Boeing 737 Classic

The Boeing 737 Classic are narrow-body airliners produced by Boeing Commercial Airplanes, the second generation of the original Boeing 737-100/-200. Development began in 1979 and the first variant, the 737-300, first flew in February 1984 and entered service in December of that year; the stretched 737-400 first flew in February 1988 and entered service that year The shortest variant, the 737-500, first flew in June 1989 and entered service in 1990. It is re-engined with higher bypass ratio CFM56 turbofans for a better fuel economy and has upgraded avionics. With a 133,500–150,000 lb MTOW, it has a range of 2,060 to 2,375 nmi. At 102 ft, the -500 can fly 110 to 132 passengers; the 110 ft long -300 can seat 126 to 149 passengers while the 120 ft long -400 accommodates 147 to 168 seats. It competed with the MD-80 family with the Airbus A320 which prompted Boeing to update its offer with the 737 Next Generation, thus designating the -300/400/500 variants the 737 classic. In total, 1,988 aircraft were delivered until the year 2000: 1,113 -300s, 486 -400s and 389 -500s.

Following the success of the Boeing 737-200 Advanced, Boeing wanted to increase capacity and range, incorporating improvements to upgrade the plane to modern specifications, while retaining commonality with previous 737 variants. Development began in 1979, in 1980, preliminary aircraft specifications were released at the Farnborough Airshow; the new series featured CFM56 turbofan engines, yielding significant gains in fuel economy and a reduction in noise, but posing an engineering challenge given the low ground clearance of the 737 - a trait of its 707-derived fuselage. Boeing and engine supplier CFM International solved the problem by placing the engine ahead of the wing, by moving engine accessories to the sides of the engine pod, giving the 737 a distinctive noncircular air intake; the wing incorporated a number of changes for improved aerodynamics. The wing tip was extended 9 inches; the leading-edge slats and trailing-edge flaps were adjusted. The flight deck was improved with the optional electronic flight instrumentation system, the passenger cabin incorporated improvements similar to those on the Boeing 757.

In March 1981, USAir and Southwest Airlines each ordered 10 aircraft of the 737-300 series, with an option for 20 more. That aircraft, the initial model of the 737 Classic series, first flew in February 1984 and entered service in December of that year with Southwest Airlines. A further stretched model, the 737-400, was launched with an order for 25 aircraft with 30 options from Piedmont Airlines in June 1986; that aircraft first flew in February 1988 and entered service that year with Piedmont Airlines. The final model of the series, the 737-500, was launched with an order for 30 aircraft from Southwest Airlines in May 1987; that aircraft, designed as a replacement for the 737-200 and had similar passenger capacity and dimensions, as well as the longest range of any member of the 737 Classic family, first flew in June 1989 and entered service with Southwest Airlines in 1990. Boeing selected the CFM56-3 to power the 737-300 variant; the 737 wings were closer to the ground than previous applications for the CFM56, necessitating several modifications to the engine.

The fan diameter was reduced, which reduced the bypass ratio, the engine accessory gearbox was moved from the bottom of the engine to the 9 o'clock position, giving the engine nacelle its distinctive flat-bottomed shape, nicknamed the "hamster pouch". The overall thrust was reduced, from 24,000 to 20,000 lbf due to the reduction in bypass ratio; the 737 Classic saw introduction of Speed Trim System, a flight augmentation system that adjusts the stabilizer automatically at low speed, low weight, aft center of gravity and high thrust with autopilot disengaged. Most it can be observed during takeoffs and go-arounds; the system relies on most of the same software used in autopilot mode. STS is not fail-safe in that it uses only one of each sensor types required for its functionality and a single computer; such a single-channel design is not common for augmentation systems that have full control of the stabilizer. This design was considered acceptable because of the ability for the aft and forward column cutout switches as well as center console cutout switches to constrain its malfunction.

The limited flight envelope protections on the 737 Next Generation series, as well as MCAS on the 737 MAX, are extensions of this system. Throughout the 1980s, the 737 Classic series attracted large orders from airlines in the United States and Europe, with its order totals exceeding those of preceding 737 models. By far, the most successful model was the 737-300, with deliveries totaling 1,113 aircraft. Major operators included US carriers, small national airlines, charter carriers. By the 1990s, when regular Boeing customer United Airlines bought the Airbus A320, this prompted Boeing to update the slower, shorter-range 737 Classic -400 into the rewinged, more efficient, longer 737NG-800. Production of the 737 Classic continued alongside that of the Next Generation for a period of time. Six former Southwest 737-300s are modified and operated for aerial firefighting by British Columbia-based Coulson Group, supported by a C$3.4 million loan from the Canadian government. The converted 737 FireLiner can carry 4,000 US gal with a flow rate of 3,000 US

Central Business District, Los Angeles (1880s-1890s)

During the 1880s and 1890s the central business district of Los Angeles was located around Spring and Main streets from just south of the Los Angeles Plaza to Second Street. Of the old CBD not a single building remains except at the extreme southern edge below 2nd Street, as all structures from this period were razed to make way for the construction of the Civic Center during the 1930s–1950s. Prior to the completion of the transcontinental railroad, Los Angeles was a small town of low-lying adobe and brick buildings. Most businesses were nearby the Plaza. With the arrival of the railroad the city grew in population quintupling in ten years and businesses opened further south and west away from the Plaza. After the turn of the 20th century, banks and retailers established much larger buildings along Spring and Broadway from Third Street southward, in the area today called the Historic Core; the central business district shifted to the area between Third and Ninth streets: along Broadway for retail and restaurants.

The blocks north of Second Street lost prestige and began to house businesses catering to working-class and Spanish-speaking Angelenos. The area contained many streets which no longer exist or only exist outside the boundaries of the 1880s-1890s CBD; these include: Arcadia St. Buena Vista St. Center Pl. Commercial St. Ferguson St. Franklin St. Marchessault St. Market Ct. New High St. Nigger Alley, Requena St. Maps of the area from Hill St. east to Los Angeles St. and from the Plaza south to 2nd St. in 1886, left. Arcadia Block, Arcadia, NW corner of Los Angeles Street. Built by Abel Stearns in 1858 for $80,000. Razed in 1927. Baker Block, Second Empire architecture, SE corner Main and Arcadia, 1875. Built on the site of Don Abel Stearns' 1835-8 adobe "palacio", Col. Robert S. Baker having married Stearns' widow, Arcadia Bandini de Stearns; when built, it was called the "finest emporium of commerce south of San Francisco". The ground floor housed retail tenants such as B. F. Coulter, George D. Rowan and Eugene Germain.

The second floor was offices, the third floor held the city's most upscale apartments. By the 1930s, the block housed Goodwill Industries. Bryson Block, SE corner 2nd & Spring, built 1886-1888 for $224,000 on the site of a public school and an early city hall, as a 126-room bank and office building. Romanesque architecture. Two stories added 1902-1904. Demolished 1934. Architect Joseph Cather Newsom, its exterior was, according to PCAD, "nothing short of amazing, displaying a riotous and eclectic amalgam of features". Built for mayor John Bryson and Major George H. Bonebrake, President of the Los Angeles National Bank and the State Loan and Trust Company. Downey Block, NW corner Main & Temple, built in 1871 on the site of Jonathan Temple's old adobe store, the first dry goods store in Los Angeles. Romanesque architecture; the first home of the Los Angeles Times, the Los Angeles Public Library and the Los Angeles Athletic Club. Victor Dol's Commercial Restaurant was located on the ground floor. Philips Block, Main north of Temple, built c.

1882, architect Burgess J. Reeve, housed A. Hamburger & Sons "The People's Store", the largest retailer in Los Angeles at the time. Hamburger & Sons "People's Store" the city's largest retailer. Temple Block, not to be confused with the first "Old Temple Block", nor with Temple Market Block a.k.a. Temple Courthouse. Located at the corner where Main & Spring used to diverge/merge, built 1858, expanded 1871, housing many law offices. On the ground floor retail tenants included Daniel Desmond, whose hat shop was the forerunner of a chain of department stores. Dry Goods, purchased by May Company in the 1920s, Harry Slotterbeck's gun shop, the Wells Fargo office. Wilcox Building, SE corner Spring & 2nd St. built 1895-6, 5 stories, all but the ground floor demolished 1971 after damage from the 1971 Sylmar earthquake, ground floor remains. Housed the California Club until 1904, when it moved to 4th & Hill. H. Jevne's wine and gourmet grocery store. Southwestern School of Law was located on its top floors 1915–1924.

Wilson Block, SE corner Spring & 1st B. F. Coulter 101-103-105 Spring St. at 2nd A. Hamburger & Sons "The People's Store", first location on Main at Requena Main north of Temple Jacoby Bros. in the Temple Block London Clothing Co. at Spring and Temple, which became Harris & Frank, a chain of stores focused on men's clothing Temple Market Block or Temple Courthouse, located between Spring and Main and Court streets. Market was a small street south of Temple and Court was a small street north of First. Not to be confused with Temple Block at the north end of Spring St. where it merges with Main Street. Served as a market and retail as well as the County Courthouse 1861-1891 until the Red Sand Courthouse was built. A.k.a. The "Clocktower Courthouse" because of its rectangular tower with a clock on all fou

New York Canal

The New York Canal in Ada County and Canyon County, Idaho, is a 41-mile irrigation canal originating at the Boise River Diversion Dam and ending at Lake Lowell. The canal system includes multiple lateral canals that distribute water to 165,000 acres of farmland in the Boise Valley. Current flow rate of the canal is 2450 cubic feet of water per second. Completion of the Oregon Short Line Railroad in the early 1880s made possible the construction of farming settlements in the Boise Valley. In 1882 investors from New York founded the Idaho Mining and Irrigation Company in order to transform the desert into farmland between the Boise River and the Snake River in southern Idaho Territory. Investors hoped that the company could begin mining operations in the region, financed by revenue from irrigation canals. Mining engineer Arthur De Wint Foote commenced a survey of the Boise Valley in 1883, he envisioned a 75-mile canal that would draw water from the south side of the Boise River and irrigate a half-million acres of desert through 5000 lateral ditches.

The Main Canal became known as New York Canal in deference to eastern investors. The New York Canal was not the first irrigation system in the Boise Valley. In 1878 William H. Ridenbaugh began construction of the Ridenbaugh Canal from the north side of the Boise River, smaller projects had existed beginning in the 1860s. In the 1880s work on the New York Canal focused on the Foote survey and on acquiring water rights; the Idaho Mining and Irrigation Company began construction near the Boise River Canyon about 10 miles east of Boise City, work required moving boulders and cutting rock. The difficulty of work accounted for slow progress on the canal, but another factor was the Depression of 1882–85, some eastern investors had been forced to divest their holdings in the company. Arthur Foote continued to work with little pay, the company allowed only a minimum construction effort, this to retain its water rights. In 1888 the Idaho Statesman objected to claims; the newspaper found that "maps and profiles" were the only work finished, the editor projected that the canal would require 500 workers over five years before it was completed.

In 1889 Idaho Mining and Irrigation Company manager Charles H. Tompkins, Jr. estimated that the canal would be 70 miles long and irrigate about 350,000 acres with an estimated capacity of 2915 cubic feet of water per second, but he admitted that only two miles of the canal had been completed. Another Boise River project undertaken by the company, the Phyllis Canal, named for investors from Philadelphia had completed about two miles; the Phyllis Canal became part of the New York Canal system. In 1890 the company secured investment capital of $300,000 to complete work on the canal; the general contractor was Denver railroad builder William C. Bradbury, the company believed the canal would be finished in 1891. By September, 1890, 220 workers were employed, the company advertised employment for 1000 workers, but progress on the canal continued into 1892, when work stopped because of disagreements between investors. Work resumed in 1893; the Idaho Mining and Irrigation Company became insolvent in 1891, contractor Bradbury filed a lien against the company that year.

Bradbury continued construction on the canal financed by his own money. He purchased the canal, right of way, water rights in a sheriff's auction in 1894, he sold the uncompleted canal to the Farmers' Canal Company, an association of about 175 local farmers, in 1896. Congress created the United States Reclamation Service in 1902, the bureau gained control of the New York Canal project. After trimming several miles from the former design and completing construction of the canal and diversion dam, the bureau opened the New York Canal on February 22, 1909; the canal was enlarged by 1912, it was placed under control of the Boise Project in 1926. List of canals in the United States Carey Act Media related to New York Canal at Wikimedia Commons New York Irrigation District Boise Project, Bureau of Reclamation Anne Wallace Allen, A hardy pair of early Idahoans and Mary Hallock Foote