The Boeing 707 is an American mid-sized, mid- to long-range, narrow-body airliner with four engines built by Boeing Commercial Airplanes from 1958 to 1979. Versions of the aircraft have a capacity from 140 to 219 passengers and a range of 2,500 to 5,750 nautical miles. Developed as Boeing's first jet airliner, the 707 is a swept-wing design with podded engines. Although it was not the first jetliner in service, the 707 was the first to be commercially successful. Dominating passenger air transport in the 1960s and remaining common through the 1970s, the 707 is credited with ushering in the Jet Age, it established Boeing as one of the largest manufacturers of passenger aircraft, led to the series of airliners with "7x7" designations. The 720, 727, 737, 757 share elements of the 707's fuselage design; the 707 was developed from the Boeing 367-80, a prototype jet first flown in 1954. A larger fuselage cross-section and other modifications resulted in the initial-production 707-120, powered by Pratt & Whitney JT3C turbojet engines, which first flew on December 20, 1957.
Pan American World Airways began regular 707 service on October 26, 1958. Derivatives included the shortened long-range 707-138, "hot and high" 707-220 and the stretched 707-320, all of which entered service in 1959. A smaller short-range variant, the 720, was introduced in 1960; the 707-420, a version of the stretched 707 with Rolls-Royce Conway turbofans, debuted in 1960, while Pratt & Whitney JT3D turbofans debuted on the 707-120B and 707-320B models in 1961 and 1962, respectively. The 707 has been used on domestic and transatlantic flights, for cargo and military applications. A convertible passenger-freighter model, the 707-320C, entered service in 1963, passenger 707s have been modified to freighter configurations. Military derivatives include the E-3 Sentry airborne reconnaissance aircraft and the C-137 Stratoliner VIP transports. A total of 865 Boeing 707s were delivered along with over 800 military versions. During and after World War II, Boeing was known for its military aircraft; the company had produced innovative and important bombers, from the B-17 Flying Fortress and B-29 Superfortress, to the jet-powered B-47 Stratojet and B-52 Stratofortress.
The company's civil aviation department lagged far behind Douglas and other competitors, the only noteworthy airliners being the Boeing 314 Clipper and 307 Stratoliner. During 1949 and 1950, Boeing embarked on studies for a new jet transport, realizing that any design must be aimed at both the military and civilian markets. At the time, aerial refueling was becoming a standard technique for military aircraft, with over 800 KC-97 Stratofreighters on order. With the advent of the Jet Age, a new tanker was required to meet the USAF's fleet of jet-powered bombers. Boeing studied numerous wing and engine layouts for its new transport/tanker, some of which were based on the B-47 and C-97, before settling on the 367-80 quadjet prototype aircraft; the "Dash 80" took less than two years from project launch in 1952 to rollout on May 14, 1954 first flew on July 15, 1954. It was powered by the Pratt & Whitney JT3C turbojet engine, the civilian version of the J57 used on many military aircraft of the day, including the F-100 Super Sabre fighter and the B-52 bomber.
The prototype was a proof-of-concept aircraft for both civilian use. The United States Air Force was the first customer, using it as the basis for the KC-135 Stratotanker aerial refueling platform. Whether the passenger 707 would be profitable was far from certain. At the time, Boeing was generating nearly all of its revenue from military contracts: Its last passenger transport, the Boeing 377 Stratocruiser, had netted the company a $15 million loss before it was purchased by the Air Force as the KC-97 Stratofreighter. In a demonstration flight over Lake Washington outside Seattle, on August 7, 1955, test pilot Tex Johnston performed a barrel roll in the 367-80 prototype. Although he justified his unauthorized action to Bill Allen, the president of Boeing, as selling the airplane with a 1'g' manoeuvre he was told not to do it again; the 132 in wide fuselage of the Dash 80 was large enough for four-abreast seating like the Stratocruiser. Answering customers' demands and under Douglas competition, Boeing soon realized this would not provide a viable payload, so it widened the fuselage to 144 in to allow five-abreast seating and use of the KC-135's tooling.
Douglas Aircraft had launched its DC-8 with a fuselage width of 147 in. The airlines liked the extra space and six-abreast seating, so Boeing increased the 707's width again to compete, this time to 148 in; the first flight of the first-production 707-120 took place on December 20, 1957, FAA certification followed on September 18, 1958. Both test pilots Joseph John "Tym" Tymczyszyn and James R. Gannett were awarded the first Iven C. Kincheloe Award for the test flights that led to certification. A number of changes were incorporated into the production models from the prototype. A Krueger flap was installed along the leading edge between the inner and outer engines on early 707-120 and -320 models; this was in response to de Havilland Comet overrun accidents which ocurred after over-rotating on take-off. Wing stall would occur on the 707 with over-rotation so the leading-edge flaps were added to prevent stalling with the tail dragging on the runway; the initial standard model was the 707-120 with JT3C turbojet engines.
Christian study centers are American Christian organizations located close to universities and colleges. Beginning in 1968, they have been developed to encourage the life of the mind and a thoughtful approach to all academic disciplines from an orthodox Christian perspective. One long-term goal of many study centers is to maintain a physical presence close to a university campus, not unlike Hillel: The Foundation for Jewish Campus Life. Many of these college religious organizations are affiliated with the Consortium of Christian Study Centers, founded in 2008. Christian study centers began appearing on U. S. university campus in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Their founders and staff encouraged students and local residents to integrate the life of the university—scholarship and art—with the Christian faith, rather than to see faith and learning as competing or mutually exclusive; the 1994 publication of The Scandal of the Evangelical Mind, by evangelical historian Mark Noll, spurred much reflection among evangelical Christians about the anti-intellectualism of many strands of their culture.
The study center movement gained momentum in the ensuing years, with centers multiplying across the United States. As historian Molly Worthen has written in the New York Times, "The centers position themselves as forums where students can hash out the tensions between their faith and the assumptions of secular academia—the same assumptions that has assailed more traditional ministries. In 1968 the first of these Christian study centers, the Center for Christian Study, was founded in Charlottesville, Virginia next to the University of Virginia; the center took its initial inspiration from a combination of two organizations, Francis Schaeffer and his L'Abri organization and Regent College, a graduate school of biblical and theological studies for laypeople. The Center for Christian Study was incorporated in 1976. In 1972 Frank C. Nelsen, a former professor at the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, discussed creating evangelical living and learning centers for students in an article in Christianity Today.
He said that centers "for undergraduate students be built on private property near large state universities" to enable students to engage in "intellectually honest investigation of the Christian faith."Soon after, several Christian study centers were founded at the same time, such as New College Berkeley in 1977 and the MacLaurin Institute in St. Paul, which began in 1982. MacLaurin merged with Christian Student Fellowship to become MacLaurinCSF in 2011 and was renamed Anselm House in 2015, it is located near the St. Paul campus of the University of Minnesota. In 1983 the Dayspring Center for Christian Studies began near the University of Colorado in Boulder, Colorado, it offered courses. It was an extension site for Denver Seminary. In 2004 the center entered into a partnership with Northwestern College and opened two more study centers at Colorado universities with transfer credit arrangements. Dayspring changed its name to The Boulder Center for Christian Study, affiliated with Centers for Christian Study International, an organization dedicated to starting Study Centers in university towns.
In 2000 Chesterton House began at Cornell University in New York. It grew out of the new interest in Christian evangelical intellectual activity in the 1990s, which included The Scandal of the Evangelical Mind by Mark A. Noll in 1995 and The Outrageous Idea of Christian Scholarship by George Marsden in 1998. In 2013 the Lilly Endowment awarded $2.9 million to 21 university campus ministry organizations to expand their programs related to vocation. Four of these were members of the CCSC: Chesterton House at Cornell University, the Christian Study Center of Gainesville at the University of Florida, Hill House Ministries at the University of Texas, University Christian Ministries at the University of Virginia. In 2014 the Oread Center in Lawrence, KS a Member Organization of the Consortium of Christian Study Centers, received part of a $4 million grant. After a Supreme Court ruling in 2010, many schools began enforcing non-discrimination policies for all campus organizations. Student religious groups were asked to sign a non-discrimination policy that required any member of the school to be able to join and become a leader of the group, or lose funding and access to meeting space.
In 2014 the Bowdoin Christian Fellowship, affiliated with the InterVarsity Christian Fellowship left the Bowdoin College campus. It became the Alice McKeen Study Center near the college. Christian study centers were founded in part to model and engage in serious university study of all academic disciplines from an orthodox Christian perspective. Traditional campus ministries tend to focus on building a network of students to engage in regular religious worship and social activities for their membership. In contrast to ministry models built on student membership and regular worship, Study Centers lead students to take their studies as preparation for their chosen vocation and to incorporate Christian scholarship within academic life, they offer libraries, guest lectures and seminars. Some offer an array of events open to university communities, including film showings and Bible studies. Others have residential programs for students. Courses offered at some centers are affiliated with religious colleges whose credits can transfer to the institutions their students attend.
The Consortium of Christian Study Centers was formed in 2008 with the goal of promoting and providing resources for Christian Study Centers. Beginning in 1999 several heads of Christian study centers began meeting to disc
Codex Vaticanus, designated by S or 028, ε 1027 called Codex Guelpherbytanus, is a Greek manuscript of the four Gospels which can be dated to a specific year instead of an estimated range. The colophon of the codex lists the date as 949; this manuscript is one of the four oldest New Testament manuscripts dated in this manner, the only dated uncial. The manuscript has complex contents; the codex contains 235 parchment leaves, with complete text of the four Gospels. The text is written in 27 lines per page, 15-17 letters per line, it is written in large and compressed uncial letters. It has no accents; the nomina sacra are written in an abbreviated way. The text is divided according to the κεφαλαια, whose numbers are given at the margin, their τιτλοι at the top. There is a division according to the smaller Ammonian sections, with references to the Eusebian Canons, it contains the Epistula ad Carpianum, lists of the κεφαλαια before each Gospel, subscriptions at the end of each Gospel, with numbers of stichoi.
It contains many corrections, margin notes predominantly added by hand. It includes neumes, it is one of the oldest manuscript with neumes; the writing is large oblong and compressed, appears Slavic. The Greek text of this codex is a representative of the Byzantine text-type in close relationship to the codices Codex Mosquensis II, Codex Washingtonianus. Kurt Aland placed it in Category V, it belongs to the textual family K1. In it has marginal comment: "In many ancient copies which I have met with I found Barabbas himself called Jesus; the disputed texts of.44, Pericope Adultera are marked by asterisks as questionable texts. In it reads επορευετο instead of επορευθη; the name of the scribe was Michael, a monk, who finished his work "in the month of March, the fifth day, the sixth hour, the year 6457, the seventh indiction". The manuscript was described by Bianchini, it was collated with some errors by Birch in 1781-1783, but collators in his day noticed orthographical forms. Tischendorf in 1866 corrected the collation of Birch.
Tischendorf states that facsimile of Bianchini was coarsely executed, he made another for himself. The codex is located in Rome. List of New Testament uncials List of New Testament papyri Textual criticism Andreas Birch, Variae Lectiones ad Textum IV Evangeliorum, Haunie 1801, p. IV-V Giovanni Mercati, "Un frammento delle Ipotiposi di Clemente Alessandrino" Bruce M. Metzger, Manuscripts of the Greek Bible: An Introduction to Greek Paleography, Oxford University Press, New York - Oxford, 1991, p. 110 Edward Maunde Thompson, An introduction to Greek and Latin palaeography, Clarendon Press: Oxford 1912, p. 215. Codex Vaticanus 354, S at the Encyclopedia of Textual Criticism