The Boeing KC-135 Stratotanker is a military aerial refueling aircraft. Both the KC-135 and the Boeing 707 airliner were developed from the Boeing 367-80 prototype, it is the predominant variant of the C-135 Stratolifter family of transport aircraft. The KC-135 was the US Air Force's first jet-powered refueling tanker and replaced the KC-97 Stratofreighter; the KC-135 was tasked with refueling strategic bombers, but was used extensively in the Vietnam War and conflicts such as Operation Desert Storm to extend the range and endurance of US tactical fighters and bombers. The KC-135 entered service with the United States Air Force in 1957; the KC-135 is supplemented by the larger KC-10. Studies have concluded that many of the aircraft could be flown until 2030, although maintenance costs have increased; the KC-135 is to be replaced by the Boeing KC-46 Pegasus. Like its sibling, the commercial Boeing 707 jet airliner, the KC-135 was derived from the Boeing 367-80 jet transport "proof of concept" demonstrator, called the "Dash-80".
The KC-135 is similar in appearance to the 707, but has a narrower fuselage and is shorter than the 707. The KC-135 predates the 707, is structurally quite different from the civilian airliner. Boeing gave the future KC-135 tanker the initial designation Model 717. In 1954 USAF's Strategic Air Command held a competition for a jet-powered aerial refueling tanker. Lockheed's tanker version of the proposed Lockheed L-193 airliner with rear fuselage-mounted engines was declared the winner in 1955. Since Boeing's proposal was flying, the KC-135 could be delivered two years earlier and Air Force Secretary Harold E. Talbott ordered 250 KC-135 tankers until Lockheed's design could be manufactured. In the end, orders for the Lockheed tanker were dropped rather than supporting two tanker designs. Lockheed never produced its jet airliner, while Boeing would dominate the market with a family of airliners based on the 707. In 1954, the Air Force placed an initial order for 29 KC-135As, the first of an eventual 820 of all variants of the basic C-135 family.
The first aircraft flew in August 1956 and the initial production Stratotanker was delivered to Castle Air Force Base, California, in June 1957. The last KC-135 was delivered to the Air Force in 1965. Developed in the early 1950s, the basic airframe is characterized by 35-degree aft swept wings and tail, four underwing-mounted engine pods, a horizontal stabilizer mounted on the fuselage near the bottom of the vertical stabilizer with positive dihedral on the two horizontal planes and a hi-frequency radio antenna which protrudes forward from the top of the vertical fin or stabilizer; these basic features make it resemble the commercial Boeing 707 and 720 aircraft, although it is a different aircraft. Reconnaissance and command post variants of the aircraft, including the RC-135 Rivet Joint and EC-135 Looking Glass aircraft were operated by SAC from 1963 through 1992, when they were reassigned to the Air Combat Command; the USAF EC-135 Looking Glass was subsequently replaced in its role by the U.
S. Navy E-6 Mercury aircraft, a new build airframe based on the Boeing 707-320B. All KC-135s were equipped with Pratt & Whitney J57-P-59W turbojet engines, which produced 10,000 lbf of thrust dry, 13,000 lbf of thrust wet. Wet thrust is achieved through the use of water injection on takeoff, as opposed to "wet thrust" when used to describe an afterburning engine. 670 US gallons of water are injected into the engines over the course of three minutes. The water is injected into the diffuser case in front of the combustion case; the water cools the air in the engine to increase its density. This allows the use of more fuel for proper combustion and creates more thrust for short periods of time, similar in concept to "War Emergency Power" in a piston-engined aircraft. In the 1980s the first modification program retrofitted 157 Air Force Reserve and Air National Guard tankers with the Pratt & Whitney TF33-PW-102 turbofan engines from 707 airliners retired in the late 1970s and early 1980s; the modified tanker, designated the KC-135E, was 14% more fuel-efficient than the KC-135A and could offload 20% more fuel on long-duration flights.
Only the KC-135E aircraft were equipped with thrust-reversers for aborted takeoffs and shorter landing roll-outs. The KC-135E fleet has since either been retrofitted as the R-model configuration or placed into long-term storage, as Congress has prevented the Air Force from formally retiring them; the final KC-135E, tail number 56-3630, was delivered by the 101st Air Refueling Wing of the Maine Air National Guard to the 309th Aerospace Maintenance and Regeneration Group at Davis–Monthan Air Force Base in September 2009. The second modification program retrofitted 500 aircraft with new CFM International CFM56 high-bypass turbofan engines produced by General Electric and Snecma; the CFM56 engine produces 22,500 lbf of thrust, nearly a 100% increase compared to the original J57 engine. The modified tanker, designated KC-135R or KC-135T, c
The ARMS Charity Concerts were a series of charitable rock concerts in support of Action into Research for Multiple Sclerosis in 1983. The first event took place at the Royal Albert Hall on September 20, 1983, with subsequent dates occurring in the United States, with different lineups of musicians; the idea for hosting the concert was envisaged by Ronnie Lane, ex-bassist for Small Faces and Faces, himself a casualty of multiple sclerosis. The concert was billed as The Ronnie Lane Appeal for ARMS and featured a star-studded line-up of British musicians, including Jimmy Page, Eric Clapton, Jeff Beck, Steve Winwood, Andy Fairweather Low, Bill Wyman, Kenney Jones, Charlie Watts and Ray Cooper; the concert was notable in the fact that it was the first occasion on which Clapton and Page, each a former lead guitarist for The Yardbirds, had performed together on stage. The set list for the ARMS Charity Concert Video was as follows: Eric Clapton Everybody Oughta Make A Change Rita May "Lay Down Sally" "Ramblin' On My Mind"/"Have You Ever Loved a Woman" "Cocaine"Andy Fairweather Low "Man Smart"Steve Winwood with Eric Clapton "Roadrunner" "Take Me To The River" "Slowdown Sundown" "Gimme Some Lovin'"Intermission Jeff Beck Star Cycle The Pump "Goodbye Pork Pie Hat"/"Led Boots" "Hi Ho Silver Lining"Jimmy Page Prelude City Sirens Who's To Blame "Stairway to Heaven" All "Tulsa Time" "Layla" "Goodnight, Irene" The complete show lasted just under three hours and included Wonderful Tonight, Hound Dog, Best That I Can, Wee Wee Baby and Bombers Moon.
Clapton and Page each performed sets, with Andy Fairweather Low and Steve Winwood performing songs. Clapton, with Fairweather Low, Bill Wyman, Chris Stainton, percussionist Ray Cooper, Kenney Jones, James Hooker, Steve Winwood and Fernando Saunders performed a selection of blues and rock numbers. Jeff Beck's set consisted of instrumental rock jazz-fusion numbers, though he did perform his 1960s hit "Hi Ho Silver Lining". Jimmy Page's set was made up, first, of three numbers taken from the Death Wish II music he had put together for director Michael Winner earlier that year; the set ended with an instrumental version of "Stairway to Heaven", which evoked a great cheer from the audience. Prince Charles and Lady Diana were in attendance seated in the Royal box in the upper level. After Page's set, the entire cast of musicians gathered on stage to perform "Tulsa Time", a blues rock/country number from Clapton's album Backless, "Layla". In each number, Clapton and Page each shared lead guitar duties, notably in "Layla", each performed a different, unique guitar solo.
At the concert's end, Ronnie Lane appeared on stage. Expressing thanks not only to the audience, saying that what had been achieved was'terrific', he thanked'all the boys on the stage too', led the musicians in a rendition of "Goodnight Irene"; the ARMS charity concert proved so popular with both the audience and the musicians that the decision was taken to perform a further nine concerts in the USA. The US dates included Joe Cocker, who notably sang lead vocals on "With a Little Help from My Friends", Clapton, Jeff Beck and Jimmy Page each shared lead guitar duties on the "Stairway to Heaven" instrumental. While Ronnie Lane appeared in New York, he did not appear at all of the US dates, they played in San Francisco at the Cow Palace from December 1 through 3, 1983, for three sold-out shows. Steve Winwood was unable to do the American shows and Paul Rodgers was now playing in Page's set. A VHS video exists of the Albert Hall concert. A DVD is now on general release. On "Rita Mae" and "Cocaine", Clapton can be seen playing a Gibson Explorer rather than his famed Stratocaster Blackie that he used on all other numbers apart from "Everybody Oughta Make a Change", "Goodnight Irene" and "Tulsa Time" on which he used Brownie - the 1956 sunburst finish Stratocaster most famously used on "Layla", best known as the world's most expensive guitar when sold for $450,000 on June 24, 1999.
Roberty Marc, Slowhand: The Life & Music Of Eric Clapton, ISBN 0-517-58351-8
Pakenham Secondary College is situated 50 kilometres southeast of Melbourne, Australia. Established in 1968 to provide education to a rural community, the school now enrols 1183 students from an urban community, it is undergoing a six-stage development project, which has seen the building of a new $3.5 million VCE student complex. The school population is expected to peak at 1800. In 2003, 11, third year students at the school won awards in the Southern Adult Mental Health Service's "Mental Health Awareness Competition"; the college has entered the Rock Eisteddfod Challenge every year since 2005. In 2005, the college performed a piece entitled'Evolution', which depicted the evolution of computer games such as Pacman, Mario Bros and Lara Croft: Tomb Raider; the college took out awards for Concept and Costuming: Character, however they did not qualify for the 2005 Open Division grand final. In 2006, the college did a piece called'Gaia', based around Gaia, a mother earth figure, the four elements - air, fire and earth are battling for supremacy, in which it is killing Gaia, so the four elements must learn to work together to make the environment a better place.
In the heats they were awarded awards for Choreography, Stage Use, Performance Skill, Drama, Set Design and Function, Costuming: Character, Visual Enhancement and Student Achievement. The college progressed into the grand final and took out 2nd place including awards for Stage Use, Performance Skill, Set Design and Function and Entertainment. In 2007, the college was entered into the premier division for the first time with a show entitled Living Memory, a story based loosely on Seamous Heaney's poem'The Lady in the Bog', it involved a group of school children on an excursion, they are taken back in time to early Irish times, where the druids reign and the town is ruled by them. Each year they celebrate life by having a sacrifice, so it was a stage-by-stage process; the final 20 are represented in the colour red and fire was used as a metaphor as it represented all the sex that would occur during the process. The next scene was a blue scene, which represented the vulnerability of the final 12 chosen, they choose the final girl and the rest of the village celebrates.
In the heats, they were awarded awards for Choreography, Stage Use, Performance Skill, Set Design and Function, Costuming: Character and Visual Enhancement, progressed into the premier grand final, taking out the award for Drug Awareness, did not place. In 2009, the college performed a show called'The Legend of Taiga', a journey of two children where their nighttime story becomes reality, their bedroom turns into a forest and the Leshiyes, deemed kings of Taiga, transport them on a journey through the land of forests, the lake and animals. They hear a sudden lullaby and they return home, but all the creatures don't want them to leave so they all follow the children home, but their Mum catches them all in the kids bedroom; the college had the youngest team in the Victorian Rock Eisteddfod premier division, with 75% of participants in years 7, 8, 9. We had a brand new teaching staff, for the first time, the show was entirely driven by the students. In the heats, they were awarded awards for Choreography, Stage Use and Performance Skill, progressed into the premier division grand final, but did not gain any awards or a place.
In 2010, the college considered entering a RAW division team with a limited amount of student participation and higher amount of teacher support, however this is not confirmed. In 2003, the boys' netball team and girls' football team were named state champions; the boys' netball team succeeded in beating 95 other schools in the State of Victoria to defeat Wheelers Hill in the final. The girls' football overcame 135 competing schools to defeat Essendon-Keilor Secondary College team in the finals of that year. In 2005, the College scored second place in the Victorian Interschool Equestrian Challenge; the Victoria State Government has made the following investments in the school: Modernisation - Redevelopment to L/T standards/library, PE. Project cost of $2,003,000 approved in 2001/2002 Computer POD - Project cost of $82,404 approved in 2001/2002 Modernisation - Music Drama, Information Technology. Project cost of $423,827 approved in 2002/2003 Flexible Learning Centre for Year 7, including substantial ICT facilities.
Project cost of $500,000 Modernisation - Stage 3 - Lecture Theatre, Modern Home Economics kitchens, General purpose classrooms with open learning spaces, Student Toilets, Year 12 common room. Project cost of $4,450,000 approved in 2005/2006 Modernisation - Stage 4 of 6 redevelopment - Arts and Technology Studies, General purpose classrooms, Staff administration and Student Toilets. Project cost of $6,680,000 approved in 2006/2007 Henty Patterson Lecky Jamieson List of schools in Victoria Victorian Certificate of Education Official site
The Blackburn G. P seaplane, was a British twin-engine reconnaissance torpedo floatplane of the First World War, built by the Blackburn Aeroplane and Motor Co Ltd; the poor results obtained with the Blackburn T. B. prompted Blackburn to develop an anti-submarine floatplane designated the Blackburn G. P.. The large seaplane that emerged had a crew of three, accommodated in a long slim fuselage; the first aircraft was powered by two handed 155 hp Sunbeam Nubian engines driving four-bladed propellers, in nacelles sitting on the upper surface of the lower mainplanes. Cooling for the engines was achieved through vertical radiator blocks attached to the rear interplane struts on either side of the engine nacelles, which supported the oil tanks for each engine. Construction of the aircraft was of wire-braced wood with fabric covering; the wings, of RAF34 section, were built in four sections, all with dihedral but the outer sections markedly so. The outer section upper mainplane extended past the lower mainplane and was supported by cables via kingposts, above the upper surface, over the outermost interplane struts.
To facilitate storage the outer wing sections folded to the rear for a folded span of 27.83 ft. At the rear of the fuselage a biplane tail-unit with twin fins and rudders provided control and stability in pitch and yaw. Two bungee-sprung plywood-covered main floats with twelve watertight compartments supported the aircraft through a divided strut structure which left clearance for dropping torpedoes from under the fuselage. A single tail float was strut-supported from the rear fuselage. For ground handling ashore the aircraft sat on beaching dollies under the main and tail floats; the crew sat in open cockpits, the gunner/navigator at the nose, the pilot forward of the wing leading edges and a second gunner aft of the wings. The gunners could operate.303 Lewis machine guns mounted on Scarff rings. Other armament could include four 230 lb bombs on racks under the wing and/or a torpedo under the fuselage; the crew had access to Wireless Telegraphy equipment for communications with other stations.
A second G. P. was built, structurally stronger through the use of heavier gauge metal fittings and a revised structure, with power supplied by two Rolls-Royce 190hp engines driving handed four-bladed propellers in similar fashion to the first aircraft. Other changes included four ailerons, one on each wing, instead of just the upper mainplanes, engine nacelles raised clear of the lower mainplanes and scalloped trailing edges through the use of steel wire trailing edge members. After initial trials the first aircraft was moved to the Marine Aircraft Experimental Station on the Isle of Grain and moored out in rough seas in a destructive test of mooring performance; the second aircraft carried out manufacturer's trials from Blackburn's new seaplane base at Brough and flew to the RNAS base at Great Yarmouth for service trials. Although no more G. P.s were ordered, the aircraft formed the basis for the land-based Blackburn R. T.1 Kangaroo reconnaissance/torpedo-bomber. Data from Blackburn Aircraft since 1909General characteristics Crew: three Capacity: 630 lb military load Length: 46 ft Upper wingspan: 74 ft 10.25 in Lower wingspan: 53 ft 3 in Height: 16 ft 10 in Wing area: 880 sq ft Empty weight: 5,840 lb Gross weight: 8,600 lb Powerplant: 2 × Rolls-Royce 190hp V-12 water-cooled piston engine, 190 hp each Propellers: 4-bladed handed woodenPerformance Maximum speed: 97 mph at ground level Endurance: 8 hours Service ceiling: 11,000 ft Rate of climb: 500 ft/min Time to altitude: 5,000 ft in 10 minutes Wing loading: 9.64 lb/sq ft Armament Guns: 2 x 0.303 in Lewis machine guns mounted on Scarff rings Missiles: 1 x underslung air-dropped torpedo Bombs: 4 x 230 lb bombs on underwing racks Related development Blackburn R.
T.1 Kangaroo Related lists List of seaplanes and amphibious aircraft Notes Bibliography
Henry Cayley, was a British physician, Deputy Surgeon-General in the British Army in India. He was appointed Professor of Military Medicine at Netley, he was Honorary Surgeon to Queen Victoria and King Edward VII. Cayley was born into a prominent family in Stamford, the fourth son of Edward Cayley, a Stamford banker, Frances. In 1862, he married daughter of the Rev. Nichols Walters, they had two daughters and six sons, including Sir Walter de Sausmarez Cayley and Douglas Edward Cayley, both of whom served as senior officers in the Gallipoli Campaign. His eldest daughter, Mary Louisa, married Sir Charles Campbell MacLeod and his younger daughter, Evelyn Wynn, married Maj.-Gen. Sir Hayward Reader Whitehead. After studying medicine at King's College, Henry Cayley joined the Indian Medical Service in 1857 as an Assistant Surgeon. From 1858 to 1864 he was in charge of the 2nd Sikh Police Corps at Gorakhpur near the border with Nepal. From 1864 to 1866 he was Joint Civil Surgeon at the summer capital of British India.
After holding the post of Civil Surgeon at Burdwan and Howrah, he was appointed joint commissioner at Ladakh in 1867. The native government of Ladakh had accepted an army officer in the post only on condition that a medical officer was selected. Henry Cayley's duties there were both medical. In December 1867 a newspaper commented that "the reported assassination of Assistant-Surgeon H Cayley, the British representative at Ladak, was without foundation, his appointment ended in 1871. There he extended his medical knowledge though studies in ophthalmology at Moorfields Eye Hospital. Shortly after his return to India, he was appointed Superintendent of the Eye Infirmary at Calcutta and Professor of Ophthalmic Surgery in Calcutta Medical College, he left India permanently in 1884. In 1885, he was made a member of the Medical Board at the War Office, he formally retired from the Bengal army in 1887. In 1889 the Professor of Military Medicine at the army medical school at Netley Hospital fell ill, Henry Cayley was invited to step in.
He took over as Professor the next year, retiring in 1897. While at Netley his pastimes included sailing: his yacht Kathleen, moored there, was stolen in 1895 while he was away in Scotland. In 1891, he was made Honorary Surgeon to Queen Victoria, he retained this position when Edward VII came to the throne. In 1893 he contributed a chapter on tropical liver diseases to Hygiene and Diseases of Warm Climates. In 1896 he wrote a pamphlet, Guide to Travellers on the maintenance of health in unhealthy countries. On the outbreak of the Second Boer War he volunteered for service with the army, he was sent out as colonel in charge of the Scottish National Hospital at Kroonstad in the Orange Free State. While there he suffered serious injuries as a result of a fall from his horse. In 1900, he was made a Companion of the Order of St George, he died on 19 March 1904 at Weybridge, Surrey
El Paso-Gridley Community Unit School District 11 is a unit school district in Woodford, McLean counties in Illinois. It was formed in 2004 by the consolidation of Gridley Community Unit School District 10 and El Paso Community Unit School District 375, after formation of a new unit district was put to the voters on the 2004 Illinois primary election ballot; the city of El Paso was all within one school district, but after the brick school was built on the east side of the city in 1869, upset people on the west side managed to split the district and form a second school district. The west side had a new, wooden school until Jefferson Park School was built on the same site in 1897; the east-side school was named McKinley School shortly after President William McKinley was assassinated in 1901. Both districts had two-year high schools, in 1892 both began four-year high school education. El Paso High School District 375 was formed in 1916 from the area of the east-side and west-side city districts and some rural areas, continued holding classes in the east and west school buildings, but held some classes in some downtown El Paso office buildings, until the El Paso High School building was finished in 1921.
On May 22, 1944, the citizens voted to consolidate El Paso's east-side and west-side grade school districts. By 1878, Panola Township had 10 school districts — Panola, Shaw, Pauley, De Vries, McOmber, Bassett and Punke — with a total of 480 students. Nine of these districts survived all the way to the formation of the unit district in 1949. Unit School District 375 was organized on April 26, 1948. McKinley School on East Second Street was closed in 1948. In addition, all the rural schoolhouses were closed in 1949, except for first through sixth grades at the Secor and Spring Hill schools. Centennial School was dedicated on September 13, 1956. Cooperative special education with other Woodford County schools and McLean County Unit District No. 5 began in 1969. Unit School District 375 closed the school in Secor at the end of the 1973-1974 school year, at which time it had 38 students, who afterwards went to Jefferson Park School and Centennial School. El Paso - Gridley CUSD #11 — official district site Gridley CUSD #10 at the Wayback Machine Feasibility Studies at the Wayback Machine El Paso Community Unit School District #375 at the Wayback Machine