The Boeing 737 is a narrow-body aircraft produced by Boeing Commercial Airplanes at its Renton Factory in Washington. Developed to supplement the 727 on short and thin routes, the twinjet retains the 707 fuselage cross-section and nose with two underwing turbofans. Envisioned in 1964, the initial 737-100 made its first flight in April 1967 and entered service in February 1968 with Lufthansa; the lengthened 737-200 entered service in April 1968. It evolved through four generations; the -100/200 original variants were powered by Pratt & Whitney JT8D low-bypass engines and offered seating for 85 to 130 passengers. Launched in 1980 and introduced in 1984, the 737 Classic -300/400/500 variants were re-engined with CFM56-3 turbofans and offered 110 to 168 seats. Introduced in 1997, the 737 Next Generation -600/700/800/900 variants have updated CFM56-7s, a larger wing and an upgraded glass cockpit, seat 108 to 215 passengers; the latest generation, the 737 MAX -7/8/9/10, powered by improved CFM LEAP high bypass turbofans and accommodating 138 to 204 people, entered service in 2017.
Boeing Business Jet versions are produced since the 737NG, as well as military models. As of December 2019, 15,156 Boeing 737s have been 10,571 delivered. Actual backlog stands at 4,398 when including "additional criteria for recognizing contracted backlog with customers beyond the existence of a firm contract", it was the highest-selling commercial jetliner until being surpassed in total orders by the competing Airbus A320 family in October 2019. Before, it competed with the McDonnell Douglas DC-9 its MD-80/MD-90 derivatives. In March 2019, the Boeing 737 MAX was grounded worldwide following two fatal crashes. Boeing had been studying short-haul jet aircraft designs, wanted to produce another aircraft to supplement the 727 on short and thin routes. Preliminary design work began on May 11, 1964, Boeing's intense market research yielded plans for a 50- to 60-passenger airliner for routes 50 to 1,000 mi long; the initial concept featured podded engines on the aft fuselage and a T-tail like the 727, five-abreast seating, but engineer Joe Sutter instead placed the engines under the wings to lighten the structure, enabling fuselage widening for six-abreast seating.
The 737 design was presented in October 1964 at the Air Transport Association maintenance and engineering conference by chief project engineer Jack Steiner, where its elaborate high-lift devices raised concerns about maintenance costs and dispatch reliability. It was decided to mount the nacelles directly to the underside of the wings to reduce the landing gear length and kept the engines low to the ground for easy ramp inspection and servicing. Many thickness variations for the engine attachment strut were tested in the wind tunnel and the most desirable shape for high speed was found to be one, thick, filling the narrow channels formed between the wing and the top of the nacelle on the outboard side; the span arrangement of the airfoil sections of the 737 wing was planned to be similar to that of the 707 and 727, but somewhat thicker. A substantial improvement in drag at high Mach numbers was achieved by altering these sections near the nacelle; the engine chosen was the Pratt & Whitney JT8D-1 low-bypass ratio turbofan engine, delivering 14,500 lbf thrust.
With the wing-mounted engines, Boeing decided to mount the horizontal stabilizer on the fuselage rather than the T-tail style of the Boeing 727. The launch decision for the $150 million development was made by the board on February 1, 1965. Lufthansa became the launch customer on February 19, 1965, with an order for 21 aircraft, worth $67 million in 1965, after the airline received assurances from Boeing that the 737 project would not be canceled. Consultation with Lufthansa over the previous winter resulted in an increase in capacity to 100 seats; this was renamed the 737-100. It competed with the McDonnell Douglas DC-9 its MD-80/MD-90 derivatives. On April 5, 1965, Boeing announced an order by United Airlines for 40 737s. United wanted a larger airplane than the original 737, so Boeing stretched the fuselage 36 in ahead of, 40 in behind the wing; the longer version was designated 737-200, with the original short-body aircraft becoming the 737-100. Detailed design work continued on both variants at the same time.
Boeing was far behind its competitors. To expedite development, Boeing used 60% of the structure and systems of the existing 727, the most notable being the fuselage cross-section; this fuselage permitted six-abreast seating compared to the rival BAC-111 and DC-9's five-abreast layout. The initial assembly of the Boeing 737 was adjacent to Boeing Field because the factory in Renton was filled to capacity with the production of the 707 and 727. After 271 of the Boeing 737 aircraft were built, production was moved to Renton in late 1970, it was the highest-selling commercial jetliner until being surpassed in total orders by the competing Airbus A320 family in October 2019. A significant portion of fuselage assembly—previously done by Boeing in Wichita, Kansas—is now performed by Spirit AeroSystems, which purchased some of Boeing's assets in Wichita. Key to increasing production efficiencies, the entire fuselage is shipped since the 737 Next Generation while it was sent in two pieces before; the fuselage is joined with the wings and landing gear and moves down the assembly line for the engines and interiors.
After rolling out the aircraft, Boeing tests the systems and engines befor
Fusarium subglutinans is a fungal plant pathogen. Fusarium subglutinans is the anamorph of Gibberella fujikuroi. Fusarium strains in the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex cause diseases in a number of economically important plants. DNA sequencing data reveals the presence of two major groups representing cryptic species in F. subglutinans. These were further divided into groups that appeared to be reproductively isolated in the environment which suggests that they are undergoing separation into distinct taxa. One such divergent group is Fusarium subglutinans f. sp. pini which causes pitch canker of pine trees. It is a synonym of Fusarium circinatum. Other members of the complex and their host plants are: Fusarium moniliforme - Maize Fusarium oxysporum - Pine Fusarium proliferatum - Rice Fusarium subglutinans - Maize, Mango Fusarium subglutinans f. sp. ananas - Pineapple Index Fungorum USDA ARS Fungal Database
I Spy was a Canadian hardcore punk band founded in Regina, Saskatchewan, in 1991, relocated to Winnipeg, Manitoba, in 1994, disbanded in 1996. Combining childish humour and politically oriented emotive hardcore, the group released several records on Recess Records and toured internationally. Front man Todd Kowalski joined Propagandhi. Called Clump, the band was composed of lead singer and guitarist Todd Kowalski, lead guitarist Jeromy Van Dusen, bass guitarist Juan David Guerrero and drummer James Ash. With a blend of childish humour and serious, radical left wing political subject matter, the band garnered a following in the Canadian punk rock scene behind several releases on Recess Records and extensive touring. In 1994, the band released a split 10" record, I'd Rather Be Flag-Burning, with fellow Winnipeg band Propagandhi, the two bands toured together throughout western Canada that year. In 1994, the band toured independently throughout the Midwestern United States. In 1995, they toured Europe.
Van Dusen left the band in 1995 after the band's European tour, reducing them to a three-piece in their latter days. The final line-up had bass guitarist Sean Talarico replacing Guerrero. G7 Welcoming Committee Records released the band's complete discography on a single CD, Perversity Is Spreading... It's About Time!. This packaged all of their released material with bonus tracks, including cover versions of songs by Diana Ross and Youth of Today. Kowalski joined Propagandhi in 1997 after the departure of bass guitarist John K. Samson, who left to form The Weakerthans. Propagandhi's 2001 album. Today's Tomorrow's Ashes. Includes their version of an unreleased I Spy song, "Fuck the Border". Kowalski played in the grindcore band Swallowing Shit. In 2002, the original four members reunited in Propagandhi singer Chris Hannah's basement studio to re-record their version of Diana Ross's "When We Grow Up" for the Somebody Needs a Timeout compilation album released by Campfire Records. Todd Kowalski – vocals, guitar James Ash – drums, vocals Juan David Guerrero – bass guitar Jeromy Van Dusen – guitar Sean Talarico – bass guitar Four-song demo cassette I'd Rather Be Flag-Burning Revenge of the Little Shits Split 7" with...
But Alive Perversity Is Spreading... It's About Time! I Spy has contributed songs to numerous compilation albums. I Spy profile at G7 Welcoming Committee Records I Spy at Allmusic