass, Waiho Gorge in Westland, Ben Lomond, Lake Wakatipu, Takitimu Mountains in Southland and Orepuki. The larvae of D. griseata are present in January. The adult moths emerge from February; this species is attracted to light. Adults rest on mossy tree trunks in the vicinity of their host plants; the host species of this moth are leafy mistletoes, including Peraxilla colensoi. This moth is classified under the New Zealand Threat Classification system as being "At Risk, Declining", it was regarded by Hudson as being a scarce species when first described. The survival of this moth is dependent on the survival of its host plants. Image of lectotype specimen