The OC-135B Open Skies United States Air Force observation aircraft supports the Treaty on Open Skies. The aircraft, a modified WC-135B, flies unarmed observation flights over participating parties of the treaty. Three OC-135B aircraft were modified by the Aeronautical Systems Center's 4950th Test Wing at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Ohio; the first operationally-capable OC-135B was assigned to the 24th Reconnaissance Squadron at Offutt AFB in October 1993. It is now fitted with a basic set of navigational and sensor equipment, was placed in inviolate storage at the Aerospace Maintenance and Regeneration Center at Davis-Monthan Air Force Base near Tucson, Arizona in 1997. Two operational OC-135B aircraft were delivered in 1996 with the full complement of treaty-allowed sensors, which includes an infrared line scanner, synthetic aperture radar and video scanning sensors; the interior seats 35 people, including the cockpit crew, aircraft maintenance crew, foreign country representatives and crew members from the U.
S. Department of Defense's Defense Threat Reduction Agency. Cameras installed include one vertical and two oblique KS-87E framing cameras used for low-altitude photography 3,000 feet above the ground, one KA-91C panoramic camera, which scans from side to side to provide a wide sweep for each picture used for high-altitude photography at 35,000 feet; the data annotation and recording system processes navigational, altitude and camera signals to annotate each picture with correct position, time, roll angle and other information. In addition, this system records every picture taken according to camera and navigational position. A keyboard with trackball is the input device for operation of this system. Two Barco 12-inch VGA color monitors display camera annotation and other camera data on screen for the sensor operator and observer use. Camera control, located in the sensor operator's console and adjusts individual cameras for cloud cover, frame overlap and other functions; the sensor operator console seats four and has all the equipment listed above plus camera bay heating control, emergency oxygen and individual lighting.
The flight following console seats four and includes most of the equipment listed above except for DARMS and camera controls. Seven commercial Norcold Tek II coolers with individual refrigeration units maintain temperature and humidity control to maintain peak film performance; the units can be removed, if necessary, from the aircraft. The coolers are capable of storing 40,000 feet of film; the aircraft flies on its intended flight path throughout the entire mission with no reliance on ground-based navigation devices. A top-of-the-line commercial system, Litton 92 INS/GPS, an integrated inertial navigation system with a global positioning system, provides continuous updates; the GPS updates the INS several times per second to correct any deviations in the flight path. The INS feeds precise latitude, time, roll angle and barometric altitude to the DARMS and camera systems. A true airspeed computer feeds true airspeed data to the INS. A combined altitude radar altimeter provides precise height above ground information to the pilot for navigational purposes as well as a signal to DARMS for film annotation.
It is accurate from 0–50,000 feet above the ground level. Plus, a metric altimeter is installed on the pilot's instrument panel for altitude reference when flying in countries that use meters for altitude reference; the aircraft are being upgraded with the Block 30 Pacer Crag Navigational System upgrade, a first step in making them compliant with ICAO mandated Global Air Traffic Management and Global Air Navigation Standards guidelines. The OC-135B modifications center around four cameras installed in the rear of the aircraft. Since its primary mission is to take pictures, most of the installed equipment and systems provide direct support to the cameras and the camera operator. Other modifications to the aircraft included installing an auxiliary power unit, crew luggage compartment, sensor operator console, flight following console and upgraded avionics. Though the aircraft feature a large window in the cargo door, this is a remnant of their previous weather reconnaissance role. Other modifications support the aircrew.
A gaseous oxygen system replaced the liquid oxygen system to be more compatible with foreign airfields, fluorescent lighting system was added throughout the cabin to provide adequate lighting for operation and inspections. Four upgraded seats with a conference table, interphone and oxygen comprise the mission commanders' station for both countries' mission commanders. A four channel interphone system enables segregated communications between various elements on board; the auxiliary power unit enables the aircraft to start engines and provides electrical power and cabin heat independent of ground support equipment. It was manufactured by Allied Signal with the installation and design of the installation by E-Systems and World Auxiliary Power Company; the aircraft are assigned to Air Combat Command at the 55th Wing, 45th Reconnaissance Squadron, Offutt Air Force Base near Omaha, for operations and maintenance. When tasked, ACC's role is to transport a DTRA observation team to an Open Skies point of entry airport, conduct the observation flight, return the team to the continental United States.
Data from Jane's all the World's Aircraft 1994–95, AF Fact Sheet: OC-135B OPEN SKIESGeneral characteristics Crew: Seven Capacity: 31 mission crew, including DTRA mis
The 9th Indian Infantry Brigade was an infantry brigade formation of the Indian Army during World War II. Before the war the 9th Infantry Brigade was a peacetime formation in Meerut district; this brigade was redesignated the 5th Indian Infantry Brigade and a new 9th Brigade was formed all in September 1939. The new brigade was assigned to the 5th Indian Infantry Division in June 1940 to January 1944, it spent February attached to the 7th Indian Infantry Division before returning to the 5th Division. The brigade spent two other short periods away from the 5th Division it was attached to the 17th Indian Infantry Division between March and April 1945 and was with the 19th Indian Infantry Division in April 1945, returned to the 5th for the rest of the war. 1st Battalion, Royal Fusiliers September 1939 25th Field Regiment, Royal Artillery September 1939 3rd Battalion, 1st Punjab Regiment September 1939 4th Battalion, 6th Rajputana Rifles September 1939 3rd Battalion, 12th Frontier Force Regiment September 1939 to June 1942 3rd Battalion, 5th Mahratta Light Infantry January 1940 to May 1942 6th Battalion, 13th Frontier Force Rifles August to October 1940 and December 1940 to January 1941 4th Field Regiment, Royal Artillery September to October 1940 and March to June 1944 2nd Battalion, West Yorkshire Regiment November 1940 to August 1945 3rd Battalion, 18th Royal Garhwal Rifles April to May 1941 28th Field Regiment, Royal Artillery October 1941 to March 1942 3rd Battalion, 9th Jat Regiment May 1942 to December 1944 4th Battalion, 10th Baluch Regiment June 1942 3rd Battalion, 14th Punjab Regiment July 1942 to October 1944 1st Battalion, 2nd Punjab Regiment July to August 1942 4th Battalion and Kashmir Infantry October 1944 to April 1945 3rd Battalion, 2nd Punjab Regiment March to August 1945 1st Battalion, Burma Regiment April to August 1945 7th Battalion and Lancaster Regiment June 1945 List of Indian Army Brigades in World War II
The Pillar of Fire International is a Methodist Christian sect with headquarters in Zarephath, New Jersey, known for its support of the Ku Klux Klan and racial segregation in the early 20th century. In 1901, the Church was founded by Alma Bridwell White in Colorado; the Pillar of Fire was incorporated as the Pentecostal Union, but changed its name to distance itself from Pentecostalism in 1915. While the Pillar of Fire is Methodist in doctrine, Alma White and her followers believed that the Methodist Church had become corrupt. Alma White and the members of the Pillar of Fire dedicated themselves to the holiness movement in the Wesleyan tradition. Adherents were referred to as "Holy Rollers" and "holy jumpers" because of their religious frenzy. White was noted for her association with the Ku Klux Klan, her feminism, anti-Catholicism, anti-pentecostalism and nativism. In the 1920s, 1930s, 1940s, the Pillar of Fire Church was vocal in its support of the Ku Klux Klan, to an extent, unique for a religious denomination.
Alma White spoke and wrote prolifically of her and the Pillar of Fire Church's support for the Klan and many of the Klan's principles including anti-Catholicism, white supremacy, antisemitism and temperance. In 1943, shortly before her death and the Pillar of Fire Church but not distanced themselves from the discredited and nearly bankrupt Klan organization, while continuing to promote many of the Klan's intolerant principles. In a 1920s sermon she republished in 1943, she said We have no connection with the Klan organization. We endorse them in the principles; however there is no room in our hearts for racial prejudice. Yet White and the Pillar of Fire advocated for white supremacy in the same 1943 book-set which asserted distaste for racial prejudice. In her chapter titled "White Supremacy" she wrote The slaveholder, in many instances, was as much to be pitied as the slaves. He, was a victim of the system..... Where the slaves were well treated they were happy and contented... But some radicals could never see this side of the question.
They dwelt continually on the cruelties of a few hard taskmasters and ignored the good people who had the welfare of their dependants at heart. No matter what the better class of slave owners might do, they had to bear the stigma of cruelty with the worst of tyrants..... Where property rights are involved, supported by the government, the only safe and sane way to make wrongs right is by cool-headed procedure, she said to the New Brunswick Daily Home News, "My people are not members of the Klan, but we agree with some of the things that they stand for to assert our American right of free speech. We have always stood for one hundred percent Americanism and so does the Klan, so we agree there." Yet the Pillar of Fire's pulpit and the Pillar of Fire's printing operation were used extensively to advocate for many of the most intolerant of Klan values. In 1922, Bishop Alma White preached a sermon promoting the Klan at the Pillar of Fire Church in Brooklyn, New York and published that sermon in The Good Citizen.
The speech was titled "Ku Klux Klan and Woman's Causes" and one section was subtitled "White Supremacy." The Klansmen stand for the supremacy of the white race, legitimate and in accordance with the teachings of the Holy Writ, anything, decreed by the Almighty should not work a hardship on the colored race... It is within the rights of civilization for the white race to hold the supremacy; when the black man was liberated it was time for women to be enfranchised, without which the colored man with his newly-acquired rank became her political master.... The white women bore the sting of humiliation for more than half a century in being placed in an inferior position to the black men in the use of the ballot and the rights of citizenship... To whom shall we look to champion the cause and to protect the rights of women? Is there not evidence that the Knights of the Klu Klux Klan are the prophets of a new and better age? The Pillar of Fire Church argued against social and political equality for Blacks and advocated for racial segregation and repeal of the fifteenth amendment.
The Pillar allowed the Klan to hold meetings or cross burnings on at least several of the church's numerous properties including numerous documented Klan gatherings in Zarephath, New Jersey. White participated directly in many of these meetings. During this time, the Pillar of Fire Church published The Good Citizen, a monthly 16 page political magazine and three books, The Ku Klux Klan in Prophecy, Klansmen: Guardians of Liberty, Heroes of the Fiery Cross, all of which promoted the Klan and its agenda from 1921 until 1933. Ideologically, in these publications, the Pillar of Fire Church promoted anti-Catholicism, antisemitism and white supremacy, all under the guise of patriotism; the organization has since repudiated its historical relationship with the KKK at its website in 2009: Much talk has arisen over her brief but significant association with the KKK, publicly condemned and repented of by the POF leadership with a request for full forgiveness. Despite these and other errors in its history, the Lord in His grace and mercy has chosen to bless the ministry.
And in the local paper in 1997: We regret and repent, ask for full forgiveness for anything in our past, short of Christian standards based on God's Word, following