The Boeing 727 is an American midsized, narrow-body three-engined jet aircraft built by Boeing Commercial Airplanes from the early 1960s to 1984. It can carry 149 to 189 passengers and models can fly up to 2,700 nautical miles nonstop. Intended for short and medium-length flights, the 727 can use short runways at smaller airports, it has three Pratt & Whitney JT8D engines below a T-tail, one on each side of the rear fuselage with a center engine that connects through an S-duct to an inlet at the base of the fin. The 727 is the only Boeing trijet to enter commercial production; the 727 followed the 707, a quad-jet airliner, with which it shares its upper fuselage cross-section and cockpit design. The 727-100 first flew in February 1963 and entered service with Eastern Air Lines in February 1964; the 727 became a mainstay of airlines' domestic route networks and was used on short- and medium-range international routes. Passenger and convertible versions of the 727 were built; the highest production rate of the 727 was in the 1970s.
As of July 2018, a total of 44 Boeing 727s were in commercial service with 23 airlines, plus a few more in government and private use. Airport noise regulations have led to 727s being equipped with hush kits. Since 1964, there have been 118 fatal incidents involving the Boeing 727. Successor models include variants of the 737 and the 757-200; the last commercial passenger flight of the type was in January 2019. The Boeing 727 design was a compromise among United Airlines, American Airlines, Eastern Air Lines. United Airlines requested a four-engine aircraft for its flights to high-altitude airports its hub at Stapleton International Airport in Denver, Colorado. American Airlines, operating the four-engined Boeing 707 and Boeing 720, requested a twin-engined aircraft for efficiency. Eastern Airlines wanted a third engine for its overwater flights to the Caribbean, since at that time twin-engine commercial flights were limited by regulations to routes with 60-minute maximum flying time to an airport.
The three airlines agreed on a trijet design for the new aircraft. In 1959, Lord Douglas, chairman of British European Airways, suggested that Boeing and de Havilland Aircraft Company work together on their trijet designs, the 727 and D. H.121 Trident, respectively. The two designs had a similar layout, the 727 being larger. At that time Boeing intended to use three Allison AR963 turbofan engines, license-built versions of the Rolls-Royce RB163 Spey used by the Trident. Boeing and de Havilland each sent engineers to the other company's locations to evaluate each other's designs, but Boeing decided against the joint venture. De Havilland had wanted Boeing to license-build the D. H.121, while Boeing felt that the aircraft needed to be designed for the American market, with six-abreast seating and the ability to use runways as short as 4,500 feet. In 1960, Pratt & Whitney was looking for a customer for its new JT8D turbofan design study, based on its J52 turbojet, while United and Eastern were interested in a Pratt & Whitney alternative to the RB163 Spey.
Once Pratt & Whitney agreed to go ahead with development of the JT8D, Eddie Rickenbacker, chairman of the board of Eastern, told Boeing that the airline preferred the JT8D for its 727s. Boeing had not offered the JT8D, as it was about 1,000 lb heavier than the RB163, though more powerful. Boeing reluctantly agreed to offer the JT8D as an option on the 727, it became the sole powerplant. With high-lift devices on its wing, the 727 could use shorter runways than most earlier jets. 727 models were stretched to carry more passengers and replaced earlier jet airliners such as the Boeing 707 and Douglas DC-8, as well as aging propeller airliners such as the DC-4, DC-6, DC-7, the Lockheed Constellations on short- and medium-haul routes. For over a decade, more 727s were built per year than any other jet airliner; the airliner's middle engine at the rear of the fuselage gets air from an inlet ahead of the vertical fin through an S-shaped duct. This S-duct proved to be troublesome in that flow distortion in the duct induced a surge in the centerline engine on the take-off of the first flight of the 727-100.
This was fixed by the addition of several large vortex generators in the inside of the first bend of the duct. The 727 was designed for smaller airports, so independence from ground facilities was an important requirement; this led to one of the 727's most distinctive features: the built-in airstair that opens from the rear underbelly of the fuselage, which could be opened in flight. Hijacker D. B. Cooper used this hatch when he parachuted from the back of a 727, as it was flying over the Pacific Northwest. Boeing subsequently modified the design with the Cooper vane so that the airstair could not be lowered in flight. Another innovation was the auxiliary power unit, which allowed electrical and air-conditioning systems to run independently of a ground-based power supply, without having to start one of the main engines. An unusual design feature is that the APU is mounted in a hole in the keel beam web, in the main landing gear bay; the 727 is equipped with a retrac
German submarine U-402 was a Type VIIC U-boat built for Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine for service during World War II. She was laid down at the Danziger Werft in the city of the same name on 22 April 1940 as yard number 103, launched on 28 December 1940 and was commissioned on 21 May 1941, with Kapitänleutnant Siegfried Freiherr von Forstner in command; the boat commenced her career with the 3rd U-boat Flotilla on 21 May 1941 carrying-out training before moving on to operations on 1 October 1941. U-402 carried out eight combat patrols, sinking 14 merchantmen and one warship for a total of over 70,000 gross register tons during the Second World War, she damaged three other ships. The submarine was a member of twelve wolfpacks. For his numerous successes, von Forstner received the Knight's Cross. German Type VIIC submarines were preceded by the shorter Type VIIB submarines. U-402 had a displacement of 769 tonnes when at the 871 tonnes while submerged, she had a total length of 67.10 m, a pressure hull length of 50.50 m, a beam of 6.20 m, a height of 9.60 m, a draught of 4.74 m.
The submarine was powered by two Germaniawerft F46 four-stroke, six-cylinder supercharged diesel engines producing a total of 2,800 to 3,200 metric horsepower for use while surfaced, two Siemens-Schuckert GU 343/38–8 double-acting electric motors producing a total of 750 metric horsepower for use while submerged. She had two 1.23 m propellers. The boat was capable of operating at depths of up to 230 metres; the submarine had a maximum submerged speed of 7.6 knots. When submerged, the boat could operate for 80 nautical miles at 4 knots. U-402 was fitted with five 53.3 cm torpedo tubes, fourteen torpedoes, one 8.8 cm SK C/35 naval gun, 220 rounds, a 2 cm C/30 anti-aircraft gun. The boat had a complement of between sixty. No ships were sunk during the first patrol which lasted from 26 October to 9 December 1941. U-402 followed the Norwegian coast from Kiel before heading west towards the Atlantic; the submarine sailed after 45 uneventful days. On her second patrol, U-402 damaged the 12,000-ton troopship Llangibby Castle off the Bay of Biscay on 16 January 1942, but the troopship was able to make repairs in the Azores.
U-402 returned to St. Nazaire on 11 February 1942. For her third sortie, U-402 headed for the US east coast, sinking a total of three ships, two of which were the 5,300-ton Soviet freighter Ashkhabad and her escort, the 1,000-ton converted yacht USS Cythera off Cape Hatteras on 2 May 1942; the U-boat had been unsuccessfully attacked by a US Navy PBY Catalina in mid-Atlantic on 29 April 1942. The boat returned to the US eastern seaboard for her fourth patrol, she returned to France, having been depth charged by patrol bombers off Cape Hatteras in mid-July and suffering a battery explosion. U-402 limped back to France, but this time to La Pallice, on 5 August 1942, it was a different story on her fifth patrol. She had plenty of success when she attacked seven ships from convoy SC 118 on her sixth patrol, her seventh outing saw her sinking two ships from convoy SC 129. Retribution was swift, her eighth and final patrol was marked with a paucity of targets and an ever-increasing frequency of air attacks.
U-402 was not hit, but the aircraft sustained enough damage to make a safe return to its base questionable. U-402 had departed La Pallice on 4 September 1943. On the 13 October she was sunk by a Mark 24 FIDO Torpedo dropped by Grumman TBF Avenger aircraft from the escort carrier USS Card. U-402 took part in twelve wolfpacks, namely: Störtebecker Benecke Letzte Ritter Panther Veilchen Landsknecht Pfeil Amsel 1 Elbe Elbe 2 Leuthen Rossbach Helgason, Guðmundur. "The Type VIIC boat U-402". German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net. Retrieved 26 December 2014
Shangri-La Hotel, Singapore is a five-star deluxe hotel located on Orange Grove Road, Orchard Road, Singapore. Opened on 23 April 1971, the hotel is the flagship and the first hotel of Shangri-La Hotels and Resorts; the hotel has 747 guestrooms and suites spread over the Tower Wing, Garden Wing and Valley Wing, 127 serviced apartments, 55 condominium units. The hotel is the annual host of a meeting of defence ministers, permanent heads of ministries, military chiefs of 28 Asia-Pacific states since 2002 that has become known as the Shangri-La Dialogue. On 7 November 2015, the hotel served as the venue of a historic meeting between the People's Republic of China's paramount leader Xi Jinping and the Republic of China's President Ma Ying-jeou, the first meeting between a Mainland China's and Taiwan's leader since the 1949 Chinese Communist Revolution. Opened in 1971, Tower Wing is the main wing of the hotel and houses the deluxe rooms, executive rooms, Horizon Club rooms, Horizon Premier Suite.
Besides the rooms and suites, majority of the dining outlets in the hotel are located at the Tower Wing. The Garden Wing opened in 1978. In 2011, the Garden Wing closed for renovation and reopened on 31 May 2012 after eight months of renovation which cost S$68 million; the food and beverage outlets at Shangri-La Hotel Singapore are operated by the same management. The hotel was part of the special event area for Trump–Kim summit. On June 3 2018, a "special event area" was declared around the Shangri-La Hotel Singapore, Capella Singapore and extra security measures were in force from June 10 to 14. Shangri-La Hotel, Singapore Official Website