Boeing 717

The Boeing 717 is a twin-engine, single-aisle jet airliner, developed for the 100-seat market. The airliner was designed and marketed by McDonnell Douglas as the MD-95, a derivative of the DC-9 family. Capable of seating up to the 717 has a design range of 2,060 nautical miles, it is powered by two Rolls-Royce BR715 turbofan engines mounted at the rear of the fuselage. The first order was placed in October 1995 by ValuJet Airlines; the airliner entered service in 1999 as the Boeing 717. Production ceased in May 2006. There were 148 Boeing 717 aircraft in service as of July 2018. Douglas Aircraft launched the DC-9, a short-range companion to their larger four-engine DC-8 in 1963; the DC-9 was an all-new design, using two rear fuselage-mounted Pratt & Whitney JT8D turbofan engines. The DC-9's maiden flight was in 1965 and entered airline service that year; when production ended in 1982 a total of 976 DC-9s had been produced. The McDonnell Douglas MD-80 series, the second generation of the DC-9, began airline service in 1980.

It was a lengthened DC-9-50 with a higher maximum take-off weight and higher fuel capacity, as well as next-generation Pratt and Whitney JT8D-200 series engines and an improved wing design. 1,191 MD-80s were delivered from 1980 to 1999. The MD-90 was developed from the MD-80 series, it was launched in 1989 and first flew in 1993. The MD-90 was longer, featured a glass cockpit and more powerful, fuel efficient IAE V2525-D5 engines, with the option of upgrading that to an IAE V2528 engine. A total of 116 MD-90 airliners were delivered; the MD-95 traces its history back to 1983 when McDonnell Douglas outlined a study named the DC-9-90. During the early 1980s, as production of the DC-9 family moved away from the smaller Series 30 towards the larger Super 80 variants, McDonnell Douglas proposed a smaller version of the DC-9 to fill the gap left by the DC-9-30. Dubbed the DC-9-90, it was revealed in February 1983 and was to be some 25 ft 4 in shorter than the DC-9-81, giving it an overall length of 122 ft 6 in.

The aircraft was proposed with a 17,000 lbf thrust version of the JT8D-200 series engine, although the CFM International CFM56-3 was considered. Seating up to 117 passengers, the DC-9-90 was to be equipped with the DC-9's wing with 2 ft tip extensions, rather than the more modified increased area of the MD-80; the aircraft had a design range of 1,430 nmi, with an option to increase to 2,060 nmi, a gross weight of 112,000 lb. The DC-9-90 was designed to meet the needs of the newly deregulated American airline industry. However, its development was postponed due to the recession of the early 1980s; when McDonnell Douglas did develop a smaller version of the MD-80, it shrunk the aircraft to create the MD-87, rather than offer a lower thrust, lighter aircraft, more comparable to the DC-9-30. With its high MTOW and powerful engines, the MD-87 became a special mission aircraft and could not compete with the all new 100-seaters being developed. Although an excellent aircraft for specialized roles, the MD-87 was not sold on its own.

Relying on its commonality factor, sales were limited to existing MD-80 operators. In 1991, McDonnell Douglas revealed that it was again considering developing a specialized 100-seat version of the MD-80 named the MD-87-105, it was to be some 8 ft shorter than the MD-87, powered with engines in the 16,000–17,000 lbf thrust class. McDonnell Douglas, Pratt & Whitney, the China National Aero-Technology Import Export Agency signed a memorandum of understanding to develop a 105-seat version of the MD-80. At the 1991 Paris Airshow, McDonnell Douglas announced the development of a 105-seat aircraft, designated MD-95; the new name was selected to reflect the anticipated year. McDonnell Douglas first offered the MD-95 for sale in 1994. In early 1994, the MD-95 re-emerged as similar to the DC-9-30, its specified weight and fuel capacity being identical. Major changes included a fuselage "shrink" back to 119 ft 4 in length, the reversion to the original DC-9 wingspan of 93 ft 5 in. At this time, McDonnell Douglas said that it expected the MD-95 to become a family of aircraft with the capability of increased range and seating capacity.

The MD-95 was developed to satisfy the market need to replace early DC-9s approaching 30 years old. The MD-95 was a complete overhaul, going back to the original DC-9-30 design and applying new engines and other more modern systems. In March 1995, longtime McDonnell Douglas customer Scandinavian Airlines System chose the Boeing 737-600 for its 100-seater over the MD-95. In October 1995, U. S. new entrant and low-cost carrier ValuJet signed an order for 50 MD-95s, plus 50 options. McDonnell Douglas president Harry Stonecipher felt that launching MD-95 production on the basis of this single order held little risk, stating that further orders would "take a while longer"; the ValuJet order was the only order received for some two years. As first proposed, the MD-95 was to be powered by a 16,500 lbf thrust derivative of the JT8D-200 series with the Rolls-Royce Tay 670 considered as an alternative; this was confirmed in January 1992, when Rolls-Royce and McDonnell Douglas signed a memorandum of understanding concerning the Tay-powered MD-95.

McDonnell Douglas said that the MD-95 project would cost only a minimal amount to develop, as it was a direct offshoot of the IAE-po

Billie's Bounce (album)

Billie's Bounce is a live album by American saxophonist Dexter Gordon recorded at the Jazzhus Montmartre in Copenhagen, Denmark in 1964 by Danmarks Radio and released on the SteepleChase label in 1979. AllMusic critic Scott Yanow stated "The well-recorded performances feature the great bop tenor in peak form and are recommended as is this entire Dexter in Radioland series". Introduction by Dexter Gordon – 0:28 "Billie's Bounce" – 17:17 "Night in Tunisia" – 4:12 Introduction by Dexter Gordon – 0:12 "Satin Doll" – 16:21 "Soul Sister" – 13:18 Dexter Gordon – tenor saxophone, Tete Montoliupiano Niels-Henning Ørsted Pedersenbass Alex Rieldrums


In chemistry, titanate refers to inorganic compounds composed of titanium oxides. Together with niobate, titanate salts form the Perovskite group. In some cases, the term is used more for any titanium-containing anion, e.g. 2− and 2−. This article focuses on the oxides. Many kinds of titanium oxides are known, some are commercially important; these materials are white, high-melting, insoluble in water. They are prepared at high temperatures, e.g. using tube furnaces, from titanium dioxide. In all cases, titanium achieves octahedral coordination geometry. Orthotitanates have the formula M2TiO4. An example of such a material is magnesium titanate. Li2TiO3 is not considered an orthotitanate since it adopts the rock-salt structure and does not feature an identifiable titanium anion. Orthotitanates never feature identifiable TiO44− centres, an exception being Ba2TiO4. Called orthotitanic acid or titanium hydroxide, the substance H4TiO4 is called titanic acid; this material, not well defined, is obtained by hydrolysis of TiCl4.

The solid is unstable with respect to loss of formation of titanium dioxide. Esters of orthotitanic acid are known, however. Esters derived from smaller alcohols adopt more complex structures wherein titanium does achieve octahedral coordination, e.g. Ti416 or titanium tetramethoxide, it is a weak acid. The metatitanates have the formula MTiO3, they do not feature discrete TiO32− centres. Some, like the commercially important mineral ilmenite, crystallize in the hexagonal close packing motif seen in corundum. Alternatively, some materials with the formula MTiO3 crystallize in the motif known as perovskite, the name of the mineral form of calcium titanate. Barium titanate is one such perovskite-structured titanate with ferroelectric properties. More complex titanates are known, such as bismuth titanate, Bi4Ti3O12